Published on February 26, 2014
FORGE® GRAIN SIZE AND RECRYSTALLIZATION RATES PREDICTION Transvalor Americas Corp 17 North State Street, Suite 1700 Chicago IL 60602 Tel : 1 (312) 252-7371 Email : firstname.lastname@example.org
MICROSTRUCTURE SIMULATION AT TECNALIA This case study was provided by TECNALIA (Spain), a TRANSVALOR customer. The purpose is to demonstrate the Grain size and recrystallization rate agreement between real experiment and numerical simulation results. The part was an INCONEL 718 part formed by rotary forging. Grain size and Recrystallization rate prediction Simulation was performed with FORGE® current commercial package. Rotary forging process is made of 2 dies, a lower die rotating and an upper die, tilted with respect to the vertical axis and moving down, as illustrated on figure 1. The process conditions are represented on figure 2. Taken into account the dimensions of the equipment, only the upper die could be heated to 500°C. Forging process parameters: Billet temperature = 1000°C, Axial velocity = 5mm/s, Rotational velocity = 300rpm Figure 1 & 2: Orbital forging process and initial/final part geometries Transvalor Americas Corp 17 North State Street, Suite 1700 Chicago IL 60602 Tel : 1 (312) 252-7371 Email : email@example.com
Microstructure analysis was performed on 4 points (P1, P2, P3 and P4) as represented in Figure 3 showing only one quarter of the specimen. Experimental values of average grain size in ASTM (Figure 3b) are indicated in the black frame for each of the 4 points. These values can be compared with the grain size prediction from FORGE® (Figure 3a). This comparison between grain size prediction with FORGE® and the experimental values shows excellent agreement. Figure 3a: FORGE® average grain size prediction (in ASTM) on the 4 points P1, P2, P3 and P4 Figure 3b: Average experimental grain size (in ASTM) measured on the 4 points P1, P2, P32 and P4 The digital visualization (DigiMicro) of the corresponding microstructure that will be offered in future FORGE® versions allows further refinement of the comparison between real experiment and numerical results as shown in Figure 4 and for points P1 and P4. We can now clearly see: at point P1 where grains are coarser, the average grain size is between 15 and 20 µm at point 4 where grains are finer, the average grain size is between 8 and 10 µm Transvalor Americas Corp 17 North State Street, Suite 1700 Chicago IL 60602 Tel : 1 (312) 252-7371 Email : firstname.lastname@example.org
Figure 4: Numerical microstructure prediction at points P1 and P4 (in µm) MICROSTRUCTURE PREDICTION OF THE (soon) FUTURE In terms of Grain size and recrystallization rates prediction, the most recent and innovative development is the integration of mesoscale technologies in the modelization of microstructural evolution which allows for finer microstructure prediction. TRANSVALOR in partnership with CEMEF MinesParisTech are in the final development stages of a mesoscale modelization product that will be incorporated in future versions of FORGE®. With this innovative approach, little material data is required. Consequently microstructure prediction will be possible for a wider range of materials. Once available, it will be possible to predict microstructure during forming processes and heat treatments at specific points defined by the end user. The following case study is an application of the mesoscale calculation. A stainless steel (AISI 304L) hollow pipe is locally heated on its external surface and cooled in ambient air in order to achieve specific mechanical properties in this area. The diameter, thickness and length of this pipe are respectively 0,30m, 0,05m and 1,20m. A sensor is defined on the external surface in order to get the grain size prediction at that point from the mesoscale calculation. The mesoscale calculation relies on a Reference Elementary Volume (R.E.V.) which is automatically generated and meshed at the selected point, as represented in Figure 5. Transvalor Americas Corp 17 North State Street, Suite 1700 Chicago IL 60602 Tel : 1 (312) 252-7371 Email : email@example.com
Figure 5: FORGE® temperature distribution on the hollowpipe at a specific time and specification of the sensor position (Black square); Right: DigiMicro - zoom on the defined R.E.V. and anisotropic meshing adaptation for the mesoscale calculation; Grain size distribution is based on the experimental distribution. In the specific case where the pipe is subjected to the heat treatment (Figure 5, left) only grain growth occurs. The specific equations are solved on this R.E.V. at each time step of the simulation allowing the prediction of the grain shape and size. The histogram (Figure 6) compares grain size (equivalent radius) distribution at the initial state and at the end of the treatment. In the final state, the distribution is rather heterogeneous with a large spread in grain diameter. Figure 6 : Histogram of grain size distribution at initial (in blue) and at final stage (in green). Transvalor Americas Corp 17 North State Street, Suite 1700 Chicago IL 60602 Tel : 1 (312) 252-7371 Email : firstname.lastname@example.org
Figure 7 shows a video of the grain growth during heating: The heating time is 5100 s and the grains start to grow at 3500s, 900°C. The video on the left shows the thermal cycle which is applied at the selected sensor and the video on the right the associated microstructural evolution at the same point from the mesoscale calculation. The initial average grain size diameter is around 20 µm. At the end of the thermal cycle, the grains have grown due to capillarity with an average grain size diameter of 50 µm. Figure 7: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iVtGrgAVJLE&fe ature=youtu.be Transvalor Americas Corp 17 North State Street, Suite 1700 Chicago IL 60602 Tel : 1 (312) 252-7371 Email : email@example.com
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