Published on January 29, 2016
1. COMPARISON OF PIPELINE INSPECTION TECHNOLOGIES FOR PRESSURE AND GRAVITY PIPES AADITHYA PREM KUMARKURRAMBOYINA CE 5395: MASTERS PROJECT UNDER GUIDENACE OF Dr. MOHAMMAD NAJAFI.PhD.,P.E UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS AT ARLINGTON DECEMBER 10,2015.
2. AGENDA Introduction What to know to deal with inspection methods? Introduction to Inspection in pipelines Stages of inspection in pipeline Different types of inspection methods Comparing of inspection methods Conclusion and Recommendation
3. Introduction Personal information Topics discussed Topics needed for research Objectives
4. Personal information B.E CIVIL ENGINEERING (OCT 2008 - APRIL 2012) JOB ON AUTO CADD & REVIT (SV GROUP) (MAY 2012 - DEC 2013) M.E CIVIL ENGINEERING (JAN 2014 - DEC 2015) F.E CIVIL ENGINEERING (2015) CORE COURSES: CE 5344 Construction Methods – Field Operations CE 5379 Construction Cost Estimating CE 5386 Construction Planning and Scheduling
5. Topics discussed Trenchless technology: Construction of a pipeline without disturbing earth grade (NO- DIG TECHNOLOGY).
6. Topic description Pipeline inspection: Application for determine happening, state and status of exterior and interior of pipeline during operating and non-operating case. Types of inspection method: Inspection methods used in pressure pipeline and gravity pipes are different.
7. Topics needed for research Trenchless Construction Methods (TCM). Trenchless Renewal Methods (TRM). Different types of inspection methods. Different types of problems occurs in pipelines. Difference between pressure pipelines and gravity pipelines. Type of commodities transported in pipelines.
8. Objectives Comparing between inspection methods between pressure pipelines and gravity pipelines Determines which inspection method is suitable for a pipe based on: Diameter of pipe Material of the pipe Technology of inspection method Type of commodity transported
9. What to know to deal with inspection methods? Pipelines Trenchless technology Problems occurred in pipelines
10. pipelines Source: Dreamstime.com
11. Pipelines: Combination of pipes in series known as pipeline. Types of pipelines: Gravity Pipelines Pressure pipelines
12. Difference between pressure and gravity pipe
13. Types of commodity transported Irrigational Water Sewage Drinking water Waste water Natural gas Oils Fuels Petroleum products Milk Bear Solids(like coal, minerals and other materials)
14. Type of pipes based on material Concrete pipe Polymer concrete pipe Vitrified clay pipe Ductile iron pipe High Density Polyethylene Fiberglass pipe Polyvinyl chloride Source: Northwest pipe company pipe materials in trenchless construction.
15. Importance of pipe lines Day starts Bathing Waste water Natural gas cooking Drinking water Utensils cleaning sewage college car Gas station Gas transported from other parts Sleep Drinking water Day ends
16. Digging method
17. Trenchless technology
18. Pioneers of buried pipe design: Source: Northwest pipe company pipe materials in trenchless construction.
19. General definition Construction pipelines with out disturbing earth grade known as trenchless technology. It is also known as NO DIG METHOD. Trenchless technology methods are of two types one is Trenchless Construction Methods(TCM) and another one is Trenchless Renewal Methods(TRM).
20. Trenchless Construction Methods(TCM) TCM Horizontal Earth Boring(HEB) Horizontal auger boring Horizontal directional drilling Pipe ramming method Compaction method Pilot tube micro tunneling Micro tunneling method Pipe Jacking(PJ) Utility Tunneling(UT)
21. Trenchless Renewal Method(TRM) Cured-in-place pipe Underground coating and lining Sliplining Modified sliplining In-line replacement method Close-fit pipe Localized repairs or point source repairs Thermoformed pipe Sewer manhole renewal Lateral renewal
22. Benefits of trenchless technology Minimize the pavement damage, environmental damage, traffic blockages. Problems like steering and control are diminished by using preordained path. sloping, shoring and shielding problems can be eliminated.
23. Benefits of trenchless technology(Cont..) With out opening the pipe inspection can be done, pipe size can be increased, infected parts can be renewed easily, This technology requires only two small working sites for inserting pipe at one end and emerging pipe out at another end, instead of considering whole stretch of the pipeline.
24. Life of pipeline
25. Life of pipeline(cont..) COMPARITIVE LY HIGH FAILURE PROBABILITY DUE TO CONSTRCTION DEFECTS STEADY, RELATIVELY LOW FAILURE PROBABILITY FAILURE PROBABILITY INCREASES DUE TO APPROACH OF END OF USEFULL LIFE. FAILUREPROBABILITY TIME
26. Problems occurred in pipelines
27. Reasons for problem occurred in pipelines Problems in pipe lines are raised due to two main reasons one is during constructing pipelines and second is during the service of the pipeline. Technically, these two problems are represented as built- in (problems resulted while constructing the pipe lines) and long term problems (problems caused due to transportation of the material in the pipelines).
28. Reasons for problem occurred in pipelines(cont..) Problems resulted during the construction will reflects on performance of the pipelines. Problems arose during the transportation of the commodities results to deterioration problems, due to friction between internal pipe material and material transported in the pipeline.
29. Types of problems occurred corrosion structural defects deterioration operational defects cracks (both longitudinal and circumferential)
30. Types of problems occurred(cont..) third party connection of pipes illegal drawing of water blocked debris penetration of plantations in to pipe dis-placement of the joints exfiltration's and infiltration through cracks
31. Introduction to Inspection in pipelines What is inspection? Why do pipelines need inspection? Inspection in pipelines
32. Definitions Background What is inspection?
33. Definitions To observe an situation weather it is in good state or not and keeping records of situation for future use. Future use means analyzing and coming up with solution. In order to keep safe and to avoid dangerous situation. According to dictionary Merriam Webster: “Inspection means the act of looking at something closely in order to learn more about it, to find problem, etc.,”
34. Background Between 1901 and 1976 pipeline usage is grown enormously. Hence, usage is growing maintenance of pipelines are becoming difficult. As maintenance is becoming difficult first inspection methods were introduced Leak recorder Visual inspection Hydrostatic test Close interval survey
35. Background (cont..) Thereafter, pipeline problems were recorded and assessed. Passage of instrumented internal inspection devices 59 FR 17275 : “ Each new pipeline and each line section of a pipeline where the line pipe, valve, fitting or other line components is replaced must be designed and constructed to accommodate the passage of instrumented internal inspection devices” SOURCE:osfm.fire.ca.gov
36. Why do pipelines need inspection? For million of miles pipeline carry from water to crude oil. Pipeline are ready to attack by corrosion damage from the third part, and other problems due to construction. If problem has occurred it may cause damage to public and environment or it may not. Water pipeline has a leak bursts, it is not a problem to environment and pubic.
37. Why do pipelines need inspection?(cont..) If petroleum and natural gas commodities are transported then it causes damage to environment and public safety. Public safety is main concern. To keep public safe and to operate each pipeline safe it is necessary to find cracks, flaws and other pipeline damages before it creating disaster to environment and public.
38. Inspection in pipelines For ensuring good quality of pipelines numerous methods are introduced. X-ray, magnetic particle, ultrasonic and other techniques are used in the inspection methods.
39. Inspection in pipelines(cont..) Inspection methods are conducted on pipes which are: Buried underground surface Present above the ground surface Pipes under ground surface are inspected without digging
40. Stages of inspection in pipeline
41. Different types of inspection methods Inspection methods in gravity pipe Inspection methods in pressure pipe
42. Inspection methods in gravity pipe INSPECTION METHODS IN GRAVITY PIPELINES Closed-Circuit Tele- Vision inspection (CCTV) Sewer Scanner and Evaluation Technology (SSET) Focused Electrode Leak Location (FELL) Technology Ground Penetration Radar (GPR) Smoke Testing Totally Integrated Sonar and CCTV System (TISCT) Ultra Sonic Inspection(SONAR) Laser Based Scanning System
43. Closed-Circuit Tele-Vision inspection (CCTV): Among gravity inspection method CCTV inspection is one of the standard method for determination of the inner surface damages. CCTV will record the visuals captured on the camera, it can have reviewed number of times. It has bifacial type equipment which captures in two directions.
44. Closed-Circuit Tele-Vision inspection (CCTV) (cont..) Stationary CCTV: Mobile CCTV
45. Sewer Scanner and Evaluation Technology (SSET) Forward view (FV) Side scan (SS) Position data (PD) 3D mapping of real time mapped flatly defects can be identified easily with minimum errors
46. Sewer Scanner and Evaluation Technology (SSET) (cont..) Field Data Acquisition (FDA) phase and Data Analysis and Interruption (DAI) phase
47. Focused Electrode Leak Location (FELL) Technology Measure the defects by electrical current flow Intensity of the current is directly proportional to the leak or cracks in the pipeline (thickness and type of crack) Peak in the graph will rises Rise in the graph peak is electrical current passing through the leakage pipe
48. Focused Electrode Leak Location (FELL) Technology (cont..) Probe 360 degrees the electrical current Inspection Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rBPi4Rw2aAU
49. Laser Based Scanning System well known technique beam of light
50. Ultra Sonic Inspection(SONAR) Very high frequency of sound energy When ever there is a change in material density Used in the pipes having flow more than 70% of diameter
51. Ultra Sonic Inspection(SONAR) (cont..) ultra sonic equipment can be attached to the robotic equipment CCTV used for only in pipes having depth of flow up to 30% of diameter Inspection video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V4- M6a8981E
52. Totally Integrated Sonar and CCTV System (TISCT) combination of CCTV system and Ultra sonic method top camera is mounted to detect defects above water line sonar is placed below the camera which is used to collect the data below water line
53. Ground Penetration Radar (GPR) Used to detect exterior conditions of the pipeline soil conditions and properties (bedding) Beam of radio waves In the path of beam material is present changes its path and travel forward
54. Smoke Testing oldest method dry period smoke blowers (high volume of air ) conducted between two man holes
55. Smoke Testing (cont..) Squirrel cage blower very heavy to lift gives high static pressure and it can change the output of the blower Direct drive propeller blowers Less weight These type of blower cannot change the output smoke bombs also known as smoke candle and liquid smoke system
56. Inspection methods in pressure pipe PRESSURE PIPE LINE INSPECTION METHODS Remote Field Eddy Current/Transformer coupling Acoustic Emission Testing Transmission Main Leak Location GPRS-based Leak Detection System Non-contact Magnetic Tomography Method
57. Remote Field Eddy Current/Transformer coupling Detect broken wires in pre-stressed concrete cylindrical pipes It detects not only along the length or axis of the pipe line but also it detects along the circumference of the pipeline
58. Remote Field Eddy Current/Transformer coupling (cont..) TYPE OF EQUIPMENT PIPE DIAMETER Pipe Walker >or= 60 Pipe Rider 30-60 Pipe Crawler 24-108 Pipe Ranger 16-48
59. Acoustic Emission Testing Acoustic emission testing has unique acoustic properties Time, speed of sound an distance between sites is used to find defects Sound in water will travel at a constant speed of 4850 cubic feet per sec (SOURCE: Najafi, Mohammad. Trenchless Technology Piping: installation and inspection (2010) )
60. Acoustic Emission Testing (cont..) Time taken by the sound to reach the accelerometer is directly proportional to distance which it travels Future the distance the sound travel longer, it will take to reach the sensor. If time are measured accurately the physical location of breakage and slippage can be determined by comparing arrival times of an event at different monitoring stations.
61. Acoustic Emission Testing (cont..) Hydrophone Global Positioning System (GPS)
62. Transmission Main Leak Location Detected by hearing noise produced by the pressure pipeline Mainly in pressure pipes carrying liquid commodity, audible sound is produced Most famous and commonly used leak detection method is noise detection Best suitable for smaller pipes
63. Transmission Main Leak Location (cont.) Pipe lines which need 24x7 monitoring Hydro phone is installed in take of position in the pipeline at two different locations along the transmission main to collect synchronized data of acoustic signals from the pipeline Improves risk reduction and avoid catastrophic failure Inspection video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_YlIqHACFZ4
64. Non-contact Magnetic Tomography Method
65. Non-contact Magnetic Tomography Method (cont.) Applied for the metallic pipes mainly ferromagnetic material like cast iron, steel and other alloy pipes
66. GPRS-based Leak Detection System Source: Development of GPRS-based Leak Detection System for Pipe Pushing Crossing Part of Natural Gas Pipeline.”
67. Comparing of inspection method based on Commodity transported Diameter of pipe Material type Technique used in the pipe line
68. Comparing inspection based on Commodity transported PRESURE PIPE GRAVITY PIPE Crude oil Drinking water Refined petroleum Sewage Natural gas Slurry Fuels Strom water Other oils Waste water
69. Comparing inspection based on Technique used in the pipe line INSPECTION METHOD NAME TECHNOLOGY USED Remote Field Eddy Current/Transformer coupling ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD Acoustic Emission Testing TIME AND SPEED OF SOUND Transmission Main Leak Location GPS AND CELLULAR TELEMETRY Non-contact Magnetic Tomography Method X-RAY TECHNIQUE GPRS-based Leak Detection System DIGITAL SIGNALING PROCESSOR (DSP) For pressure pipe:
70. Comparing inspection based on Technique used in the pipe line For Gravity pipe: INSPECTION METHOD NAME TECHNOLOGY USED Closed-Circuit Tele-Vision inspection(CCTV) VISUAL DETECTION BY RECORDING Sewer Scanner and Evaluation Technology (SSET) FIELD DATA AQUISITION Focused Electrode Leak Location (FELL) Technology ELECTRO SCAN (MEASURE ELECTRICAL CURRENT FLOW) Ground Penetration Radar (GPR) EMITING COHEREN BEAM RADIO WAVES Totally Integrated Sonar and CCTV System (TISCT) CCTV AND ULTRA SONIC METHODS Smoke Testing SMOKE Ultra Sonic Inspection(SONAR) BEAM OF SOUND ENERGY WITH HIGH FREQUENCY Laser Based Scanning System LASER BEAM
71. Comparing inspection based on Diameter of pipe INSPECTION METHOD NAME PIPE DAIMETER LIMITATION Remote Field Eddy Current/Transformer coupling GREATER THAN 36 INCH . Acoustic Emission Testing LESS THAN 36 INCH. Transmission Main Leak Location LESS THAN 12 INCH. Non-contact Magnetic Tomography Method LESS THAN 24 INCH GPRS-based Leak Detection System LESS THAN 36 INCH. For pressure pipe:
72. Comparing inspection based on Diameter of pipe For Gravity pipe: INSPECTION METHOD NAME PIPE DAIMETER LIMITATION Closed-Circuit Tele-Vision inspection(CCTV) LESS THAN 24 INCH OR FLOW DEPTH LESS THAN 25-30% DIAMETER. Sewer Scanner and Evaluation Technology (SSET) IN ANY DIAMETER CAN BE USED. Focused Electrode Leak Location (FELL) Technology GREATER THAN OR EQUAL TO 24INCH. Ground Penetration Radar (GPR) DIAMETR IS NOT MAIN CONCERN AS IT CONCENTRATE ON BEDDING. Totally Integrated Sonar and CCTV System (TISCT) GREATER THAN OR EQUAL TO 24INCH. Smoke Testing LESS THAN OR EQUALL TO 18INCH. Ultra Sonic Inspection(SONAR) FLOW DEPTH GREATER THAN 75%OF DIAMETR. Laser Based Scanning System ANY PARTIALLY FILLED PIPE.
73. Comparing inspection based on Material type INSPECTION METHOD NAME SUITABLE PIPE MATERIAL: Remote Field Eddy Current/Transformer coupling PRE-STRESSED CONCRETE CYLINDER PIPE Acoustic Emission Testing ONLY IN METALLIC PIPES. Transmission Main Leak Location IN METALLIC PIPES AND PRE-STRESSED CONCRETE CYLINDER PIPE Non-contact Magnetic Tomography Method ONLY IN METALLIC PIPES. GPRS-based Leak Detection System ONLY IN METALLIC PIPES. For pressure pipe:
74. Comparing inspection based on Material type INSPECTION METHOD NAME SUITABLE PIPE MATERIAL: Closed-Circuit Tele-Vision inspection(CCTV) GRIVITY PIPES ARE MADE OF CONCRETE, REINFORECED CONCRETE, VERTIFIED CLAY AND STEEL PIPES. HENCE, IN THESE TYPE OF PIPES INSPECTION IS CONDUCTED. Sewer Scanner and Evaluation Technology (SSET) Focused Electrode Leak Location (FELL) Technology Ground Penetration Radar (GPR) Totally Integrated Sonar and CCTV System (TISCT) Smoke Testing Ultra Sonic Inspection(SONAR) Laser Based Scanning System For Gravity pipe:
75. Conclusion and Recommendation Conclusion Recommendation Recommendation for future research Sources
76. Conclusion PRESSURE PIPE INSPECTION METHODS: GRAVITY PIPE INSPECTON METHODS: Once inspection is done, another time inspection is easy Cracks (both longitudinal and circumferential), third party connection of pipes, illegal drawing of water, large deformation, blocked debris, penetration of plantations in to pipe, dis- placement of the joints, collapse of pipe segments, exfiltration’s and infiltration can be identified. Information obtained can be used to prioritize which section of pipe require additional structural assessment Accurate and complete data is captured. But, errors from operator’s side is maximum. Well trained operators should analyze the data. Determining structural stability of pre-stressed concrete pipe. Because it first provides initial condition assessment of steel wire coils without interrupting the surface of the pipeline SSET method is automatic, accurate and captures data without an error. SSET equipment while capturing data it will not stop it is a continues process.
77. Conclusion (cont.) PRESSURE PIPE INSPECTION METHODS: GRAVITY PIPE INSPECTON METHODS: Minor cracks are detected, corrosion is identified and wall thickness and size of pipe is determined. The DAI phase in FELL allows analysts-advanced SSET-computer software-accurate DAI report. Except RFEC/TC rest of the inspection methods are effective in small diameter pipes. Improper joints of pipes are detected. It is useful in the areas which has dry weather conditions. In PCCP pipes broken wires, cracks are calibrated along the length and perimeter of the pipes. No need of pipeline should be clean; it can be also used in the pipe line which has maximum flow. In pipes like cylindrical, non-cylinder and lined cylinder broken wires are detected and calibrated. Less cost and more effective.
78. Conclusion (cont.) PRESSURE PIPE INSPECTION METHODS: GRAVITY PIPE INSPECTON METHODS: Damage to public will be very high if failure of pressure pipe occurs. Damage to public will be less if failure of gravity pipe occurs.
79. Conclusion (cont.)
80. Recommendation Labor Research on pressure pipe inspection concentrated Less research should be spend compared with pressure pipe inspection Should be keep an eye on Safe working pressure, defects location, and degree of dangerous point Monitoring for hazardous pressure pipe should be 24x7 Only operators who had trained should conduct inspection
81. RECOMMENDATION FOR FUTURE RESEARCH Multi element detection with one sensor One signal only should adjust angle and modes Simultaneous modes highest crack inspection accuracy
82. RECOMMENDATION FOR FUTURE RESEARCH (cont.) Best data quality should be produced for enabling improved classification and sizing for pipeline integrity assessment. Data obtained should be qualified, quantified and assessed for relative severity, Should helps in prioritize integrity plans
83. RECOMMENDATION FOR FUTURE RESEARCH (cont.) Pigging equipment
84. Sources of images and videos GOOGLE IMAGES YOUTUBE
85. ANY QUESTIONS
86. THANK YOU
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