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Published on November 20, 2007

Author: Janelle

Source: authorstream.com

Slide1:  Grace Agnew August 1, 2005 National Library of Medicine Slide2:  Definition of Metadata Data about Data Data that describes, defines or manages data “Pure” metadata has meaning only in relation to the primary data that is being described. Slide3:  auto-generated automatically harvested from the resource human-created end user metadata creator/manager computer application/program METADATA MAY BE: AUDIENCE MAY BE: Slide4:  Data Model: Abstract characterization or “World View” of the data: -- relationships between objects in the model -- “living” data—events occur in the lifecycle of each object in the model --context independent—so that any context can be supported Slide5:  ENTITIES Metadata - Educational Objects - Metadata Creators - Users ATTRIBUTES Identify, Define Entities MODEL Relationships between Entities within a Domain RELATIONSHIPS One to one; One to Many ; Parent, child, sibling ; Inheritance ORGANIZATION’S INFORMATION MODEL Slide6:  The Structure of Information (IFLA) Work Expression Expression Distinct intellectual or artistic creation Intellectual or artistic realization of a work (“interpretation”) Manifestation Manifestation Manifestation Item Unique physical instance of a manifestation. Physical manifestation of an expression. May differ in physical format, but not in content or interpretation Slide7:  Intellectual / artistic content Physical recording of content Single physical representation of a recording A B S T R A C T I O N GONE WITH THE WIND Interpretation Novel Movie Script WORK EXPRESSION MANIFESTATION Paper PDF HTML 70 MM Film 35 MM Film DVD MPEG2 Copy in Blockbuster, Atlanta, GA 24 Reels of film, MGM Archive ITEM OAIS INFORMATION MODEL:  P r o d u c e r SIP SIP Ingest Descriptive Info Access/ Dissemination Archival Storage DIP C O N S U M E R DI AIP DI AIP OAIS - Reference Model for an Open Archival Information System From: CCSDS 650.0-R-1: Reference Model for an Open Archival Information System (OAIS). Red Book. Issue 1. May 1999. PDF.Available at: http://ssdoo.gsfc.nasa.gov/nost/isoas/overview.html OAIS INFORMATION MODEL Slide9:  Data Model Record Structure Repository Design Data Element Registration Database Population Dissemination to Users Data interchange (other repositories) End - to - End Metadata Implementation Slide10:  Inside the Digital Information Repository Persistent Objects: Manage objects through changes to: hardware, software, players, search&retrieval systems, etc. Persistent Metadata: Manage metadata through schema and data element versioning changes, new metadata formats, I&R changes, hardware & database migrations. Slide11:  Key Issue for Preservation Authenticity -- integrity “digital document must be whole and undisturbed” --provenance – must be tightly associated with its creator and act of creation Gladney and Bennett. What do we mean by authentic? http://www.dlib.org/dlib/july03/gladney/07gladney.html In the analog space Object in hand is compared with a conceptual (“canonical”) historical version Slide12:  Authenticity In the digital space -- Fidelity to the source artifact -- Identical (true/false) to the digital canonical master --accompanied by a “true” provenance statement --Proof: digital signature verifying that canonical object is unchanged. Digital audit trail documenting provenance and any changes to artifact or chain of provenance Slide13:  Administrative metadata: provenance, fixity, context, reference, and lifecycle management. Rights MD may be a subset. Technical Metadata: physical characteristics of the resource. Used to manage digital preservation and display of resource. May be a subset of Administrative MD. Also called Preservation Metadata Descriptive Metadata: - information to discover, identify, select and obtain the resource Metadata Managing the Resource Slide14:  Structural metadata: - Information about the structured relationship between components of a complex object. May be a subset of Administrative MD. Meta metadata: metadata that describes and manages the metadata record. Can add “intelligence” to metadata. Metadata Managing the Resource Repository design concatenates all types of metadata to support preservation and access to objects in the repository Slide15:  METADATA SCHEMA COMPONENTS Data Element - Atomic Unit of Meaning- Community Defined Attribute - Refines, Extends, Interprets data element Value - Information unique to each data element instance Constraint - Order imposed on data element expression for consistency; semantic viability Label - contextual instance of data element name. “How the data element displays on the web for the end user.” Slide16:  OAIS – Preservation and Access File Encoding and Transport METS: Metadata Encoding & Transmission Standard XML document format for encoding metadata for resource description and management. “wrapper” that concatenates digital object(s) in multiple formats, metadata, a structure map documenting the organization of the digital object(s), as well as behaviors that act upon digital object(s) standardized transmission of METS package between repositories and applications Slide17:  METS: Metadata Encoding & Transmission Standard METS Document has seven major sections: METS Header: minimal descriptive metadata about the METS document itself Descriptive Metadata: metadata describing the digital object, to enable discovery and evaluation. Administrative Metadata: metadata about the creation, use and provenance of the digital object(s). Includes four subtypes: technical, source, rights and digital provenance metadata Slide18:  METS: Metadata Encoding & Transmission Standard File Section: Includes one or more <fileGrp> elements, to group together related files, such as the different digital manifestations of a file, e.g.,the uncompressed digital master, mpeg4 and Quicktime access files, for a video title. Structural Map: Outlines hierarchical structure of a digital object and links the elements of that structure to relevant content files and metadata Slide19:  METS: Metadata Encoding & Transmission Standard Structural Links: Contains a single element, <smLink>. Used to record the existence of hyperlinks between items within the structural map. Behavior: Used to associate executable behaviors with content within the METS document. For example, a behavior could automatically launch a video player application when a digital video file is selected for display. Slide20:  FEDORA Background: “Flexible, Extensible Digital Object Repository Architecture” Developed by Cornell University and University of Virginia via a Mellon Foundation Grant. Utilizes METS (v 2.0 – FOXML (Interoperable with METS) http://www.fedora.info/ Slide24:  PREMIS Data Dictionary Sponsored by OCLC and RLG Defines a “core” set of preservation metadata elements Provides a data dictionary supporting the preservation of digital information Slide25:  PREMIS Data Model Intellectual Entities Objects Events Agents Rights http://www.oclc.org/research/projects/pmwg/ Slide26:  MPEG-21 Multimedia Framework Transparent management and use of digital multimedia resources, from creation through consumption. Key concept is the Digital Item Declaration, which includes structure, resources and metadata bundled in the item. Repository architecture—LANL’s aDORe—modular digital object repository architecture modeled on MPEG21. http://public.lanl.gov/herbertv/papers/aDORe_20050128_submission.pdf Slide27:  MXF: Multimedia Exchange Format` “Open file format targeted at the interchange of audiovisual material, with associated data and metadata.” Intended to support file interoperability between content creation devices, servers and workstations. Supports integration of file-based and streaming resource formats. Maintains the “documentation chain” for metadata about audiovisual essences throughout the resource lifecycle—creation, broadcast, storage, re-use Slide28:  MXF: Multimedia Exchange Format Example: Video footage of hurricane activity in the field has automatic GPS, date/time and duration capture as captions on the footage. MXF can maintain the essence and the metadata captured simultaneously by the camera for use in production, archiving and reuse, without the need to “recatalog” the information. Example: Footage of jaguar hunting in Brazil is captioned in the field, transferred with captions to production facility, where it is packaged into a program, “The Vanishing Rainforest.” Footage is licensed to a travelog production company. Footage of jaguar on the DVD, “This is Brazil” has online attribution to “The Vanishing Rainforest,” from metadata added in production, as well as attribution to the the field cinematographer, location, date and time of capture, from the original captions, with no recreation of metadata. Slide29:  MXF: Multimedia Exchange Format Header partition pack Header metadata Essence Container Footer partition pack File Header File Body File Footer Every item in MXF File is KLV (Key Length Value) encoded—identified by a unique 16-byte key and by its length. Anything that is not understood or needed (unrecognized keys) can be ignored and skipped over Slide30:  MXF: Multimedia Exchange Format Header Metadata: Metadata (DMS-1 or other schema) Timing and synchronization parameters Synchronization and Description of the Essence through three packages: Material Package: Output timeline of the file (tracks and sequence) File Package: the essence itself Source Package: Derivation of the essence (“source film stock” descriptions, etc. Slide31:  Dublin Core From “Description of Dublin Core Elements” http://purl.oclc.org/metadata/dublin_core_elements Every element is optional, repeatable, with rules for format and values DESCRIPTIVE METADATA SCHEMAS DUBLIN CORE:  Provides a great deal of flexibility. Easy to learn. Ensures interoperability with other schemes. Good transport protocol when expressed as XML + - Lacks support for multiple formats Lacks support for seriality Technical description (formats, containers, extent, etc.) is weak and not standardized. DUBLIN CORE Slide33:  PBCore Intended to address description, preservation and access needs of television, radio, and associated web activities. Based on Dublin Core—qualifies and expands the 15 Dublin Core data elements. 58 Data Elements (30 mandatory) V 1.0 available free of charge for use, via the Corporation for Public Broadcasting. Maps readily to other schema (Dublin Core, MPEG-7, MODS, etc.) Slide34:  PBCore Slide35:  PBCore Data elements address descriptive and technical metadata for access and management Simple “linear” data model is easy to apply Like Dublin Core, does not address issue of “multiple manifestations” (Although both can be used within METS to address this issue). Slide36:  <FormatFileSize>296 MB </FormatFilesize> <FormatImageFrameRate>30 fps</FormatImageFrameRate> <format>296 MB</format> <format>30 fps</format> DC “Dumb Down” PBCore – “Qualified” Dublin Core for DV Slide37:  Synchronization between content and description Textual indexing: Creation information, subjects, concepts, media profiles. Non-textual indexing - melody and speech recognition, color, shape, scene changes, etc. Textual format/Binary Format completely equivalent. You can use any functionality in textual or nontextual form. MPEG-7: Multimedia Content Description Interface Slide38:  Does not support description of analog or textual resources High-level textual description of component parts (“table of contents”) does not exist. Some duplication of descriptive information across MPEG7 descriptive schemes Documentation, examples and widespread adoption as a descriptive metadata standard is weak. MPEG-7: Multimedia Content Description Interface Slide39:  MPEG-7 MPEG-7 Content Description: Low level Audio Visual descriptors:  MPEG-7 Content Description: Low level Audio Visual descriptors MPEG-7 Description Tools:  MPEG-7 Description Tools Description Schemes (structure) and Descriptors (features) Slide42:  Dublin Core vs. MPEG7 – The Challenges MPEG7 is a structured, hierarchical schema. “Work” described in CreationInformation DS Manifestation/Item described in MediaInformation and UsageInformation DSs Dublin Core is a “flat” schema that mixes “work” or intellectual content with single manifestation/item description (“1:1 principle”) Slide43:  MANIFESTATION in DC and MPEG-7 CREATOR TITLE SUBJECT DATE IDENTIFIER FORMAT RIGHTS IDENTIFIER FORMAT RIGHTS CreationInformation MediaProfile UsageAvailability MediaProfile UsageAvailability MediaInstance Slide44:  MODS: Metadata Object Description Schema XML representation of MARC21 data, to enable seamless transfer of MARC data to XML. Enables both original description of digital and analog resources and mapping of legacy metadata in MARC to MODS MODS is represented in application profiles for METS Descriptive MD and OAI-PMH for data sharing and transport Slide45:  MXF DMS-1 Material Exchange Format – Descriptive Metadata Scheme-1 (SMPTE 380M-2004) Utilizes SMPTE RP 210 –Metadata Dictionary Registry of Metadata Element Descriptions Data model and core rules are taken from AAF, so that DMS-1 can be seen as an Application of AAF. Utilizes a collection of descriptive metadata frameworks. Supports migration of DM from one MXF file to another when essence is migrated or reused. Slide46:  MXF DMS-1 Frameworks: “grouping of related descriptive metadata properties and sets, which describe the contents of an MXF file body.” Production framework: “provide[s] identification and ownership details of the audio-visual content in the file body.” “Applies to the complete input or output of the MXF file as a whole.” Clip framework: “provide[s] capture and creation information about the individual “audio-visual” clips in the file body. “A ‘clip’ is a continuous essence element, or essence element interleave, in the essence container. Slide47:  MXF DMS-1 Scene framework: “describe[s] actions and events within individual scenes of the aufio-visual content of the file body.” “Scene is an editorial concept and describes a continuous section of content in an MXF file.” Slide48:  MXF DMS-1 Production framework Award Identification Group Relationship Branding Titles Participant Metadata Server Locator Event Captions Description Annotation Setting/Period Contract Picture Format Project Publication Annotation Classification Cue Words Related Material Locator Rights Slide49:  MXF DMS-1 Clip framework Project Captions Description Picture Format Processing Titles Participant Metadata Server Locator Annotation Scripting Shot Contract Device Parameters Scripting Locator Cue Words Related Material Locator Classification Cue Words Key Point Rights Name-value Name-value Slide50:  MXF DMS-1 Scene framework Setting period Participant Contacts List Titles Metadata Server Locator Annotation Shot Cue Words Related Material Locator Classification Cue Words Key Point Name-Value Slide51:  MXF DMS-1 Participant Person Organization Location Address Name-value Communications Name-value Slide54:  Union Catalog Archive Directory Education and Outreach Space Cataloging Utility Dynamic, contextual portals Concatenate moving images for preservation and access through: MIC Organization Directory:  MIC Organization Directory Contact information, home page URL, logo Collection descriptions Preservation activities Cataloging activities How to obtain materials Administrative information Shibboleth Authentication/Authorization MIC Organization Directory:  MIC Organization Directory Intersects with the Union Catalog for: pre-selection for union catalog searches provide information about the organization, particularly obtaining resources, audience served, location, etc. OrgID Org Directory Union Catalog MIC PORTALS:  MIC PORTALS Resource and organization descriptions specific to community PortalID in both Org Directory and Union Catalog retrieves portal-specific information PortalID Org Directory Union Catalog

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