Published on June 13, 2019
1. Good and evil of tribological engineering surfaces Tomasz Liskiewicz Professor of Tribology and Surface Engineering
2. … God made the bulk, surfaces were invented by the devil Wolfgang Pauli
3. FRETTING SURFACES & TRIBOLOGY SURFACE ENGINEERING FUTURE OUTLOOK
4. SURFACES and TRIBOLOGY
5. Surfaces • Absorbing • Reflecting • Corroding • Supporting • Insulating • Conducting • … Contamination Adsorbed Oxide layer Work harden Metal surface
6. Surface interactions
7. Interacting surfaces A.I. Vakis et al., Modeling and simulation in tribology across scales: An overview, Tribology International, Volume 125, 2018, Pages 169-199.
8. Tribology • Tribology: the science and engineering of interacting surfaces in relative motion • It includes the study and application of the principles of friction, lubrication and wear • Multidisciplinary subject involving engineers, physicists, chemists, material scientists • The most important subject no one has heard of* *Quote by Professor John Tichy of Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, New York.
9. Early applications of friction Rolling objects takes much less energy than sliding them. Heat is generated by rubbing two dry pieces of wood together.
10. Early applications of friction “History of Tribology”, Duncan Dowson, 2nd Edition, 1998, Professional Engineering Publishing Ltd.
11. Early applications of friction Source: Daily Mail, Revealed: How 15th century workers used ICY roads to haul 100-tonne stones to build China's Forbidden City
12. First systematic study of friction See: Liskiewicz T. Leonardo da Vinci’s early work on friction founded the modern science of tribology, The Conversation
13. “Tribology” • How much friction and wear cost the UK economy? • 1966 Jost Report • Cost of friction, wear and corrosion to the UK economy 1.36% of GDP • Word derived from the Greek term tribos meaning rubbing Jost, Peter (1966), Lubrication (Tribology) - A report on the present position and industry's needs, Department of Education and Science, H. M. Stationery Office, London, UK.
14. 50 years after Jost Report Holmberg, K. & Erdemir, A. Influence of tribology on global energy consumption, costs and emissions, Friction (2017) 5: 263.
15. My Tribology research • MSc Thesis: Single and multi-layer carbide coatings on high speed stainless steel • PHD Thesis: Hard coatings durability under variable fretting wear conditions • Postdoc: Protective coating design for -Ti-Al alloy components • Using biomimicry to provide the step change in lubricant additive technology • Ion release measurements of bio-materials under fretting wear • Linking nano- and macro-scale friction • Academic roles: Co-Cr-Mo alloy passive film behaviour under fretting conditions • Design for failure: remanufacturing & tribology • Erosion-Corrosion study of coated aluminium alloys for oil & gas applications • Friction induced evolution of mechanical properties of engineered surfaces • Engineering the DLC coating/lubricant interface: optimization for effective friction control • Tribology of novel carbon coatings for automotive components • Functional coatings for laparoscopic scissor applications Fretting DLC coating
17. Fretting wear Turbine engine blade Hip implant taper joint Electrical connector Fretting wear is surface damage that occurs between two contacting surfaces experiencing cyclic motion (oscillatory tangential displacement) of small amplitude.
18. My fretting wear research • Friction energy capacity approach to predict surface coating endurance under fretting • Fretting wear of PVD coatings under variable environmental conditions • Wöhler-like approach to quantify coatings durability under oscillating sliding conditions • Ion release during fretting at taper joint interface of hip joint prosthesis • Influence of roughness on sliding and wear in dry fretting • Impact of variable loading conditions on fretting wear • Comparison of nano-fretting and nano-scratch tests with nano-indentation • Novel numerical method for parameterising fretting contacts • Surface design against fretting corrosion of electrical connectors • Dynamic changes of mechanical properties induced by fretting • Fretting wear behaviour of duplex PEO/chameleon coating on Al alloy Electrical connectors
19. Fretting-corrosion of electrical connectors
20. Automotive connectors *J. Swingler, J.W. McBride, Proc. 19th Int. Conf. Electric Contact Phenom., Nuremberg, Germany, 1998, pp. 141. • Increased complexity of automotive electronics • In some cases, more than 400 connectors with 3000 electrical contacts on board • Up to 60% of electrical problems related to degradation of electrical contacts by fretting-corrosion*
21. Repeating exposure of active metal surface to the corrosive nature of the environment 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0 2000 4000 6000 - interface resistance increase - electrical contact degradation contactresistance(Ω) fretting time (s) relative displacement hollow component pin component contact pressure 200 μm 50 μm 10 μm Fretting corrosion Liskiewicz T, Kubiak K, Jozefczyk D, Surface texturing for improved fretting-corrosion performance of electrical connectors, in J. Swingler & J.W. McBride (eds), ICEC2016: 28th International Conference on Electric Contacts, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, UK, pp. 63-67
22. Noble vs. non-noble metals E. Sauger, S. Fouvry, L. Ponsonnet, Ph. Kapsa, J.M. Martin and L. Vincent, Wear 245 (2000), pp. 39-52 M. Antler, “Contact Fretting of Electronic Connectors,” IEICE TRANS. ELECTRON., Vols. E82-C, pp. 3-12, 1999.
23. Grit 600/P1200 Grit 320/P400 Grit 120/P120 0 sec. 2000 sec. 4000 sec. 6000 sec. 8000 sec. Hypothesis t1 t2 t3 t4 t5 time smooth
24. Grit 600/P1200 Grit 320/P400 Grit 120/P120 0 sec. 2000 sec. 4000 sec. 6000 sec. 8000 sec. Hypothesis t1 t2 t3 t4 t5 smooth rough time
25. Grit 600/P1200 smooth Grit 320/P400 rough Grit 120/P120 very rough Experimental stup Plane specimen Sphere Normal load Displacement sensor Pilot study
26. Grit 600/P1200 smooth Grit 320/P400 rough Grit 120/P120 very rough Pilot study
27. Surface texturing Fretting experiments Contact resistance measurements Surface characterisation cyclic micro displacements Methods
28. a) b) c) d) e) f) 0 0 3 1 (mm) (µm) 0 0 3 9 (mm) (µm) 0 0 3 15 (mm) (µm) 0 0 3 35 (mm) (µm) 0 0 5 70 (mm) (µm) 0 0 5 95 (mm) (µm) Test coupons
29. Polished Directional surface texturing Ra (µm) 0.09 0.75 2.09 5.94 9.51 13.76 Peak height (µm) 0.3 4 12 35 60 115 Peak to peak (mm) n/a n/a 0.44 0.62 0.78 1.00 C101 copper Test coupons
30. Test methodology Hemisphere specimen Flat specimen Volt meter DC power supply Ampere meter 1 4 2 3 V A - 7N normal load (P) - 10μm, 20μm & 30μm peak to peak stroke (δ) - 30Hz frequency - Ambient: 22°C, 40-55% RH - Cycles to failure: 100 mΩ Experimental stup Plane specimen Sphere Normal load Displacement sensor
31. Failure criterion 100mΩ Contact resistance Number of fretting cycles to failure
32. Numberofcyclestofailure Ra (µm) 0 100000 200000 300000 400000 500000 0 5 10 15 Impact of surface roughness at 30 µm stroke smooth rough
33. Numberofcyclestofailure Ra (µm) 0 100000 200000 300000 400000 500000 0 5 10 15 Impact of surface roughness at 20 µm stroke smooth rough
34. Numberofcyclestofailure Ra (µm) 0 100000 200000 300000 400000 500000 0 5 10 15 Impact of surface roughness at 10 µm stroke smooth rough
35. Wear debris Liskiewicz T, Kubiak K, Mann D, Surface design against third body fretting-corrosion of electrical connectors, Tribology International, under review.
36. SURFACE ENGINEERING
37. 11th Dec 2010
38. Flexicoat 850 coating system • Physical and Plasma Assisted Chemical Vapour deposition • Full-scale industrial system • Automated coating receipts • Repeatable coating composition
39. Surface Engineering and Tribology A.I. Vakis et al., Modeling and simulation in tribology across scales: An overview, Tribology International, Volume 125, 2018, Pages 169-199.
40. What is Surface Engineering? → Engineer’s perspective “… makes possible the design and manufacture of engineering components with combination of bulk and surface properties unobtainable in a single monolithic material” Bell, 1985 Surface Engineering
41. Surface Engineering methods DLC
42. • DLC is a generic term describing a range of amorphous carbon • Diamond & graphite the most well-known allotropes of carbon • different type of bonding between carbon atoms • DLC - Diamond-like carbon coatings have a mixture of sp3 and sp2 bonds Diamond • hard • sp3 hybridized bonds resulting in strong C-C bonds Graphite • soft and slippery • sp2 hybridized bonds forming weak bonding between the atomic planes Diamond-like Carbon (DLC) coating
43. Diamond-like Carbon coating • Nano-mechanical characterisation • Nano-indentation • Nano-scratch • Nano-impact • Coating applications • Internal combustion engine lubrication • High performance motorsport engine • Flow assurance in oil & gas sector
44. Diamond-like Carbon coating • Nano-mechanical characterisation • Nano-indentation • Nano-scratch • Nano-impact • Coating applications • Internal combustion engine lubrication • High performance motorsport engine • Flow assurance in oil & gas sector
45. Nano-mechanical characterisation Indentation Scratch Impact (sample oscillation) Reciprocating Impact (pendulum impulse) High cycle fatigue Low cycle fatigue Dynamic hardness Accelerated (reciprocating) nano-wear, nano-fretting
46. Nano-indentation Beake B, Liskiewicz T, Vishnyakov V, Davies M, Development of DLC coating architectures for demanding functional surface applications through nano- and micro-mechanical testing, Surface and Coatings Technology, 2015, Vol. 284, 334-343. H (GPa) Er (GPa) hc (nm) H/Er a-C:H 25.0 ± 1.1 194.7 ± 5.4 227.1 ± 5.9 0.128 ± 0.003 Si:a-C:H 16.3 ± 0.5 143.3 ± 2.9 287.3 ± 4.7 0.114 ± 0.002 a-C:H:W 12.7 ± 1.7 157.1 ± 13.3 331.9 ± 26.5 0.081 ± 0.005
47. Nano-scratch Beake B, Davies M, Liskiewicz T, Vishnyakov V, Goodes S, Nano-scratch, nanoindentation and fretting tests of 5–80nm ta-C films on Si(100), Wear, 2013, Vol. 301, 575-582. a-C:H:W Si:a-C:H a-C:H Ly = (206 ± 5) mN Lc1 = (422 ± 4) mN Ly = (110 ± 10) mN Lc1 = (445 ± 12) mN Ly = (68 ± 4) mN Lc1 > 500 mN
48. Nano-impact Shi X, Beake B, Liskiewicz T, Chen J, Sun Z, Failure mechanism and protective role of ultrathin ta-C films on Si (100) during cyclic nano-impact, Surface and Coatings Technology, Vol. 364, 2019, 32-42.
49. Diamond-like Carbon coating • Nano-mechanical characterisation • Nano-indentation • Nano-scratch • Nano-impact • Coating applications • Internal combustion engine lubrication • High performance motorsport engine • Flow assurance in oil & gas sector
50. DLC/lubricant interaction in internal combustion engine Austin L, Liskiewicz T, Kolev I, Zhao H, Neville A, The influence of anti‐wear additive ZDDP on doped and undoped diamond‐like carbon coatings, Surface and Interface Analysis, 2015, Vol. 47, 755-763.
51. DLC/lubricant interaction in internal combustion engine 5 μm x 5 μm Fully Formulated Oil 10 μm x 10 μm 5 μm x 5 μm Base Oil 10 μm x 10 μm Austin L, Liskiewicz T, Kolev I, Zhao H, Neville A, The influence of anti‐wear additive ZDDP on doped and undoped diamond‐like carbon coatings, Surface and Interface Analysis, 2015, Vol. 47, 755-763.
52. Textured DLC coating Koszela W, Pawlus P, Reizer R, Liskiewicz T, The combined effect of surface texturing and DLC coating on the functional properties of internal combustion engines, Tribology International, Vol. 127, 2018, 470-477.
53. Textured DLC coating Koszela W, Pawlus P, Reizer R, Liskiewicz T, The combined effect of surface texturing and DLC coating on the functional properties of internal combustion engines, Tribology International, Vol. 127, 2018, 470-477. 5.8% engine power increase for DLC coated & textured cylinder
54. DLC coating for protection of flow control devices Temperature 100°C/212°F Pressure 1000 psi/6.89 MPa Gas 5% H2S, 5% CO2, 90% CH4 Water 1% NaCl in distilled water Hydrocarbon Toluene:Kerosene (1:1 volume) Duration 28 days Liskiewicz T, Al-Borno A, DLC Coatings in Oil and Gas Production, Journal of Coating Science and Technology, 2014, Vol. 1, 59-68.
55. DLC coating for protection of flow control devices Liskiewicz T, Al-Borno A, DLC Coatings in Oil and Gas Production, Journal of Coating Science and Technology, 2014, Vol. 1, 59-68. VinylEster (3 coatings) Phenolic (6 coatings) Epoxy (8 coatings) Phenol-formaldehydeResin (14 coatings) Coating types included in the comparative study 31 13 2Numberofcoatings Coatings in the study Coatings passed slow decompression Coatings passed rapid decompression Thin DLC coating (1.43 μm) showed superior performance to most thick organic “industry standard” coatings
56. FUTURE OUTLOOK
57. Ten years from now, AI-enabled companies will be far more valuable than the current FAANG and BAT stocks Voice of the CEOs at the latest Fortune Global Tech Forum (Guangzhou, China) FAANG: Facebook, Apple, Amazon, Netflix and Alphabet’s Google BAT: Baidu, Alibaba and Tencent
58. Moore’s law Martin E, Moore’s Law is Alive and Well, Medium, https://link.medium.com/HzbiDGB9hX Transistor count per microprocessor by year
59. Exponential growth of computational power Beauty and Joy of Computing, University of California, Berkeley and Education Development Center, https://bjc.edc.org/bjc-r/course/bjc4nyc.html
60. Exponential growth of knowledge • The more we know, the greater our ability to learn new things • The greater our ability to learn the faster we expand our knowledge base • Each new scientific discovery becomes a tool with which novel technologies are invented • Growth of knowledge fuels growth of technology • Technology feeds on itself
61. Exponential growth surprise factor Yelton S, Why Enterprises Need Communications in the Cloud, https://www.windstreamenterprise.com
62. • Additive Manufacturing • Big Data & Analytics • Cybersecurity • Autonomous robots • Simulation • The cloud • Horizontal & Vertical Integration • Industrial Internet of Things • Augmented Reality The 9 pillars and drivers of Industry 4.0 Source: Boston Consulting Group
63. Industrial Internet of Things and Sensors Source: www.ncta.com and www.postscapes.com
64. Coating as a sensor DLC Coating on HTS: FIB-SEM after 75 impacts at 1 N Coating electrical resistance measurement setup
65. Coating resistance measurement
66. DLC coating resistance vs. applied load at 50V 26.23295 21.07926 11.16071 6.944444 5.376344 3.31565 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 0 1 2 3 4 5 CONTACTRESISTANCE[m] LOAD [kg]
67. Industry 4.0 theme at Manchester Metropolitan
68. Summary • Good rather than evil surfaces & exciting times for tribology and functional surfaces • Remaining challenges in niche tribology field of fretting wear • Moving from passive coating to connected- sensing-responsive surface, real time condition monitoring of machines, better prediction of wear • The difficulty of working across barriers is not to be underestimated. What will distinguish successful institutions will be cross- disciplinary approach. FRETTING FUTURE OUTLOOK SURFACE ENGINEERING SURFACES & TRIBOLOGY
69. Acknowledgments A Neville, B Wendler, M Bryant, L Yang, D Barton, A Morina, M Priest, D Dowson, N Kapur, H Thompson, M Wilson, K Kubiak, T Mathia, S Fouvry, C Wang, R Dwyer-Joyce, A Matthews, B Beake, J Colligon, T Charpentier, T Childs, R Chittenden, S Kosarieh, F Motamen Salehi, P Parsaeian, A Ghanbarzadeh, S Soltanahmadi, S McMaster, Z Thompson, E McNulty, R Brittain, F Dangnan, NRBN Roseley, AM Algahtni, L Austin, M Lgried, J Endrino, D Mann, R Whiting, A Oladokun, T Hobeika, F Thirion, D Jozefczyk, H Attia, I Bargmann, TZ Lwin, V Khetan, T Khan, S Carley, F Mangolini, D Khaemba, A Cavaleiro, J Sayed, C Dyson, S Brasil, D Freitas, K Dahm, P Dearnley, J Stanford, M Gester, W Cox, T Wilkins, A Barnett, X Shi, J Chen, S Yamamoto, W Koszela, P Pawlus, A Yerokhin, A Voevodin, X Wei, D Wei, H Zhao, T Comyn, A Tiwari, V Vishnyakov, M Davies, I Kolev, D Doerwald, R Tietema, A Al-Borno, N Schwarzer, A Harris, S Shrestha, G Liskiewicz, P Kula, R Pietrasik, R Roshan, P Gaskell, L Chen, G Taylor, M Kalbarczyk, Y Yan, S Achanta, D Drees, J-P Celis, R Rybiak, H Renondeau, C Paulin, T Pacyniak, D Rylska, A Rylski, L Kaczmarek, W Pawlak, Ph Kapsa, L Vincent, S Rao, S Dhoke, X Chen, R Kamble, J Cortes, R Hewson, V Fridrici, B Januszewicz, I Gebeshuber