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Published on October 29, 2007

Author: Dixon

Source: authorstream.com

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Università degli Studi di Roma “La Sapienza” Dipartimento di Scienze Demografiche:  Università degli Studi di Roma “La Sapienza” Dipartimento di Scienze Demografiche The international mobility of researchers: analysis, prospects, challenges Antonio Golini, Sara Basso, Annalisa Busetta European Conference Education, Research, Migration: The European Policy in the Context of Globalization Rome, 5th December 2003 Definition: Intellectual Migration:  Definition: Intellectual Migration Per migrazioni intellettuali intendiamo quelle compiute da persone con una formazione specialistica di alto livello (professionisti, tecnici, professori e così via) o da persone che stanno completando la loro formazione e si spostano per portare a compimento al meglio tali studi (universitari e post-universitari). In tale categoria è subito chiaro che rientrano due gruppi molto diversi di persone: da un lato coloro che hanno acquisito un bagaglio culturale e scientifico di valore e che lo "rivendono" sul mercato internazionale, spostando la loro residenza definitivamente o per certi periodi; dall'altro lato coloro che stanno acquisendo tale formazione e che si spostano per raggiungere i luoghi dove specializzarsi al meglio, e che saranno attivi e produttivi a tempo pieno solo fra qualche anno. Le migrazioni intellettuali sono quindi quelle che avvengono per "vendere" o "acquistare" conoscenze scientifiche e tecnologiche e sono solitamente temporanee (almeno nelle intenzioni iniziali). L. Francovich, Le migrazioni intellettuali in Europa e in Italia, in Migrazioni Scenari per XXI° secolo, Convegno Internazionale Roma, 12-14 Luglio 2000 Slide3:  28,000 178,000 10,000 3,000 120,000 20,000 27,000 2,700 15,000 108,000 24,000 1,800 27,000 Other Europe -92,500 EU (1) +371,000 US + Canada +409,700 Asia + Oceania -474,800 Latin America - 48,000 Africa - 165,400 49,000 4,500 3,400 302,000 1,000 Migration between the world regions: foreign students enrolled in tertiary education, 1999 Source: DG Research Notes: EU totals do not include EL and P. The values inside the boxes show migration increase without considering internal migration (net migration within the region). The EU figures do not include EL and P. The host regions only include OECD countries. The region of origin are complete. Slide4:  Annual costs or gains of receiving undergraduates foreign students (USD per foreign student) Source: K.Tremblay's estimated based on data from Throsby (1996) and Institute of International Education (2001) for the United States. Slide5:  (1) Graduates are composed by ISCED, levels 5 and 6; (2) Japan and US data refer to 1998; (3) EU totals do not include Greece Source: DG Research Graduates (1) by field of study, total numbers 2000 Slide6:  New S&T PhD (a.v.) and per thousand population (aged 25-34), 2000 (1) 1999; (2) EU average does not include Luxemburg (3)Provisional dataSource: DG Research Slide7:  Population 25-34 aged in thousands (medium variant), 2000-2030 (*) EU average does not include Luxemburg Source: own elaborations on UN data Slide8:  Projection of PhD (a.v.), 2000-2030 (medium variant for population and constant “PhD rates”) (*) EU average does not include Luxemburg Source: own elaborations on Oecd and UN data Slide9:  Share of EU born PhD recipients in the US who plan to remain there after PhD, 1990-1999 (%) Source: DG-Research Slide10:  Motivazioni sottese alla decisione di non rientrare in Italia Source: “Un capitale intellettuale da valorizzare: indagine conoscitiva sul fenomeno della fuga dei cervelli all’estero”, Censis, 2001 Slide11:  1993 median salaries in USD of US recipients of PhDs in science and engineering: foreign-born vs. native-born Source:: Anderson (1996) based on an unpublished National Science Foundation tabulation of the 1993 survey of Doctoral recipients and 1993 National Survey of College Graduates. Foreign-born includes naturalized US citizens, permanent residents and workers on temporary visas. Slide12:  Researchers1 workers (full time equivalent and per 1,000 labour force), 1998-2001 1Researchers are professionals engaged in the conception or creation of new knowledge, products, processes, methods,and system and also in the management of the project concerned. Source: own elaborations on Oecd data, 2003 Slide13:  Researchers workers (FTE and per 1,000 WF) and index number (US Researchers rates per 1,000 work force = 100); 1998 and 2001 Source: own elaborations on Oecd data, 2003 2001 1998 Slide14:  Patenting activity: triadic patent families1, EPO2- 2001 1 Patents applied to the European Patent Office (EPO), the Japanese Patent Office (JPO) and granted to the US Patent & Trademark Office (USPTO), for priority year 1998. The priority date corresponds to the first international request for protecting an invention. 2 Patent application to the European Patent Office (EPO), for priority year 1999. Source: OECD, 2003 Slide15:  Current number (2001) and required number of researchers (in thousands) to make equal EU countries and US rates per 1,000 labour force Source: own elaborations on Oecd data, 2003 Slide16:  Projected “researchers rates” per 1000 labour force 2001-20051 1 Hypothesis: Researchers 2001-2005: variable “researchers rates” prolonging trends observed in the period 1998-2001 Labour forces 2001-2005: constant 2001 activity rates applied to population aged 15-64 (medium variant of the UN 2002 projections) Source: own elaborations on UNDP, OECD, Eurostat LFS data, 2003 Slide17:  1 Hypothesis: Researchers 2001-2005: variable “researchers rates” prolonging trends observed in the period 1998-2001 Source: own elaborations on OECD, Eurostat LFS data, 2003 Number of researchers observed in 2001 and projected for 20051

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