Goethe

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Published on November 23, 2008

Author: Bosnewy

Source: slideshare.net

Description

Goethe embraces Islam
Goethe said that there is "much nonsense in the doctrines of the [christian] church." (Conversations with Eckermann, 11.3.1832) In his "Divan" Goethe stresses the value of the precious present moment rather than having the Christian attitude of only waiting for the next life and therefore, disgracing what God gives man in every moment of his life.

Goethe refuses the christian view of Jesus and confirms the unity of Allah in a poem of his "Divan":

"Jesus felt pure and calmly thought
Only the One God;
Who made himself to be a god
Offends his holy will.
And thus the right(ness) has to shine
What Mahomet also achieved;
Only by the term of the One
He mastered the whole world"

"Jesus f|hlte rein und dachte
Nur den Einen Gott im Stillen;
Wer ihn selbst zum Gotte machte
Krdnkte seinen heil'gen Willen.
Und so mu_ das Rechte scheinen
Was auch Mahomet gelungen;
Nur durch den Begriff des Einen
Hat er alle Welt bezwungen."
(WA I, 6, 288 ff)
Besides Jesus and Muhammad - may Allah bless him and give him peace! - in the following verses Goethe also names Abraham, Moses and David as the representatives of the Oneness of God. It is a known fact that Goethe felt a strong dislike for the symbol of the cross. He wrote:

"And now you come with a sign ...
which among all others I mostly dislike.
All this modern nonsense
You are going to bring me to Schiras!
Should I, in all its stiffness,
Sing of two crossed wooden pieces?"

"Und nun kommst du, hast ein Zeichen
Dran gehdngt, das unter allen ...
Mir am schlechtesten will gefallen
Diese ganze moderne Narrheit
Magst du mir nach Schiras bringen!
Soll ich wohl, in seiner Starrheit,
Hvlzchen quer auf Hvlzchen singen?..."
Und sogar noch stdrker:
"Mir willst du zum Gotte machen
Solch ein Jammerbild am Holze!"
Also in Wilhelm Meisters Wanderjahre Goethe quite frankly wrote that it is a "cursed insolence ... to play with secrets that are hidden in the divine depth of suffering" One should rather "cover it with a veil".

Finally, in the poem of the Seven Sleepers of his "Divan" Goethe calls Jesus a prophet: "Ephesus for many years/ Honours the teaching of the Prophet Jesus. (Peace be upon the good one!)" (WA I, 6, 269)

Practice of Dhikr
Goethe is fascinated by Saadi's metaphor of the "fly in love" flying into the light where it dies. See here especially the poem of the "Divan" about the butterfly flying into the light "Blissful yearning / Selige Sehnsucht" whose earlier titles were "Sacrifice of the self / Selbstopfer" and "Perfection / Vollendung". In the chapter about Rumi, Goethe acknowledges the invocation of Allah and the blessing of it: "Already the so-called mahometan rosary [prayer-beeds] by which the name Allah is glorified with ninety-nine qualities is such a praise litany. Affirming and negating qualities indicate the inconceivable Being [Wesen]; the worshipper is amazed, submits and calms down." (WA I, 7, 59)

Goethe and Islam
As a young man Goethe wanted to study oriental studies - but his father finally wanted him to study law; he always admired the first travellers to Arabia (Michaelis, Niebuhr), he was fascinated by it and read everything they published about their trips. In 1814/15 at the time of his "Divan" Goethe trained himself with the professors for oriental studies Paulus, Lorsbach and Kosegarten (Jena) in reading and writing Arabic. After looking at his Arabic manuscripts and having known about the Qur'an, Goethe felt a great yearning to learn Arabic. He copied short Arabic Du'as by himself and wrote: "In no other language spirit, word and letter are embodied in such a primal way." (Letter to Schlosser, 23.1.1815, WA IV, 25, 165)

At the age of 70 Goethe writes (Notes and Essays to the Divan, WA I, 17, 153) that he intends "to celebrate respectfully that night when the Prophet was given the Koran completely from above" He also wrote: "No one may wonder about the great efficiency of the Book. That is why

Teme dr. Katharina Mommsen Goethe-Musliman? [Nepoznata strana jednog velikog pjesnika] Prijevod s njema č kog: Salim A.HAD Ž I Ć

Prof. Katharina Mommsen, najznačajnija istražiteljica lika i djela Johann Wolfgang von Goethea, tvrdi: - Što se tiče Goethea, određen je njegov stav prema islamu. Goethe je pristupio Muhammedu i njegovoj religiji na jedan veoma osoban odnos.

Po prvi put u 23. godini života Goethe se susreo sa Kur'anom. Mada odmah nije imao direktni pristup arapskom originalnom tekstu Kur'ana, bio je, uprkos svim nedostacima i krivotvorenjima kur'anskog iskaza u tadašnjim prijevodima, zadivljen Božijom riječju. Tako da je pisao Johann Gottfried Herderu: Johann Gottfried Herder

Želio bih moliti kao Musa u Kur'anu: "Bože, učini prostranim moja prsa i olakšaj zadatak moj i odriješi mi uzao sa jezika, da bi ljudi razumjeli govor moj. ” (Kur'an, 20., 25.-28.)

Želio bih moliti kao Musa u Kur'anu:

"Bože, učini prostranim moja prsa i olakšaj zadatak moj i odriješi mi uzao sa jezika, da bi ljudi razumjeli govor moj. ”

(Kur'an, 20., 25.-28.)

Goethe veli: ,,Da li je Kur'an od vječnosti? Za to ne pitam! Da je on Knjiga nad knjigama, vjerujem iz muslimanske dužnosti.”

Goethe veli: - Ibrahim, voljom Gospodara zvijezda, postao je predak. Musa je u pustoj daljini, preko Jednog, bio velik. I Davud kroz mnoge svoje slabosti. Isa je osjećao čisto i mislio samo na Jednog Boga u mirnoći. Onaj ko ga je učinio bogom, povrijedio je njegovu svetu volju. I tako mora pravda sjati, što je Muhammedu i uspjelo. Samo kroz pojam Jednog, savladao je čitav svijet.

"U vremenima dekadence i degeneracije, od vremena do vremena između poslanika, skrivalo se sunce monoteizma iza oblaka idolopoklonstva. Fantaziji sklono čovje č anstvo gubilo je Jedinstvo u mnogoboštvu ili Jedinstvo u trojstvu, kao u kršćanstvu. Islam je pobjeđivao kroz jasnoću svoje poruke i ja, bez suvišnih napora logike, vjerujem: Bog je samo Jedan, Jedan jedino isti, nije rodio i Njega nije niko rodio. I taj Bog je jedino dostojan, da Mu se čovjek preda, da se potpuno na Njega osloni .”

Godine 1820. pi š e Goethe u jadu jednom svom prijatelju o oboljenju svoje snahe: ,,Dalje ne mogu ni š ta re ć i, nego da se i ovdje nastojim pridr ž avati za snagu islam a . Ovdje ne mo ž e niko drugoga savjetovati . N eka odlu č i svako za sebe š ta da radi. U islamu ž ivimo svi . U toj formi sebi uzimamo h rabrost."

U Goetheovom opusu mogu se naći ove riječi : On, jedino Pravedni, ž eli za svakog pravo. Neka bude od Njegovih stotinu imena ovo visoko hvaljeno! (...) On je Gospodar dva istoka i dva zapada, pa koju blagodat svoga Gospodara pori č ete? (Kur'an, 55., 17.-18.) Goethe pjeva: Bo ž iji je Istok, Bo ž iji je Zapad . Sjeverno i ju ž no podru č je po č iva u miru njegovih ruku. On vam je postavio zvijezde kao vodi če na zemlji i moru . T voja sudbina je do š la, slijedi na č in, put je do š ao, slijedi ga i zavr š i putovanje.

Leo Kettler je u emisiji Rias Berlin 22. marta 1984. rekao je da je Goethe, neposredno pred smrt, ispisivao slovo ,,W" na prsima. Zbog toga su tvrdili da je on pisao početno slovo svoga imena.

Međutim, poznato je da je Goethe bio u stanju napisati na arapskom rije č ,,Allah". Zato se pretpostavlja da je Goethe, umjesto križa, kojeg većina kršćana povodom smrti crtaju na prsima, napisao Božije ime. 22. marta 1832. završio je Goethe svoje životno putovanje. Ležao je u samrtnom krevetu i u smrtnim satima crtao neprestano slovo ,,W" na svojim prsima.

Iz straha Ti svi robuju da u Vatri ne zaglave spasom od nje očekuju veliku sreću da pribave, il' Džennete da nasele u dvorcima da stanuju i u njima se vesele, selsebilom naslađuju. Ja od Vatre ne strahujem niti o Džennetu snujem svog Voljenog ja ne želim ničim da nadomješćujem!

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