Go Arounds - FAASTeam and SAFE

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Information about Go Arounds - FAASTeam and SAFE

Published on June 25, 2013

Author: southernregionfaasteam

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Go Arounds - FAASTeam and SAFE

Go-AroundsIf it isn’t rightgo around

We are going to discuss how we teach andWe are going to discuss how we teach andreinforce the value of the go around. A topicreinforce the value of the go around. A topic“so basic and so fundamental” why would“so basic and so fundamental” why wouldwe focus attention on this maneuver?we focus attention on this maneuver?Go-AroundsGo-Arounds

BecauseBecauseWe still have accidents!We still have accidents!Types of Go-Around AccidentsAll Accidents / Fatal AccidentsStallsStalls 17 (42.5%) 5 (55.6%)Loss ofLoss of directional controldirectional control 11 (27.5%) 3 (33.3%)DelayedDelayed go-around attemptgo-around attempt 7 (17.5%) 1 (11.1%)AircraftAircraft ConfigurationConfiguration 2 (12.5%) 0AOPA Air Safety Foundation 2008 Nall Report

BecauseBecauseWe still have accidents!We still have accidents!Aircraft involved in Go-Around AccidentsAll Accidents / Fatal AccidentsAccidents / Fatal AccidentsSE FixedSE Fixed 24 (60%) 2 (22.2%)SE ComplexSE Complex 13 (32.5%) 6 (66.7%)MultiengineMultiengine 3 (7.5%) 1 (11.1%)AOPA Air Safety Foundation 2008 Nall Report

Go-Around=Weakness?Go-Around=Weakness?““Somewhere, somehow a sizeable percentage of theSomewhere, somehow a sizeable percentage of thepilot population got it into their heads that goingpilot population got it into their heads that goingaround was a sign of weakness and they were likely toaround was a sign of weakness and they were likely tobe criticized for it.” You may be questioned as to whybe criticized for it.” You may be questioned as to whyyou didnyou didn’’t, or why you waited too long to go-around.t, or why you waited too long to go-around.But you should never be criticized for the decision to goBut you should never be criticized for the decision to goaround.around.“Going, going, go around “ Budd Davisson AOPA Flight Training Magazine, September 2005

Go-AroundsGo-AroundsExcerpt from AOPA ASF Operations and Proficiency No. 6Excerpt from AOPA ASF Operations and Proficiency No. 6If you have a problem during approach or landing,there’s almost always a simple solution: Go around!It’s far better to make another trip around the patternthan to push ahead and risk a runway overshoot or lossof control.

Go-AroundsGo-AroundsExcerpt from AOPA ASF Operations and Proficiency No. 6Excerpt from AOPA ASF Operations and Proficiency No. 6A lot of pilots seem to forget that it’s an option, and end upA lot of pilots seem to forget that it’s an option, and end uphaving accidents they could easily have avoided. That said, therehaving accidents they could easily have avoided. That said, thereare some risks involved with go-arounds. Especially at loware some risks involved with go-arounds. Especially at lowaltitudes and airspeeds, with flaps down, going around can be aaltitudes and airspeeds, with flaps down, going around can be a“touchy” maneuver:“touchy” maneuver:If you don’t feel comfortable, get some practice with a CFIIf you don’t feel comfortable, get some practice with a CFI..

FundamentalsFundamentalsLet’s review and discuss the following fundamentalsLet’s review and discuss the following fundamentalsand see if we can agree on these as part of our go-and see if we can agree on these as part of our go-around training philosophy.around training philosophy.

FundamentalsFundamentalsAirplane Flying Handbook FAA 8083-3AWhenever landing conditions are not satisfactory, aWhenever landing conditions are not satisfactory, ago-around is warranted.go-around is warranted.

FundamentalsFundamentalsAirplane Flying Handbook FAA 8083-3AThe assumption that an aborted landing is invariablyThe assumption that an aborted landing is invariablythe consequence of a poor approach, which in turn isthe consequence of a poor approach, which in turn isdue to insufficient experience or skill,due to insufficient experience or skill, is a fallacyis a fallacy..Airplane Flying Handbook FAA 8083-3AAirplane Flying Handbook FAA 8083-3A

FundamentalsFundamentalsAirplane Flying Handbook FAA 8083-3AThe go-around is not strictly an emergency procedure.The go-around is not strictly an emergency procedure.It is a normal maneuver that may at times be used in anIt is a normal maneuver that may at times be used in anemergency situation.emergency situation.Airplane Flying Handbook FAA 8083-3AAirplane Flying Handbook FAA 8083-3A

FundamentalsFundamentalsAirplane Flying Handbook FAA 8083-3ALike any other normal maneuver, the go-around mustLike any other normal maneuver, the go-around mustbe practiced and perfected.be practiced and perfected.Airplane Flying Handbook FAA 8083-3AAirplane Flying Handbook FAA 8083-3A

FundamentalsFundamentalsAirplane Flying Handbook FAA 8083-3AThe flight instructor should emphasize early on, andThe flight instructor should emphasize early on, andthe student pilot should be made to understand, thatthe student pilot should be made to understand, thatthe go-around maneuver is an alternative to anythe go-around maneuver is an alternative to anyapproach and/or landing.approach and/or landing.Airplane Flying Handbook FAA 8083-3A

Rule of AviationRule of Aviation““If, at any time in the approach or landing, right intoIf, at any time in the approach or landing, right intofinal flare, you feel as if it isnfinal flare, you feel as if it isn’’t right, go around. Simplet right, go around. Simpleas that: if it isnas that: if it isn’’t right go”.t right go”.“Going, going, go around “ Budd Davisson AOPA Flight Training Magazine, September 2005

Another Rule of AviationAnother Rule of AviationTreat each approach as though it will conclude with a balkedlanding or missed approach and plan for this outcomeaccordingly.Once you decide to go around forget landing, it is now a takeoff. Plan for it as you would any take off with considerationsfor a potential engine failure, terrain and obstructionclearance, density altitude and other performance factors.One instructor phrased it this way to his students." Knowingwhat to do when its time to go around is necessary, beingprepared to do so is mandatory.

Three Cardinal PrinciplesThree Cardinal PrinciplesThe improper execution of the go around maneuverstems from a lack of familiarity with the three cardinalprinciples of the procedure:Power, Attitude, and Configuration.How do you teach these principles?Airplane Flying Handbook FAA 8083-3A

PowerPowerAirplane Flying Handbook FAA 8083-3APower is the pilot’s first concern.The instant the pilot decides to go around, full ormaximum allowable takeoff power must be appliedsmoothly and without hesitation, and held until flyingspeed and controllability are restored.

AttitudeAttitudeAirplane Flying Handbook FAA 8083-3AAttitude is always critical when close to the ground,and when power is added, a deliberate effort on thepart of the pilot will be required to keep the nose frompitching up prematurely.

ConfigurationConfigurationAirplane Flying Handbook FAA 8083-3AIn cleaning up the airplane during the go-around, thepilot should be concerned first with flaps and secondlywith the landing gear (if retractable).When the decision is made to perform a go-around,takeoff power should be applied immediately and thepitch attitude changed so as to slow or stop thedescent.

ConfigurationConfigurationAirplane Flying Handbook FAA 8083-3AOne other comment when it comes to configuration.There have been some accidents where the pilotexecuted a go-around with full flaps. This action was acontributing factor to an accident.Do you introduce or demonstrate a full flap go-aroundto your students?

What Do You Think?What Do You Think?In the go-around sequence what is the firstobjective?

Consider this thoughtConsider this thoughtOffered by Rich Stowell, MCFI National Flight Instructor of the yearThe first objective is to "stop the descent". Ultimately we want to go fromThe first objective is to "stop the descent". Ultimately we want to go fromdescending to climbing. But it doesnt have to be one-to-the-other, all-or-descending to climbing. But it doesnt have to be one-to-the-other, all-or-nothing in one fell swoop. We want to go-around under control at all times.nothing in one fell swoop. We want to go-around under control at all times.Thus, we could break the go-around into distinct baby steps:Thus, we could break the go-around into distinct baby steps: Add slow flight power and pitch to level slow flight;Add slow flight power and pitch to level slow flight; Add takeoff power and pitch to the appropriate climb attitude.Add takeoff power and pitch to the appropriate climb attitude.The point is that if we are making the decision to go-around sooner ratherThe point is that if we are making the decision to go-around sooner ratherthan later which will allow us plenty of time to stage the go-aroundthan later which will allow us plenty of time to stage the go-aroundsequence and maintain precise control throughout.sequence and maintain precise control throughout.

What Do You Think?What Do You Think?In the go-around sequence "Power - Attitude - Configuration"does "Attitude" always mean "Pull back" to establish the climbattitude?

Consider this thoughtConsider this thoughtOffered by Rich Stowell, MCFI National Flight Instructor of the yearIf we are properly trimmed while at low power setting on theIf we are properly trimmed while at low power setting on theapproach, establishing the proper "Attitude" will likely requireapproach, establishing the proper "Attitude" will likely requireforward elevator pressure as power/slipstream effectsforward elevator pressure as power/slipstream effectsthemselves could over-rotate the nose beyond the requiredthemselves could over-rotate the nose beyond the requiredclimb attitude. So we may actually need forward elevatorclimb attitude. So we may actually need forward elevatorpressure during the go-around until we get to "Configuration --pressure during the go-around until we get to "Configuration --re-trim the aircraft".re-trim the aircraft".

What Do You Think?What Do You Think?In the go-around sequence, where does "Communicate" fall?

Consider this thoughtConsider this thoughtOffered by Rich Stowell, MCFI National Flight Instructor of the yearToo many students/pilots rush to announce "N12345 going around" whenToo many students/pilots rush to announce "N12345 going around" whenthey should be busy Aviating (Power - Attitude - Configuration) andthey should be busy Aviating (Power - Attitude - Configuration) andNavigating (working themselves back up and into the pattern). Fly theNavigating (working themselves back up and into the pattern). Fly theairplane first, dont worry about talking until you have everything elseairplane first, dont worry about talking until you have everything elseyoure supposed to do 100% under control.youre supposed to do 100% under control.Communicating clearly that you are going around is important but it is theCommunicating clearly that you are going around is important but it is thelast priority.last priority. Aviate,Aviate, Navigate,Navigate, CommunicateCommunicate

What Do You Think?What Do You Think?Are there situations where a go-around is not advisable?

Consider this thoughtConsider this thoughtOffered by Rich Stowell, MCFI National Flight Instructor of the yearRare situations, but yes:Rare situations, but yes:One-way back country airstripsOne-way back country airstrips (you must land one way or the(you must land one way or theother -- controlled or crashed -- because going around will killother -- controlled or crashed -- because going around will killyou). Smoke/fire in the cockpit (maybe best to get it on theyou). Smoke/fire in the cockpit (maybe best to get it on theground no matter what)?ground no matter what)?Also another consideration would be when the airplane isAlso another consideration would be when the airplane is ononthe runway and there is a loss of directional control orthe runway and there is a loss of directional control orinadequate speedinadequate speed. There have been accidents where damage. There have been accidents where damageand injury were aggravated by going around.and injury were aggravated by going around.

What Do You Think?What Do You Think?If the go-around is due to other traffic ahead and below (say,someone pulling onto the runway in front of us), whatconsiderations should we give to maneuvering on the upwindleg?

Consider this thoughtConsider this thoughtOffered by Rich Stowell, MCFI National Flight Instructor of the yearOnce the go-around is well and successfully under way,Once the go-around is well and successfully under way,consider offsetting the upwind climb slightly to the upwind sideconsider offsetting the upwind climb slightly to the upwind sideof the runway to improve your ability to see the traffic climbingof the runway to improve your ability to see the traffic climbingout below you. If the airplanes are matched in terms ofout below you. If the airplanes are matched in terms ofperformance, probably not likely that the airplane underneathperformance, probably not likely that the airplane underneathwill catch up, but lets say the go-around airplane is a Cessnawill catch up, but lets say the go-around airplane is a Cessna150 and the traffic that cut you off is a pilot in an Extra 300 who150 and the traffic that cut you off is a pilot in an Extra 300 whohas a penchant for rapid and steep pull-ups. Would want tohas a penchant for rapid and steep pull-ups. Would want tomove over out of the way of THAT!move over out of the way of THAT!

Common ErrorsCommon ErrorsAirplane Flying Handbook FAA 8083-3A• Failure to recognize a condition that warrants ago-around• Indecision• Delay in initiating a go-around• Failure to apply max allowable power in a timelymanner• Abrupt power application

Common ErrorsCommon ErrorsAirplane Flying Handbook FAA 8083-3A• Improper pitch attitude• Failure to configure the airplane appropriately• Attempting to climb out of ground effect prematurely• Failure to adequately compensate for torque andP-factor

Practice Go-AroundsPractice Go-AroundsFeaturing Bob MartensFeaturing Bob MartensThe following is presented as a review of what we haveThe following is presented as a review of what we havebeen discussing and does an excellent job of presentingbeen discussing and does an excellent job of presentingthe case for teaching and practicing the go-around.the case for teaching and practicing the go-around.Courtesy of PilotWorkshops.com ~Pilot’s Tip of the Week January 14, 2011Courtesy of PilotWorkshops.com ~Pilot’s Tip of the Week January 14, 2011

Go-Around ProcedureGo-Around ProcedureFeaturing Bob MartensFeaturing Bob MartensThis discussion is presented as a review of what weThis discussion is presented as a review of what wehave been discussing regarding how we should teachhave been discussing regarding how we should teachthe procedure of going around.the procedure of going around.Courtesy of PilotWorkshops.com ~Pilot’s Tip of the Week January 20, 2011

• Teaching and reinforcing the value of going aroundTeaching and reinforcing the value of going around• Going around is not a weaknessGoing around is not a weakness• Fundamentals of the go-aroundFundamentals of the go-around• Cardinal principles for executing the procedureCardinal principles for executing the procedure• Common errors associated with the procedureCommon errors associated with the procedureSummarySummaryDuring this workshop, we discussed:During this workshop, we discussed:

This presentation would not havebeen possible without the generoushelp and support of the following:Your Forum FacilitatorFAA Safety Teamwww.FAASafety.govSAFEwww.SafePilots.orgGold Seal Flightwww.GoldSealFlight.comPilot Workshopswww.PilotWorkshop.comMichael Phillips, MCFIAviationInstruction.bizCreated February 2011

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