Published on April 25, 2019
1. • α-amino acid used in the biosynthesis of proteins. • Contains α-amino group present in the protonated –NH3+. • Contains α-carboxyll group present in the deprotonated –COO and a side chain carboxylic acid. • It is a non-essential amino acid and can be synthesized by human body.
2. Dr. K. Ikeda (1908 – Japan) isolated glutamic acid from kelp, a marine alga. Also discovered that on neutralization with caustic soda it develops an entirely new, delicious taste. Thus, monosodium glutamate (MSG) is used as a flavor-enhancing compound. Dr. S. Ukada & Dr. S. Kinoshita (1957) isolated a soil-inhabiting gram-positive bacterium, Corynebacterium glutamicum.
3. Micro-organism Investigator Micrococcus glutamicus Kinoshita Brevibacterium divaricatum Su, Yamada Brevibacterium aminogenes Tanaka Brevibacterium flavum Oxumura Microbacterium ammoniaphilum Miai
4. • Carbon source: glucose and sucrose on industrial scale, a hydrochloric acid or sulfuric acid hydrolysate of casava starch is used in place of glucose. • Nitrogen source: the best nitrogen sources are urea, SO , NH4Cl. Urea is used to make the culture alkaline and NH4Cl to make it acidic. • Biotin: acts as a growth factor. And plays key role in glutamic acid accumulation. Best concentration is 2-3 ϒ/L. • Other chemicals: inorganic salts such as KH2PO , K2HPO , MgSO4 , 7H2O, FeSO4 . Some affect the biosynthesis of the amino acid and some act as a buffer in the culture medium.
5. Natural product such as sugar cane is used. The sugar cane is squeezed to make molasses. The heat sterilized raw material and other nutrient are put in the tank of the fermentor. The microorganism (Corynebacterium glutamicum) is added to the fermentation broth. The microbe reacts with sugar to produce glutamic acid. Then, the fermentation broth is acidified and the glutamic acid is crystallized.
6. The glutamic acid crystal is added to the sodium hydroxide solution and converted into monosodium glutamate (MSG). The MSG is cleaned by using active carbon, which has many micro holes on their surface. The clean MSG solution is concentrated by heating and the Mono Sodium Glutamate crystal is formed. The crystal produce are dried with a hot air in a closed system. The crystal is packed in the packaging and ready to be sold.
7. Food Production: As flavor enhancer(to improve flavor). As nutritional supplement. Beverage: As flavor enhancer in soft drink and wine. Cosmetics: As Hair restorer in treatment of Hair Loss. As Wrinkle in preventing aging. Agriculture/Animal Feed: As nutritional supplement in feed additive to enhance nutrition. Other Industries: As intermediate in manufacturing of various organic chemicals.