Published on March 15, 2014
Al-Balqa Applied University Faculty of Agriculture Technology Water Resources and Environmental Management Department Global warming and effects on water resources Presented By : Ahmed Marei Water Resources M.Sc Presentation Title :
Outline • What’s global warming ? • Atmospheric gases • Greenhouse gases and effects • Who are responsible ? • Effects of global warming • Concerns of global warming on water resources
What’s the Global Warming? • The term "global warming" is refer to increases in average temperature of the air and sea at Earth's surface. • Since the early 20th century, the global air and sea surface temperature has increased about 0.8 °C (1.4 °F), with about two-thirds of the increase occurring since 1980. • (IPCC) reported that scientists were more than 90% certain that most of global warming was being caused by increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases “GHGs” produced by human activities.
Note : Global surface temperature in 2013 was +0.6°C (~1.1°F)
Non- Greenhouse Gases 99% Greenhouse Gases ”GHGs” 1% Nitrogen N2 Oxygen O2 1. Water Vapor H2O 3. Methane (CH4) 2. Carbon Dioxide Co2 4. Nitrous Oxide N2O Earth’s Atmospheric Gases 5. CFCs Argon
• Different greenhouse gases have very different heat- trapping abilities. Some of them can even trap more heat than CO2( the most important GHGs). A molecule of methane produces more than 20 times the warming of a molecule of CO2. Nitrous oxide is 300 times more powerful than CO2. chlorofluorocarbons have heat- trapping potential thousands of times greater than CO2. • But because their concentrations are much lower than CO2, none of these gases adds as much warmth to the atmosphere as CO2 does. GHGs Greenhouse Gases
Cont. Green House Gases • The global increases in carbon dioxide concentration are due primarily to fossil fuel use and land use change(ex. Deforestation), while those of methane and nitrous oxide are primarily due to agriculture. • Water vapor, which causes about 36–70% of the greenhouse effect; carbon dioxide (CO2), which causes 9–26%; methane (CH4), which causes 4–9%; and ozone (O3), which causes 3–7%.Clouds also affect the radiation balance through cloud forcing similar to greenhouse gases.
List of countries by 2012 emissions estimates EDGAR (database created by European Commission and Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency) released 2012 estimates. The following table lists the 2012 estimate of annual CO2emissions estimates (in thousands of CO2 tonnes) from these estimates along with a list of emissions per capita (in tonnes of CO2 per year) from same source. Country CO2 emissions Emission per capita World 34,500,000 4.9 China 9,860,000 7.1 United States 5,190,000 16.4 India 1,970,000 1.6 Russia 1,770,000 12.4 Japan 1,320,000 10.4 International transport 1,060,000 - Germany 810,000 9.7 South Korea 640,000 13.0 Canada 560,000 16.0 United Kingdom 490,000 7.7 Mexico 490,000 4.0 Indonesia 490,000 2.0 Saudi Arabia 460,000 16.2 Brazil 460,000 2.3 Australia 430,000 18.8 Iran 410,000 5.3
• The greenhouse effect is the process by which absorption and emission of infrared radiation by gases in a planet's atmosphere warm its lower atmosphere and surface. Effects of Greenhouse Gases
Greenhouse effect schematic showing energy flows between space, the atmosphere, and Earth's surface. Energy exchanges are expressed in watts per square meter (W/m2 ).
• Human influence has been detected in warming of the atmosphere and the ocean, it is extremely likely (95-100%) that human influence has been the dominant cause of the observed warming since the mid-20th century. Who are Responsible?
• Rise in sea levels and a change in the amount and pattern of precipitation. • Expansion of subtropical deserts. • Warming is expected to be strongest in the Arctic, with the continuing retreat of glaciers. • Frequent extreme weather events including heat waves, droughts and heavy rainfall. • Ocean acidification; and species extinctions due to shifting temperature regimes. • Reduced diversity of ecosystems & reducing Biodiversity . • Effects significant to humans include the threat to food security from decreasing crop yields and the loss of habitat from inundation. Effect forms of Global Warming
Concern of Global Warming on Water resources Precipitation amount Precipitation frequency and intensity Evaporation and transpiration Changes in average annual runoff Natural variability Snowpack Coastal zones Water quality Water storage Water demand Concerns of Global Warming on Water Resources
warming of the climate system is unequivocal warming of the climate system is unequivocal
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