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Global warming and its causes

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Information about Global warming and its causes
Science-Technology

Published on June 9, 2009

Author: vision2020AD

Source: authorstream.com

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Protecting our environment from damage(Causes and solution to Global Warming- India Specific) : Protecting our environment from damage(Causes and solution to Global Warming- India Specific) Kishor Jagirdar Managing Director Infopace Management Pvt Ltd Kishorjagirdar@yahoo.co.in Our lakes : Our lakes Dying a slow deathChandigarh's best-known landmark, the Sukhna Lake, is dying a slow death. The water level at Sukhna is receding with each passing day. The depth of the lake has reduced to half of its original size due to accumulation of silt and weeds. Further, the area of the lake beyond 1,200 metres has completely dried up, leaving behind stinking weeds and plantation. Efforts are on to revive this precious wetland which is home to a variety of migratory birds. Our forest : Our forest Desertification towards DelhiDesertification, in other words, is land degradation and is the result of climate change and is not far away from Delhi. Indiscriminate mining in the Aravalli, mainly around Gurgaon and Faridabad, are leading to creeping desertification of areas that were earlier basins for water. Twenty two channels of water were coming from the area and falling into the Yamuna. All these have dried up due to degradation in the Aravalli ecosystem. Now these are only sewer channels. Photo: Reuters Pollution : Pollution Winter pollutionSmog is a combination of various gases with water vapour and dust. The problem is acute in planes of UP and Bihar. During the winter, wind speeds are low and cause the smoke and fog to stagnate, hence pollution levels increase near ground level, right where people are breathing. Heavy smog is greatly decreases ultraviolet radiation. In fact, in the early part of the 20th century, heavy smog in some parts of Europe resulted in the increase in cases of rickets. Pollution : Pollution Reeling under deadly ozoneGround-level ozone forms when pollutants released from gasoline and diesel-powered vehicles and oil-based solvents react with heat and sunlight. The latest CSE analysis finds that Delhi is witnessing an unprecedented ozone build-up. Ozone can kill and make people seriously ill if it increases even for a short duration during the day. Despite the obvious fallout, the Union govt is delaying notification of its draft standards for ozone and other critical pollutants. Photo: Reuters Our rivers : Our rivers Failing Ganga Millions of litres of sewage, industrial and agricultural wastes flows untreated into rivers. Most of the rivers have been degraded to sewage flowing drains. There are serious water quality problems in the towns and villages using these rivers as a source of their water. Despite hundreds of crores of rupees being spent to clean the Ganga, the lifeline of north India, pollution levels in the river have reached septic levels at certain points. Melting of the Himalayas means Ganges will be history in another 150 years and so will all island and coastal habitation within5 miles from the seas : Melting of the Himalayas means Ganges will be history in another 150 years and so will all island and coastal habitation within5 miles from the seas Carbon Dioxide Residing Time : Carbon Dioxide Residing Time 20% left after 250 years 10% left after 2000 years 6% left after 10,000 years The rising Temperature : The rising Temperature Ice age to current interglacial is about 8 degrees C in Antarctica and about half that in the temperate regions. Close to the Danger Zone : Close to the Danger Zone Some Evidences : Some Evidences COAL Fossilized plant remains, mostly 250-300 Million yr oldAbundant Enough to last ~200 years at present rate of use : COAL Fossilized plant remains, mostly 250-300 Million yr oldAbundant Enough to last ~200 years at present rate of use Petroleum, crude oil ,tar , sand, soil shale's Production, transportConsumption : Petroleum, crude oil ,tar , sand, soil shale's Production, transportConsumption El Niño Effect : El Niño Effect Severe oceanic/atmospheric disturbance, every 7-14 yrs (“the child”) Warm surface waters suppress cold, nutrient-rich upwelling of the Humboldt Current ? Fall in the number of plankton Wreaks havoc upon the entire ocean food chain Devastates the fishing industry Slide 15: Complete reversal of the trade winds: torrential rain, flooding, and mudslides to the usually dry coastal areas of Peru and Ecuador. CO2 | NH4 | N20 : CO2 | NH4 | N20 The causes in increase of CO2 : The causes in increase of CO2 The Causes conti… : The Causes conti… Effects of global Warming : Effects of global Warming Global warming can disrupt the migration, hibernation and reproductive cycles of certain types of animals. Plants and animals will find it hard to escape or adjust to the effects of warming because humans occupy so much land. Farmland or cities interrupt the movement of species between habitats. Health & Global Warming : Health & Global Warming Extreme temperatures can directly cause the loss of life (ex: 35,000 people died during heat wave in Europe, Aug‘03.) Warmer weather provides an ideal breeding environment for mosquitoes. Diseases such as West Nile will be more common High temperature can increase pollution of water and air, which harms the human body. Tropical Diseases : Tropical Diseases Global Warming increases drought which lessens the supply of clean drinking water. Cholera It increases temperature providing an ideal breeding environment for mosquitoes. Dengue fever Malaria Yellow fever Impact on Air : Impact on Air The atmosphere’s ultimate fate is unclear. More evaporation ? increase in cloud cover How High Will the Clouds Be? It makes a difference! Clouds close to the earth reflect sunlight ? cooling effect. Clouds high in the atmosphere trap heat ? warming effect. Generally: Cloud cover increases Levels of the greenhouse gas methane may increase Hurricanes range farther north, south on warmer water Impact on Air Conti… : Impact on Air Conti… Collapse of the monsoons in Asia ? severe drought to Indonesia and northern Australia. Severe weather disturbances in other parts of the world, such as droughts in areas of Africa and central North America. Food Crisis : Food Crisis While the teeming population is multiplying the pressure on the land is eminent and there is no alternate for this problem. Humans have encroached upon large forest areas and left them fallow due to chemicals and fertilizers depleting the fertility of the top soil. large scale usage of cultivable land for bio-fuels has created unprecedented food crisis in this century. Annual loss of vegetation cover : Annual loss of vegetation cover In the absence of the forest cover : In the absence of the forest cover The quality of soil : The quality of soil Top 20 Things To Do To Stop Global Warming : Top 20 Things To Do To Stop Global Warming Global Warming is a dramatically urgent and serious problem. We don't need to wait for governments to find a solution for this problem: each individual can bring an important help adopting a more responsible lifestyle: starting from little, everyday things. It's the only reasonable way to save our planet, before it is too late. Here is a list of 20 simple things that everyone can do in order to fight against and reduce the Global Warming phenomenon: some of these ideas are at no cost, some other require a little effort or investment but can help you save a lot of money, in the middle-long term! TIPS : TIPS 1. Replace a regular incandescent light bulb with a compact fluorescent light bulb (cfl) CFLs use 60% less energy than a regular bulb. This simple switch will save about 300 pounds of carbon dioxide a year. 2. Install a programmable thermostat Programmable thermostats will automatically lower the heat or air conditioning at night and raise them again in the morning. They can save you $100 a year on your energy bill. 3. Move your thermostat down 2° in winter and up 2° in summer Almost half of the energy we use in our homes goes to heating and cooling. You could save about 2,000 pounds of carbon dioxide a year with this simple adjustment. TIPS : TIPS 4. Clean or replace filters on your furnace and air conditioner Cleaning a dirty air filter can save 350 pounds of carbon dioxide a year 5. Choose energy efficient appliances when making new purchases Look for the Energy Star label on new appliances to choose the most energy efficient products available. 6. Do not leave appliances on standby Use the "on/off" function on the machine itself. A TV set that's switched on for 3 hours a day and in standby mode during the remaining 21 hours uses about 40% of its energy in standby mode TIPS : TIPS 7. Wrap your water heater in an insulation blanket You’ll save 1,000 pounds of carbon dioxide a year with this simple action. You can save another 550 pounds per year by setting the thermostat no higher than 50°C. 8. Move your fridge and freezer Placing them next to the cooker or boiler consumes much more energy than if they were standing on their own. For example, if you put them in a hot cellar room where the room temperature is 30-35ºC, energy use is almost double and causes an extra 160kg of CO2 emissions for fridges per year and 320kg for freezers. TIPS : TIPS 9. Defrost old fridges and freezers regularly Even better is to replace them with newer models, which all have automatic defrost cycles and are generally up to two times more energy-efficient than their predecessors 10. Don't let heat escape from your house over a long period When airing your house, open the windows for only a few minutes. If you leave a small opening all day long, the energy needed to keep it warm inside during six cold months (10ºC or less outside temperature) would result in almost 1 ton of CO2 emissions TIPS : TIPS 11. Replace your old single-glazed windows with double-glazing This requires a bit of upfront investment, but will halve the energy lost through windows and pay off in the long term. If you go for the best the market has to offer (wooden-framed double-glazed units with low-emission glass and filled with argon gas), you can even save more than 70% of the energy lost. 12. Get a home energy audit Many utilities offer free home energy audits to find where your home is poorly insulated or energy inefficient. You can save up to 30% off your energy bill and 1,000 pounds of carbon dioxide a year. Energy Star can help you find an energy specialist. TIPS : TIPS 13. Cover your pots while cooking Doing so can save a lot of the energy needed for preparing the dish. Even better are pressure cookers and steamers: they can save around 70%! 14. Use the washing machine or dishwasher only when they are full If you need to use it when it is half full, then use the half-load or economy setting. There is also no need to set the temperatures high. Nowadays detergents are so efficient that they get your clothes and dishes clean at low temperatures TIPS : TIPS 15. Take a shower instead of a bath A shower takes up to four times less energy than a bath. To maximise the energy saving, avoid power showers and use low-flow showerheads, which are cheap and provide the same comfort. 16. Use less hot water It takes a lot of energy to heat water. You can use less hot water by installing a low flow showerhead (350 pounds of carbon dioxide saved per year) and washing your clothes in cold or warm water (500 pounds saved per year) instead of hot. TIPS : TIPS 17. Use a clothesline instead of a dryer whenever possible You can save 700 pounds of carbon dioxide when you air dry your clothes for 6 months out of the year. 18. Insulate and weatherize your home Properly insulating your walls and ceilings can save 25% of your home heating bill and 2,000 pounds of carbon dioxide a year. Caulking and weather-stripping can save another 1,700 pounds per year. Energy Efficient has more information on how to better insulate your home. TIPS : TIPS 19. Be sure you’re recycling at home You can save 2,400 pounds of carbon dioxide a year by recycling half of the waste your household generates. 20. Recycle your organic waste Around 3% of the greenhouse gas emissions through the methane is released by decomposing bio-degradable waste. By recycling organic waste or composting it if you have a garden, you can help eliminate this problem! Just make sure that you compost it properly, so it decomposes with sufficient oxygen, otherwise your compost will cause methane emissions and smell foul. Measures to be taken as an individual in India to stop global warming : Measures to be taken as an individual in India to stop global warming Boycott Firecrackers Boycott over indulgence of lighting system Report to the authorities on water pipe damage and be persistent on its maintenance Demand paper bags at Supermarkets and shopping malls instead of plastic. Use water frugally Adopt trees around your home and take care and plant 2 more. Never leave plastic waste at picnic spots TIPS : TIPS Drive less aggressively -- don't accelerate and brake rapidly.• Drive the speed limit.• Keep the tires on your car adequately inflated. Check them monthly.• Drive 10 miles less per week. Develop the habit of using public transport and car pool • Recycle all steel ("tin") cans, aluminum cans, and glass containers.• Recycle all aluminum cans in your garbage.• Recycle all glass containers in your garbage.• Use a washable mug for your morning coffee instead of a Styrofoam cup. TIPS : TIPS • Get a reusable water bottle instead of disposables.• Use washable plates and utensils for takeout dinners and parties instead of paper and plastic goods.• Turn out the light when you leave the room.• Run the clothes washer with only full loads.• Wash your clothes in cold water.• Clean or replace dirty air-conditioner filters every three months.• Replace old windows with double-pane windows Encourage buying organic food and grow legumes and vegetables around your home Before buying anything ask yourself how eco-friendly it is The 3R mantra : The 3R mantra Reduce, Reuse, Recycle!

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