Published on February 21, 2014
Wilson throws out the ceremonial 1st pitch at the Washington Senators home opener in April of 1916
Fourteen Points Wilson’s Plan to make the world “safe for every peace-loving nation which, like our own, wishes to live its own life, determine its own institutions, be assured of justice and fair dealing by the other peoples of the world as against force and selfish aggression”. http://www.historyplace.com/speeches/wilson-points.h
Wilson’s Proposal Fourteen Points—Introduced to Congress in January of 1918 Diplomacy over aggression Maintaining peace Self-determination
Paris Peace Conference January of 1919 U.S. delegation=President Wilson & all Democrats, but one Republican Big Four: 1. David Lloyd George=Great Britain 2. Georges Clemenceau=France 3. Vittorio Orlando=Italy 4. Woodrow Wilson=U.S. *see picture on p. 438
Paris Peace Conference Russia was absent; in midst of civil war Germany was not invited Clemenceau, George & Orlando hoped to make Central Powers pay for causing the war Wilson hoped to make peace & secure stability Wilson was forced to compromise on his 14 Points; esp. on self-determination Allies hoped to continue to build empires
League of Nations Proposed by Wilson Nations of the world would join together to ensure security & peace for all members Introduced at Paris Peace, but had to be approved by Republican-controlled Congress Article 10—An attack on one member would be considered an attack on all members Rejected by Congress
This cartoon shows one view of Wilson & the LON. Note that Wilson is dipping his bubble pipe into a bowl of “ideals.” Why did some criticize the LON as being too idealistic?
Versailles Treaty Peace talks resumed in March of 1919 Clemenceau demanded harsh penalties for Germany Wilson feared harsh demands would lead to future wars 9 new territories created out of Austria-Hungary, Germany, & Russia Compare map on p. 415 to map on p. 440 New boundaries did not support Wilson’s self- determination; ethnic tensions continued
Versailles Treaty The Ottoman Empire was shrunk into Turkey British took control of Palestine, Transjordan, & Israel France took control of Syria & Lebanon Italy gained less territory than it hoped for; b/c of this Orlando had to resign as prime minister
Versailles Treaty Germany initially refused to sign it; but gave in when France threatened to attack Signed/finalized on June 28, 1919
The signing of the Treaty of Versailles in the Hall of Mirrors
Reactions to Versailles Treaty Much negative response to League of Nations Wilson toured U.S. in hopes of gaining popular support for LON After he suffered a stroke; he remained isolated from his Cabinet for the rest of his term Wife, Edith, took over many duties Congress rejected the LON & the Versailles Treaty Opposition led by Republican Henry Cabot Lodge
What is happening to Uncle Sam? What message do you think the author is trying to convey?
Edith & Woodrow Wilson in 1920 Edith holds the paper steady b/c her husband’s left side had been paralyzed.
Peace w/ Germany President Harding signed a resolution to end war with Germany in 1921 Made treaties with Austria and Hungary in 1921
America as Creditor U.S. became a bank for the world War hurt economies of many European nations, especially Britain US had an opportunity to take control of the economics in the world, but focused on domestic issues
Servicemen Are Coming Back 4,000 a day were being released from service What to do with them? No plan! Jobs were scarce Women moved back to work in the home Black soldiers treated poorly upon return Feeling of gloom in US after WWI