Global History 2005 TV

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Published on October 21, 2007

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Global History and Geography Regents 2005:  Global History and Geography Regents 2005 Susan E. Hamilton Global History & Geography:  Global History & Geography Introduction & Overview of Program Test Structure Study & Test-taking Strategies Thematic Essay Review Final Tips Test Structure:  Test Structure 50 multiple choice questions on ninth and tenth grade material One thematic essay on broad topic Several short answer document-based questions One essay based on the documents How to Study for the Regents:  How to Study for the Regents Identify your strengths and weaknesses and focus on your weaknesses Know how you learn Break up study sessions in small chunks of time make yourself accountable - have someone quiz you Multiple choice Questions:  Multiple choice Questions General social studies/vocabulary speaker/quotation maps/political cartoon/graphs/charts fact/opinion cause/effect trend/global issues outline/main ideas chronological order Multiple choice strategies :  Multiple choice strategies Read the question carefully. If it is unclear “translate” it (change vocabulary) Use word association to make connections between key words and what you know If possible, determine whether the question is asking for a positive or negative answer Go with what you know Use process of elimination Check your answers Positive Global Events/Ideas:  Positive Global Events/Ideas Pax Romana Magna Carta Enlightenment Renaissance Scientific Revolution Universal Declaration of Human Rights detente Glasnost Negative Global Events/Ideas:  Negative Global Events/Ideas Absolutism/ totalitarianism/ fascism Armenian Massacre/Holocaust/Cambodian genocide/ ethnic cleansing in Bosnia/ Rwandan genocide Mao’s Great Leap Forward & Cultural Revolution collectivization apartheid Vocabulary translations :  Vocabulary translations Westernize=modernize=industrialize independence=self-determination = nationalism =autonomy= sovereignty traditional = before industrialization mercantilism=favorable balance of trade imperialism = colonialism imperial power = mother country, colonial power Marxist socialism = communism/Marxism bourgeoisie = middle class capitalism= free market, supply and demand Thematic Essay Strategies:  Thematic Essay Strategies Study key global and geography themes Read the task and be sure you understand what is being asked. Brainstorm ideas using word association. Think: Who? What? Where? When? Why? How? Make a chart or graphic organizer using the information provided Write your essay based on your chart Reread your essay and add any additional relevant information Document-based Questions:  Document-based Questions Always read the question before you read the document. As you read the document, underline the answer Answer ALL the document questions using information from the document Document-based Essay Tips:  Document-based Essay Tips Brainstorm using word association. It is VERY IMPORTANT to include information relating to the topic beyond the information found in the documents. Think: Who? What? Where? When? Why? How? Make a chart or graphic organizer using the information provided Make sure that you use and cite the required number of documents. Keep in mind documents are meant to support your position. Be sure you have included outside information(you may wish to underline this) Geography & Its Effects:  Geography & Its Effects Natural resources: iron ore & coal in Britain > Industrial Revolution, diamonds in S.Africa, gold in Latin America Rivers: early civilizations emerge; Nile River in Egypt, Fertile Crescent Water sources: Middle East and Russia Island status: Japan’s isolation & limited natural resources - imperialism & industrialization, Great Britain- strength of navy, ports, WWII Slide14:  Monsoons: “feast or famine” of South Asia, Green Revolution Irregular coastline: Italy has many natural ports, inviting trade & Renaissance, England Land Bridge: Korea serves as a cultural bridge between Japan and China Great Eurasian Plain: allowed easy invasions of Poland and USSR (WWII) Geography & Its Effects Slide15:  Enormous size of Russia: frequent invasion, difficult to conquer, quest for warm-water ports Harsh winter: Russia’s “General Winter” helped defeat Napoleon and Hitler Smooth(regular) coastlines & unnavigable rivers in Africa: delay European imperialism Location of Middle East: cultural diffusion and conflict over Holy Land Oil resources: Iraq takeover of Kuwait, OPEC Geography & Its Effects Global Problems:  Global Problems Know location, causes, effects and possible solutions overpopulation deforestation desertification status of women nuclear proliferation pollution/global warming/depletion of resources urbanization famine terrorism Turning Points:  Turning Points Just about any revolution can be a turning point in a nation’s history Others include: Signing of Magna Carta (1215) Fall of Constantinople (1453) Voyages of Columbus (1492) Collapse of Soviet Union (1990) End of apartheid in South Africa (1990) Political Systems:  Political Systems Democracy: gov’t by the consent of the people, protection of individual rights Direct: Athens Indirect: Rome Parliamentary: Britain & India Word association: Pericles, John Locke, Enlightenment Political Systems:  Communism: government control of economy(command), “classless” society Russia/Soviet Union, V.I. Lenin, Stalin: 1917-1990 China, Mao Zedong, Deng Xiaoping: 1949 Cuba, Fidel Castro:1959 Vietnam: Ho Chi Minh: 1975 Cambodia: Pol Pot North Korea: Kim Jong Il Political Systems Political Systems:  Totalitarianism/Authoritarian (Stalin) Fascist (Hitler, Mussolini) Theocracy/Religious rule (Ayatollah Khomeini:Iran, Taliban/Afghanistan) Oppressive dictator (Saddam Hussein) Autocratic (Czars of Russia) Absolute rule/divine right (King Louis XIV and Louis XVI) Feudalism: local control/strict social system/lord Political Systems Religion & Philosophies:  Religion & Philosophies Hinduism India Sacred text: Vedas &Upanishads Basic beliefs: several gods, caste system, reincarnation, karma, dharma, sacred cow Impact: caste system remains strong in rural areas but is weakening in cities, many Hindus are vegetarians (Sepoy Mutiny) Religion & Philosophies:  Buddhism Southeast Asia Basic beliefs: reincarnation, nirvana, Four Nobel Truths life is full of suffering suffering is caused by a desire for things suffering can be eliminated by eliminating desire following the Eightfold Path will help overcome desire (right thinking and action) Religion & Philosophies Religion & Philosophies:  Judaism Israel, created in 1948 Holy Book: Torah Three beliefs: monotheistic, God gave Hebrews the land of Canaan (Israel), 10 Commandments Spread throughout world as a result of Diaspora Impact: Zionism (Jewish nationalism), conflict in the Middle East Religion & Philosophies Religion & Philosophies:  Christianity Western Europe, Latin America (Catholic) Holy Book: Bible Three beliefs: monotheistic, Jesus Christ as savior, 10 Commandments Spread through Age of Imperialism (White Man’s Burden) Impact: Crusades, dominant institution during the Middle Ages, Protestant Reformation (Martin Luther) Religion & Philosophies Religion & Philosophies:  Islam Middle East (except Israel), Indonesia Holy Book: Quran (Koran) Three beliefs: monotheistic, Five Pillars (faith, prayer, charity, fasting, pilgrimage to Mecca), Sharia (Islamic laws) Spread through trade and conquest Impact: Islamic fundementalism in Iran (1979) Religion & Philosophies Religion & Philosophies:  Confucianism China Basic beliefs: Five Basic Human Relationships, education should be the road to advancement, filial piety (respect for family) Impact: provides social order and encourages education Religion & Philosophies Revolutions:  Revolutions Neolithic Revolution:FROM nomadic tribes TO domestication of animals and farming giving rise to early civilizations Commercial Revolution:FROM limited trade based on barter TO urban centers and new middle class leading to changes in business practices(mercantilism & capitalism) Scientific Revolution: FROM medieval thinking TO use of observation and reason Revolutions:  Glorious Revolution: FROM absolutist policies of James II TO William and Mary signing of Bill of Rights limiting power of the monarchy in Great Britain French Revolution: FROM absolute monarchy of Louis XVI TO democratic ideals of Enlightenment Industrial Revolution: FROM cottage industry (goods made at home by hand) TO factory system, women working, higher standard of living, reform movement Revolutions Revolutions:  Russian Revolution: FROM Czarist autocratic rule of Nicholas II TO communist rule under Lenin Chinese Revolution:FROM warlord control and civil war with Nationalists TO communist rule under Mao Zedong (supported by peasants) Iranian Revolution:FROM western rule of Shah Reza Pahlevi TO Islamic Fundementalist rule of Ayatollah Khomeini Green Revolution: FROM limited crop yield TO double crop yield in South/Southeast Asia Revolutions Chronological Events:  Chronological Events EUROPE: Ancient Greece & Roman Empire > Roman Empire fall> splits > east = Byzantine Empire (thrives from trade) and west = Dark Ages/feudalism> Crusades > rise of trade > Renaissance/Reformation >Age of Exploration > Commercial Revolution > Absolute kings > Enlightenment > French Revolution > Industrial Revolution > Age of Imperialism > WWI & WWII > independence movements in colonies > Cold War > fall of USSR> EU More chronological events:  More chronological events Africa:Early kingdoms (Ghana, Mali Songhai) > Transatlantic Slave Trade > scramble for Africa by European nations > demands for independence after WWII (Nkrumah & Kenyatta) > tribalism lingers > trend toward democratic nations India: Mughal Empire (Akbar) > British rule > Gandhi’s independence movement > partitioning (India & Pakistan) > lingering tensions More chronological events :  More chronological events Japan: Chinese influence > feudal period (Tokugawa Shogunate) > Mathew Perry visits > Meiji Restoration(westernization) > imperialism (raw materials) > WWII > democratic economic superpower China: Early dynasties > Opium War > Spheres of Influence > Boxer Rebellion > Civil War> Communist Revolution (1949 - Mao) >Great Leap Forward/ Cultural Revolution > Deng’s economic reforms (1980s) > calls for democratic reforms > Tiananmen Square massacre More chronological events :  More chronological events Russia: harsh autocratic rule under czars > 1917 Bolshevik Revolution (Lenin) > Stalin’s totalitarian rule> WWII > Cold War > Gorbachev’s Glasnost & Perestroika > Collapse of Soviet Union> democracy & free market Latin America: Spanish conquest > harsh rule (encomienda system)> Slave trade > nationalist movements> military dictatorships> democratic trend More chronological events :  Middle East: River Valley Civilizations > Byzantine Empire > Golden Rule of Islamic Rule > Crusades Rise & Fall of Ottoman Empire Turkey modernizes (Ataturk) Arab-Israeli conflict (Zionism > Holocaust > wars > PLO > Camp David Accords > Intifada > conflict continues Shah overthrown> Iranian Revolution (1979) > Islamic fundementalist state> war with Iraq/conflict with US Saddam Hussein invaded Kuwait >Gulf War Taliban in Afghanistan overthrown by US More chronological events Key People:  Key People Nationalists Communists Women Supporters of Westernization Religious leaders Ruthless Leaders Enlightened thinkers others Nationalists:  Nationalists Simon Bolivar, Toussaint L’Overture Latin America: Jose de San Martin Italy: Cavour, Mazzini, Garabaldi India: Mohandas Gandhi Africa: Kenyatta(Kenya), Nkruma(Ghana) China: Sun Yat-sen, Chiang Kai-shek Middle East: Arafat (Palestine), Ben-Gurion (Israel - Zionist) Communists:  Communists Karl Marx (Marxist/ Marxist Socialism/ communism) V.I. Lenin (Russia/U.S.S.R.) Joseph Stalin (Soviet Union) Fidel Castro (Cuba) Mao Zedong, Deng Xiaoping (China) Ho Chi Mihn (Vietnam) Kim Jong Ill (North Korea) Women:  Women World Leaders: Indira Gandhi (India), Benazar Bhutto (Pakistan), Golda Meir (Israel), Margaret Thatcher (Great Britain) Humanitarian Concerns: Mother Tereasa (India), Aung Su (Myanmar), Rigoberta Menchu (Guatamala) Enlightened thinker: Mary Wollstonecraft Supporters of Westernization:  Supporters of Westernization Russia: Catherine the Great, Peter the Great Iran: Shah Rezi Pahlevi Turkey: Kemel Aturk Japan: Emperor Meiji Religious leaders:  Religious leaders Martin Luther Goal: to reform Roman Catholic Church Action: posted 95 Thesis, believed in faith alone for salvation Reformation shattered religious unity in Europe Religious leaders:  Religious leaders Ayatollah Khomeini Goal: remove Shah Reza Pahlavi and western influence and replace it with an Islamic Fundementalist state Impact: Iranian Islamic Revolution in 1979. Government required strict adherence to Islamic law and enacted anti-western policies, held American hostages for over one year, women lost rights Ruthless Leaders:  Ruthless Leaders Adolf Hitler (Germany) Pol Pot (Cambodia) Slobadon Milosevic (Serbia) Mao Zedong (China) Joseph Stalin (Soviet Union) Enlightened Thinkers:  Enlightened Thinkers John Locke Rousseau Voltaire Mary Wollstonecraft Montesquieu Other Key People:  Other Key People Adam Smith: wrote The Wealth of Nations advocating laissez-faire capitalism (gov’t leaves businesses alone) Machiavelli: wrote The Prince, a handbook for rulers, “the ends justify the means” & “it is better to be feared than loved” Nelson Mandela: first black South African president, fought against apartheid Economic Systems:  Economic Systems Traditional: based on barter (trade) Manorialism:feudal manors (self-sufficient) Mercantilism: export more than import, led to imperialism Free market/ Laissez-faire capitalism: based on profit, private ownership, little gov’t interference Command/ communism/ Marxist socialism: gov’t makes all economic decisions, no private ownership Human Rights Violations:  Human Rights Violations Denial of basic political, economic and social rights to which all humans are entitiled Jews in Middle Ages/pogroms in Russia/Holocaust Apartheid: blacks in South Africa Untouchables in India Students in China (Cultural Rev./Tiananmen Square) Dissidents under Stalin & other communist leaders Urban population in Cambodia (Khmer Rouge) Tutsies in Rwanda Muslims in Bosnia Women under Taliban rule Early Civilization Contributions:  Early Civilization Contributions Mesopotamia: legal system, wheel, irrigation, cuniform (Sumerian writing) Egypt: hieroglyphics, medicine, architecture Phoenicians: alphabet China:silk-making, gunpowder Hebrews:monotheism, Ten Commandments Muslims:algebra, astronomy, medicine Gupta: zero, decimal, Arabic numerals Rome: law, aqueducts, architecture Mauryan: spread of Buddhism, organized government Organizations & Groups:  Organizations & Groups European Union (EU) a growing group made up of European nations. Its goal is to expand free trade (no tariffs). Use euro. Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO)Its goal is to create an independent state in Palestine (conflict with Israel) Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) Its goal is to control the oil industry by setting production levels & prices. United Nations (UN) Its goals are to promote global peace and encourage economic and social well-being. More organizations :  More organizations North Atlantic Treaty Organization(NATO): a growing military alliance between democratic nations (former communist nations) Warsaw Pact: a counter military alliance made up of the Soviet Union and its satellite nations (Cold War) North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA): its goal is to promote free trade between US, Canada and Mexico (pros and cons) Nationalism:  Nationalism Devotion to one’s nation’s independence Groups seeking independence Chechyns in Russia Tibetans in China Kurds in Iraq Albanians in Kosovo Palestinians in Palestine Imperialism:  Imperialism Taking over a territory for raw materials, markets, power and prestige NEGATIVE: treated natives as inferior, exploited natural resources, forced labor POSITIVE: brought technology, medicine and infrastructure AFRICA: Berlin Conference, Scramble for Africa, MauMau Uprising, lingering conflict CHINA: Opium War, spheres of influence, Boxer Rebellion INDIA: British East India CO., Sepoys, Gandhi Cold War Events:  Cold War Events War of tensions between United States and Soviet Union (1945-1990), fear of spreading communism Containment/ Marshall Plan Berlin Blockade NATO & Warsaw Pact: collective security Berlin Wall Bay of Pigs & Cuban Missile Crisis Korean War and Vietnam War Final Words:  Final Words Know you can do this. Prepare using effective studying strategies Eat before the exam Bring pens with you to the exam Relax and do the best you can Look at the essays first and brainstorm Best of luck on the Regents!

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