Global Electrical Safety

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Information about Global Electrical Safety

Published on June 15, 2008

Author: guest81e1c7

Source: slideshare.net

Global Developments in Electrical Safety P.G. Sreejith E-Mail: pillai_sreejith@hotmail.com

Electrical Accidents-Statistics India Almost 12 people die due to electrocution every day (Source -NCRB) 42 % of total fires occur due to electrical sources (Source -OISD) 8% deaths that occur in factories are due to electricity

India

Almost 12 people die due to electrocution every day (Source -NCRB)

42 % of total fires occur due to electrical sources (Source -OISD)

8% deaths that occur in factories are due to electricity

Electrical Accidents-Statistics United States 25% of all fires occur due to electricity 411 deaths from job related electrical accidents per year (NIOSH) Electrocution - the fifth leading cause of death (1982 - 1990) NIOSH

United States

25% of all fires occur due to electricity

411 deaths from job related electrical accidents per year (NIOSH)

Electrocution - the fifth leading cause of death (1982 - 1990) NIOSH

Present Status - ES-India ES Awareness is slowly growing Use of HRCs /RCCBs is the rise, finer details are yet to be understood by many More ES workshops / seminars are conducted in India Statutory regulations are enforced strictly (Karnataka, Delhi - Use of RCCBs mandatory in residential buildings) Many industries are re-aligning their Electrical practices based on international standards (NFPA, IEEE, etc.)

ES Awareness is slowly growing

Use of HRCs /RCCBs is the rise, finer details are yet to be understood by many

More ES workshops / seminars are conducted in India

Statutory regulations are enforced strictly (Karnataka, Delhi - Use of RCCBs mandatory in residential buildings)

Many industries are re-aligning their Electrical practices based on international standards (NFPA, IEEE, etc.)

Various ES Standards / organizations-US NFPA - NEC ( 1897 ) NESC ( 1913 ), from IEEE NIOSH (Research example: development of voltage detector that will signal the person if he gets close to live power)- 1970 OSHA ( 1970 ) NFPA 70 E & B ( 1979 ) -approved by OSHA Electrical Trauma Centre, Chicago ( 1990 ) NESF( 1994 ), by UL, NFPA, NEMA, CPSC

NFPA - NEC ( 1897 )

NESC ( 1913 ), from IEEE

NIOSH (Research example: development of voltage detector that will signal the person if he gets close to live power)- 1970

OSHA ( 1970 )

NFPA 70 E & B ( 1979 ) -approved by OSHA

Electrical Trauma Centre, Chicago ( 1990 )

NESF( 1994 ), by UL, NFPA, NEMA, CPSC

Global Developments in Electrical Safety Electrical Safety Products ES Auditing Techniques ES System Certifications Electrical Risk-Based Maintenance System Electrical RM Programme

Electrical Safety Products

ES Auditing Techniques

ES System Certifications

Electrical Risk-Based Maintenance System

Electrical RM Programme

ES Products... Residual Current-Operated Circuit Breakers (RCCBs) Arc Fault Current Interrupters (AFCIs) Glowing Connection Detector (GCDs) Infra-Red Hotspot Detection Tool Thermography Surveys

Residual Current-Operated Circuit Breakers (RCCBs)

Arc Fault Current Interrupters (AFCIs)

Glowing Connection Detector (GCDs)

Infra-Red Hotspot Detection Tool

Thermography Surveys

ES Products Automatic Defibrillators Complete Home ES Kit Automatic Fire Detection & Extinguishing System Electrical Product Safety Recalls Linear Heat Sensing Cables (LHSC)

Automatic Defibrillators

Complete Home ES Kit

Automatic Fire Detection & Extinguishing System

Electrical Product Safety Recalls

Linear Heat Sensing Cables (LHSC)

GFCIs & RCCBs GFCIs - 5 mA, RCCBs - 30, 100, 300 mA Delayed tripping RCCBs (200 mS)

GFCIs - 5 mA, RCCBs - 30, 100, 300 mA

Delayed tripping RCCBs (200 mS)

AFCIs Arcs - temperatures up to 20,000 degree C, Sun’s outer temperature- 5000 degree C No material on earth can withstand arc temperature RCCBs cannot detect arcing faults AFCIs - the innovative ES device after RCCBs AFCIs detects arcing waveforms and trips AFCIs - mandatory in all US homes from 2002 January onwards

Arcs - temperatures up to 20,000 degree C, Sun’s outer temperature- 5000 degree C

No material on earth can withstand arc temperature

RCCBs cannot detect arcing faults

AFCIs - the innovative ES device after RCCBs

AFCIs detects arcing waveforms and trips

AFCIs - mandatory in all US homes from 2002 January onwards

Arcing types

Arcing Waveforms A loose wire at one terminal of a light bulb. Arcing generated by a loose wire at a screw terminal.

GCDs GCs are fires waiting to happen Loose connections at socket terminals will cause glowing connections Use of GCDs- recommended by Forensic engineers Glowing connections -will not detected by fuses, MCBs, RCCBs, AFCIs GCDs operate at 83 degree C Glowing connection hazards were detected by a UL study

GCs are fires waiting to happen

Loose connections at socket terminals will cause glowing connections

Use of GCDs- recommended by Forensic engineers

Glowing connections -will not detected by fuses, MCBs, RCCBs, AFCIs

GCDs operate at 83 degree C

Glowing connection hazards were detected by a UL study

Infra-Red Hotspot Detector Used as part of effective EPM Hotspot surveys on critical, high capacity motor terminations, measurement of continuously running critical motors Uses infra-red technology, with laser sighting Does not penetrate glass, plastic Interpretation of readings - very critical

Used as part of effective EPM

Hotspot surveys on critical, high capacity motor terminations, measurement of continuously running critical motors

Uses infra-red technology, with laser sighting

Does not penetrate glass, plastic

Interpretation of readings - very critical

HFFR Cables Halogen-Free Fire Retardant cables Emits very low smoke, compared to PVC & even FRLS cables Increasingly Used by many instead of FRLS (Fire Retardant low Smoke) cables

Halogen-Free Fire Retardant cables

Emits very low smoke, compared to PVC & even FRLS cables

Increasingly Used by many instead of FRLS (Fire Retardant low Smoke) cables

Thermography Surveys Part of predictive maintenance In the De-Terrified scenario, may be offered by general insurance companies Identification of potential survey points / equipment and interpretation - very crucial NFPA 70 E recommends Thermographic surveys

Part of predictive maintenance

In the De-Terrified scenario, may be offered by general insurance companies

Identification of potential survey points / equipment and interpretation - very crucial

NFPA 70 E recommends Thermographic surveys

Automatic External Defibrillators (AED) 250,000 deaths every year due to sudden cardiac arrest AEDs - to be part of Emergency Medical Kit For every minute that passes w/o defibrillation, the chances of survival decreases by 10% Has a voice prompt, cost USD 3000/- UK - not a legal requirement, but a Statutory requirement in US No legal liability for deaths involving the use of AEDs

250,000 deaths every year due to sudden cardiac arrest

AEDs - to be part of Emergency Medical Kit

For every minute that passes w/o defibrillation, the chances of survival decreases by 10%

Has a voice prompt, cost USD 3000/-

UK - not a legal requirement, but a Statutory requirement in US

No legal liability for deaths involving the use of AEDs

Linear Heat Sensing Cables Advantageous than detectors, more effective LHSC applications: Cable trays in cable galleries Transformers Switch gears

Advantageous than detectors, more effective

LHSC applications:

Cable trays in cable galleries

Transformers

Switch gears

Automatic Fire D&E System Fire Trace - local flooding application inside electrical switch gears / power panels- detects heat and the heat -sensitive tube punctures, letting out Ozone-friendly fire extinguishing gas

More ES Products Non-Contact type voltage detector (magnetic field) Plug-In Wiring Checker (detects 14 wiring defects, ideal for testing sockets, BS 1363, faulty N, missing E, reverse P& N) Videoscanner, Metalliscanner (detects metallic pipes, conduits, rebar, within 15” concrete)

Non-Contact type voltage detector (magnetic field)

Plug-In Wiring Checker (detects 14 wiring defects, ideal for testing sockets, BS 1363, faulty N, missing E, reverse P& N)

Videoscanner, Metalliscanner (detects metallic pipes, conduits, rebar, within 15” concrete)

Home ES Kit Cutler Hammer, USA offers Home Safety kit, comprising of: Surge protector GFCI AFCI MCBs

Cutler Hammer, USA offers Home Safety kit, comprising of:

Surge protector

GFCI

AFCI

MCBs

Electrical Product Safety Recalls Part of product liability Electrical products recalled: Power tool battery packs (defective battery fixings) Building Wire (wrong earth wire identification) IBM 15” PC monitor( overheating of electrical components resulting in smoke) 3 pin plugs (improper earth connection)

Part of product liability

Electrical products recalled:

Power tool battery packs (defective battery fixings)

Building Wire (wrong earth wire identification)

IBM 15” PC monitor( overheating of electrical components resulting in smoke)

3 pin plugs (improper earth connection)

ES Auditing Techniques Electrical Risk Assessment using Semi-Quantitative Risk Ranking (SQRR) technique Usage of software to carry out Lightning Risk Assessment, Hazardous Area Classification Electrical HAZOP (Electrical Hazard & Operability) studies Electrical Hazard Spotting Exercises

Electrical Risk Assessment using Semi-Quantitative Risk Ranking (SQRR) technique

Usage of software to carry out Lightning Risk Assessment, Hazardous Area Classification

Electrical HAZOP (Electrical Hazard & Operability) studies

Electrical Hazard Spotting Exercises

Electrical Risk Assessment (SQRR Technique) Risk Ranking based on severity, probability High Risk - Statutory Non-compliance, F&E hazards, Shock hazards, Risks that could result in immediate threat to life & property. Immediate correction Medium Risk - Maintenance flaws,Operational issues-correction at the next available opportunity . Low Risk - Mainly improvement measures, long term implementation

ES System Certification Integrated Occupational Health & Safety Management System certification (OHSAS 18001) ATEX Certification (applicable to manufacturers / user industries, applicable in EU, mandatory by July 2003) UL certification for Lightning Protection (based on NFPA 780 standard) Electrical Fires & Forensic Investigations

Integrated Occupational Health & Safety Management System certification (OHSAS 18001)

ATEX Certification (applicable to manufacturers / user industries, applicable in EU, mandatory by July 2003)

UL certification for Lightning Protection (based on NFPA 780 standard)

Electrical Fires & Forensic Investigations

Electrical Fires & Forensic Investigations Forensic studies are commissioned by insurance companies in Japan, US, etc. Product liability claims Reconstruction of electrical fires Major electrical equipment failures (MBD) Investigation of Transformer fires Bus duct failures

Forensic studies are commissioned by insurance companies in Japan, US, etc.

Product liability claims

Reconstruction of electrical fires

Major electrical equipment failures (MBD)

Investigation of Transformer fires

Bus duct failures

Electrical Risk- Based Maintenance Risk & Reliability based Maintenance Schedules Re-Aligning the Electrical Systems in Line with Specialized International Standards to Improve electrical Safety (IEEE, NFPA 70B) Usage of Tools / Condition Monitoring Methods to have Effective Predictive Maintenance System

Risk & Reliability based Maintenance Schedules

Re-Aligning the Electrical Systems in Line with Specialized International Standards to Improve electrical Safety (IEEE, NFPA 70B)

Usage of Tools / Condition Monitoring Methods to have Effective Predictive Maintenance System

Lightning -Common Myths Lightning strikes only the tall objects/ structures Lightning does not strike the same object twice You are safe inside a metal bodied car during lightning!

Lightning strikes only the tall objects/ structures

Lightning does not strike the same object twice

You are safe inside a metal bodied car during lightning!

Electrical Risk Management Programme Identification of electrical hazards Risk Ranking (SQRR of electrical risks) Risk Mitigation / Control using ALARP (As Low As Reasonably Practicable) principle Continuous electrical hazard identification

Identification of electrical hazards

Risk Ranking (SQRR of electrical risks)

Risk Mitigation / Control using ALARP (As Low As Reasonably Practicable) principle

HAC Risk Assessment Extension to the existing HAC approach Would be part of future European legislation Presence of ignition sources considered in HAC With this new HAC approach, the equipment optimization is expected to increase

Extension to the existing HAC approach

Would be part of future European legislation

Presence of ignition sources considered in HAC

With this new HAC approach, the equipment optimization is expected to increase

New HAC-based Risk Assessment Matrix

Risk-Based ES Audit Electrical Safety Audits focussed on potential risks The audit methodology designed to identify all potential electrical risks (FTA, ETA, HAZOP, etc.) Semi-Quantification of events using available failure data

Electrical Safety Audits focussed on potential risks

The audit methodology designed to identify all potential electrical risks (FTA, ETA, HAZOP, etc.)

Semi-Quantification of events using available failure data

Wrap-Up Need for Electrical Safety is universal ES awareness is increasing Partnership between regulators, employers, manufacturers- growing Many injuries are prevented Learning from experience- very essential Innovative ES devices are being used by people Much More to be done in the field of ES in India!!

Need for Electrical Safety is universal

ES awareness is increasing

Partnership between regulators, employers, manufacturers- growing

Many injuries are prevented

Learning from experience- very essential

Innovative ES devices are being used by people

Much More to be done in the field of ES in India!!

Technology can afford to get obsolete but not a technocrat!! [email_address]

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