Global Carbon Cycle Plan

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Information about Global Carbon Cycle Plan
Science-Technology

Published on October 29, 2008

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Slide 1: Project Formulation Manager: Dr. Jan Gervin Project Manager: Dr. Chuck McClain Project Scientist: Dr. Scott Denning Mission Systems Engineer:Jaime Esper Study Scientists: Drs. Jim Abshire, Jim Collatz, Watson Gregg, Forrest Hall, James Hansen, Randy Kawa, Bob Knox, Antonio Mannino, Betsy Middleton, and Compton Tucker January 10, 2003 BROWN BAG LUNCH Global Carbon Cycle Plan (GCCP) Project Description:GCCP : 2 Project Description:GCCP Mission Objective: multi-year mission to determine the Geographic Distribution and the Seasonal and Interannual Variation of Global Carbon Exchange between the Earth’s Atmosphere, its Land Masses and Oceans; to determine the Effect of Climate Variation and Secular Trends on the Geographic and Temporal Dynamics of the Global Carbon Cycle; and to provide Information Supportive of Policy Decisions and Mitigation Approaches Organizations: Lead: Goddard Space Flight Center designated lead by HQ Partners: Other NASA Centers, other federal agencies, and university scientists Program Scientist: Scott Denning Mission Description: Five to seven missions in (primarily) sun-synchronous orbits measure atmospheric carbon dioxide, aerosols, ocean and coastal carbon productivity, and low and high density land biomass. Launch: To be launched on two-year centers starting in 2010 Pathfinder CO2 Ocean Carbon Low Density Biomass High Density Biomass Advanced CO2 OVERVIEW : 3 OVERVIEW Introduction - Why Study Carbon? Background - How Did We Get Involved? Results of the Agency-Wide Study Goddard Activities Post September 11 A New Organizational Paradigm Ongoing Activities What Drives Change in the Climate System? : 4 Greenhouse Gases Carbon dioxide CO2 Methane CH4 Water Vapor H2O Nitrous Oxide N2O Chloroflorocarbons CFC’s Ozone O3 Absorbing Aerosols Smoke Soot Warming: Greenhouse gases Absorbing aerosols Cooling: Reflective aerosols Natural carbon sequestration Earth’s Heat Balance = Warming - Cooling Clouds Soot Greenhouse Gases Reflective Aerosols Impact on cloud formation Dust Volcanic aerosols SO2 Natural carbon sequestration Forests/Soils Air-sea CO2 equilibrium Ocean Biota What Drives Change in the Climate System? Carbon Smoke Heat Carbon - Distribution, Transport & Prediction : 5 Carbon - Distribution, Transport & Prediction Emission of carbon from the combustion of fossil fuels - nearly 7 petagrams/yr Annual increase in atmospheric CO2 - about 3 petagrams/yr (Pg/yr) Roughly half of carbon is absorbed by the land (2 Pg/yr) and oceans (2 Pg/yr) The reasons for this capacity of the Earth’s land and oceans to absorb carbon dioxide are not adequately understood, and future uptake by the land and ocean cannot be estimated. Given the importance of forecasting climate change to the nation, it is of utmost urgency to find out. Carbon Cycle: Living With A Planet : 6 Carbon Cycle: Living With A Planet Net Flux of Carbon (Pg C/yr) : 7 source: WHRC 8 6 4 2 0 -2 -4 -6 1850 1870 1890 1910 1930 1950 1970 1990 -8 Releases Accumulations Emissions from Fossil Fuels Net release from land-use change Unidentified sink Oceanic uptake Atmospheric accumulation Net Flux of Carbon (Pg C/yr) Slide 8: 8 Uncertain Futures As CO2 emissions have increased, the land and oceans have absorbed more and more carbon. Projections of future CO2 levels depend on our knowledge of the biosphere and how it interacts with climate Given identical human emissions, different models project dramatically different futures. Which is correct? How can we know? Slide 9: 9 IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change WCRP World Climate Research Program IGBP International Geosphere/Biosphere Program IDHP International Human Dimensions Program on Global Environmental Change Water/Energy Cycle Carbon Cycle IGOS-P Integrated Global Observing Strategy Partnership Atmosphere Land Ocean NASA NOAA DOE DOI NSF USDA USGCRP SCIENTIFIC ORGANIZATIONS US AGENCIES AND PROGRAMS OVERVIEW : 10 OVERVIEW Introduction - Why Study Carbon? Background - How Did We Get Involved? Results of the Agency-Wide Study Goddard Activities Post September 11 A New Organizational Paradigm Ongoing Activities Plan Development Process : 11 Plan Development Process Associate Administrator of the Office of Earth Science (Code Y), Dr. Ghassem Asrar requested that a team of scientists and engineers from NASA Goddard Space Flight Center lead a planning activity for future studies of the sources, sinks, and transport of carbon in the atmosphere, on land, and in the oceans. Between October 2000 and June 2001, an agency-wide planning effort was organized by elements of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) to define future carbon research and technology development activities . The primary points of contact were Dr. Mary Cleave, Deputy Associate Administrator for Advanced Planning at NASA HQ and Dr. Charles McClain of the Office of Global Carbon Studies (Code 970.2) at GSFC. Plan Development Process (Cont.) : 12 Plan Development Process (Cont.) GSFC hosted three workshops to define the science requirements and objectives, the observational and modeling requirements to meet the science objectives, the technology development requirements, and a cost plan for both the science program and new flight projects that will be needed for new observations beyond the present or currently planned. The workshops were attended by Code Y program managers from HQ, and representatives from NOAA, DOE, USDA, the Forestry Service, OMB, and the academic science community. The three workshops were designed to provide a stepwise progression from the definition of the science goals and objectives through the formulation of the science and technology roadmaps and budget projections. Proposal Development Process : 13 Science Questions Information Products Performance Metrics NASA Contributions Program Roadmap R&D Facilities Missions Conceptualization Benchmarking Science & Engineering Studies Costing First Workshop Second Workshop Third Workshop GCCP Plan Options Resources, Timelines January 2001 March 2001 May 2001 June 2001 Proposal Development Process Representative Mission Concepts Plan Development Process (Cont.) : 14 Plan Development Process (Cont.) HQ received the final presentation package by mid-June 2001. The recommendations were ultimately refined and folded into a broader program plan, which also included climate modeling, aerosol observations, and science computing technology development, for contributing to the President’s Climate Change Research Initiative. The plan was presented to OMB on September 12, 2001. The results were also recorded in two Technical Memoranda. 2001 MILESTONES : 15 2001 MILESTONES First Workshop (1/9-1/11) Second Workshop (3/20-3/22) Third Workshop (5/2-5/4) First Draft of Carbon Cycle Implementation Presentation (Science, Data, Missions) for Community Review - 6/01 Carbon Cycle Presentations to Center Director 6/12, MSR 6/14, and NBC 6/14 Carbon Cycle Implementation Presentation to HQ - 6/18 Headquarters Capital Investment Committee Presentation - 7/18 Department of Commerce Presentation - 8/3 OMB Presentation - 9/12 Carbon Cycle Implementation Plan (Technical Memorandum) and Cost Volume - 11/30 FY02 Plan and Funding Request Presentation to HQ - 12/04 OVERVIEW : 16 OVERVIEW Introduction - Why Study Carbon? Background - How Did We Get Involved? Results of the Agency-Wide Study Goddard Activities Post September 11 A New Organizational Paradigm Ongoing Activities USGCRP Carbon Science Goals(Carbon Cycle Interagency Working Group) : 17 USGCRP Carbon Science Goals(Carbon Cycle Interagency Working Group) Goal 1: Quantify North American carbon sources and sinks and the processes controlling their dynamics. Goal 2: Quantify the ocean carbon sink and the processes controlling its dynamics. Goal 3: Report the “state of the global carbon cycle” annually. Goal 4: Evaluate the impact of land use change and land and marine resource management practices on carbon sources and sinks. Goal 5: Forecast future atmospheric CO2 concentrations and changes in terrestrial and marine carbon sinks. Goal 6: Provide the scientific underpinning, and evaluations from specific test cases, for management of carbon in the environment. ESE Systematic Measurements & Mission Summary : 18 ESE Systematic Measurements & Mission Summary ESE Systematic Measurements & Mission Summary : 19 ESE Systematic Measurements & Mission Summary Critical Gaps : 20 Critical Gaps MISSING: Global time series of CO2 atmosphere-surface exchange. MISSING: Ecosystem carbon storage due to biomass and its change. Carbon consequences of disturbance. MISSING: Measurements of critical biochemicals mediating global ocean surface layer uptake and export of carbon. Models of air-sea CO2 exchange. SUPPORTED BY FIELD CAMPAIGNS, CALIBRATION/VALIDATION EFFORTS, MODEL DEVELOPMENT AND DATA ASSIMILATION RESEARCH TO FULLY UTILIZE SATELLITE OBSERVATIONS. SOLUTION: Design and launch satellite to measure column and profile CO2. Develop and use data assimilation techniques to generate surface flux fields. SOLUTION: Design and launch satellite to measure biomass and its change. Process on-orbit satellite data to map disturbance and recovery. SOLUTION: Develop satellite sensor to measure organic and inorganic compounds and models to compute carbon uptake. Develop exchange process models. Science Activity Roadmap : 21 Science Activity Roadmap N. American Campaign Land cover & biomass change, fire, CO2, ocean carbon, meteorology etc. Satellite Data Assimilation Answers, Assessments, Projections, Consequences New Satellite Formulation/Implementation Remote Sensing Techniques Development Calibration/Validation Process, Coupled and Inverse Model Development USGCRP Science Questions & Goals Research & Observation Requirements Current/Planned Space Assets : Landsat, SeaWiFS, Terra, Aqua, SeaWinds, V C L, Aura, NPP... U.S. Coastal Campaigns, S. Ocean Future CO2 Ocean Carbon Biomass 2001 2002 2003 2004 … 2007... 2010… 2012 Regional and Global Analyses Data Synthesis Land Campaigns Campaign Mission Simulation Experiments Slide 22: 22 Satellite Biospheric Data Vegetation Photosynthesis Ocean Photosynthesis Meteorology Temperature Cloud Cover Predicted CO2 Developing, testing models and measurements Satellite CO2 Model Surface Carbon Flux, Winds Data Assimilation Field Campaigns Validate Remote Sensing With Ground observations With Aircraft CO2 Budgets Develop Remote Sensing Methods Develop Process Models Validate Models Calibrate Sensors Compare & Compute Development and Validation Accuracy GSFC Carbon Theme Interdisciplinary Flow : 23 GSFC Carbon Theme Interdisciplinary Flow Satellite Data Stream Processing and Integration Calibration/Validation Field Studies Ocean (color, biogeo chem) Land (biomass, disturbance) Atmosphere (CO2 CH4 ) Algorithm Development Modeling Data Assimilation Data Archive Distribution Data Integration Synthesis Cal/Val Products Ancillary Data Met Hyd Soils Topo Competed Core Science Community Reqts Data Data Technology Development Pathfinder Atmospheric CO2 : 24 Launch Date: FY 2008 Mission Life: 3 Years Orbit: 500 to 700 km polar, sun-synchronous, with a morning crossing time Mission Options: Could be flown with active CO2 instrument Pathfinder Atmospheric CO2 Description: A small satellite mission that makes high-precision (1 to 2 ppmv) global measurements of atmospheric column CO2 abundance Instrument: A passive spectrometer with a 10 km spatial resolution that provides high signal-to-noise ratio detection of atmospheric CO2 and O2 during the day time portion of the orbit Tech (Comp): Enhanced Performance, Lower Cost Trade Space: Compare grating& Fabry Perot spectrometers for Technology Readiness; Space Qualification,Performance Targets Mission Design: AIRS, TES and SCIAMACHYas input to Msmt. Rqmts. Compare Approaches in Lab, Aircraft; Cal/Val/Alg. Dev. Laboratory Breadboard & Aircraft Demonstration TRLs 4-6 Interferometer & Detector Test Bed - L2 EASI (Earth Atmosphere Solar-Occultation Imager) measures CO2 & methane The Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO)Selected for ESSP-3 : 25 The Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO)Selected for ESSP-3 OCO will make the first global measurements of CO2 from space with the precision and spatial resolution needed to quantify carbon sources and sinks Acquires simultaneous spectroscopic observations of CO2 and O2 to yield estimates of the column integrated CO2 dry air mole fraction with precisions of 1 ppm Flies ahead of the A-Train constellation 1:15 PM polar orbit, 16 day repeat cycle Nominal launch date: 2007 Team Members Mission management: JPL Instrument provider: Hamilton Sundstrand Sensor Systems Spacecraft provider: Orbital Sciences Science: JPL, Caltech, Berkeley, Colorado State, UMBC, Haverford College, Harvard, Wood Hole, U. Bremen, LSCE, NIWA, CSIRO Artist’s concept of OCO operating in nadir viewing mode. The groundtrack is highlighted on the surface. Ocean Carbon(Options being considered) : 26 Ocean Carbon(Options being considered) Description: A small satellite mission that makes those ocean color measurements critical to the determination of ocean biomass, primary productivity, and dissolved organic matter Instrument: A rotating, scanning telescope equipped with an on-board solar calibrator that makes irradiance measurements in 10 spectral bands from the ultraviolet to the near infrared; additional bands or complementary hyperspectral instrument to obtain coastal ocean data Spacecraft: A small, low-cost, three-axis stabilized, nadir pointing spacecraft from the RSDO catalog with a propulsion system for orbit raising, maintenance, and maneuvers Key Technologies: selection of bands not generally used in land applications, improvements in sensor design, and the use of onboard data processing to optimize data retrieval Launch Date: FY 2009 Mission Life: 5 Years Orbit: 705 km polar, sun-synchronous, with a 12:00 noon crossing time Space Access: Pegasus XL or equivalent class launch vehicle Mission Options: A single instrument mission Low Density Biomass/Coastal Ocean : 27 Launch Date: FY 2010 Mission Life:5 Years Orbit: 705 km circular sun-synchronous with a 10:30 a.m. descending node Space Access: Taurus or equivalent class launch vehicle Key Technologies: Large area focal plane arrays, large capacity on-board recorders, and high rate downlink systems for improved mission performance Low Density Biomass/Coastal Ocean Description: A satellite mission that provides a synoptic view of the Earth’s ecosystems, their spatial distribution, and temporal dynamics with global measurements of land cover, land cover change, and ocean surface chlorophyll Instrument: A hyperspectral imager providing high signal-to-noise ratios and covering a frequency range from 450 to 2350 nm with a SWIR bandwidth of 10 nm and a VNIR bandwidth of 5 nm Spacecraft: A low-cost, three-axis stabilized, nadir pointing spacecraft from the RSDO catalog with a propulsion system sized to allow formation flying with other land imaging platforms High Density Biomass : 28 High Density Biomass Description: A satellite mission that provides improved regional and global estimates of vegetation biomass and carbon stocks, studies the response of terrestrial ecosystems to major disturbances, and measures the rate of recovery Instruments: A P-band SAR operating at 0.44 GHz and a multi-track, 1.064 micron, imaging laser altimeter with a capability of resolving 0.5 m differences in vegetation height Spacecraft: A three-axis stabilized, nadir pointing spacecraft from the RSDO catalog modified to accommodate a large propulsion system and an X-band phased array Key Technologies: High resolution P-band polarimetric SAR, pixelated detectors, a high-accuracy attitude & position knowledge package, laser diode efficiency & lifetime improvements, & an S-band low power transceiver Launch Date:FY 2011 Mission Life: 3 Years Orbit: 400 km polar sun-synchronous with a 6:00 p.m. ascending node Space Access: Delta II or equivalent class launch vehicle Advanced Atmospheric CO2 : 29 Key Technologies: 1570 nm lidar sensor development, lightweight precision spectrometer development, S-band low power transceiver Advanced Atmospheric CO2 (may require separate platforms; integration with other missions being considered) Description: A small satellite mission that measures the global concentration of carbon dioxide and oxygen in the lower troposphere Instruments: A pulsed, dual frequency, tunable laser sounder operating in the 1570 nm band for carbon dioxide detection and in the 770 nm band for oxygen detection, coupled with lightweight passive spectrometer for measuring absorption of reflected sunlight* in the same spectral regions Spacecraft: A low-cost, three-axis stabilized, nadir pointing spacecraft from the RSDO catalog with a propulsion system and appropriate subsystem modifications Launch Date: FY 2012 Mission Life: 3 Years Orbit: 590 km circular sun-synchronous with a 7:00 a.m. or 7:00 p.m. ascending node Space Access: Delta 2320-10 or equivalent class launch vehicle *Passive sensor may require fully sunlit orbit Current Instrument Systems, Concepts, & Component Development Activities : 30 Current Instrument Systems, Concepts, & Component Development Activities Oceans Particulate lidar (Behrenfeld) Bicarbonate lidar (Hoge) Pulse & probe fluorescence lidar (Chekalyuk) Land Dual-frequency biomas lidar (Rall & Knox) Laser vegetation imaging sensor (Blair) Atmosphere CO2 lidar (Abshire & Kranacs) Fabry-Perot CO2 interferometer (Heaps & Kawa) Raman scattering CO2 lidar (Whitman) Components: laser transmitters, laser diodes, wavelength conversion, injection seeding Vegetation Canopy Lidar : 31 Vegetation Canopy Lidar Description: A satellite mission that provides the first globally consistent estimates of terrestrial biomass via forest canopy measurement Instrument: A multi-beam laser altimeter, with 25m resolution and 1m vegetation height accuracy Spacecraft: A three-axis stabilized, nadir pointing spacecraft Key Technologies: 1064 nm lasers operating at 242 pulses per second with 15mJ per pulse. Launch Date: FY 2005 Mission Life: 2 Years Orbit: 390-410 km at 67 inclination Space Access: Taurus-class launch vehicle or shared Delta II class Mission Option: complete mission originally selected under ESSP Aerosols Mission : 32 Aerosols Mission Description: A small satellite mission that measures the spatial distribution and seasonal variability of carbonaceous aerosols on a global scale and determines their effect on the Earth’s energy balance Instrument: Multi-angle, multi-spectral, scanning photopolarimeter with an on-board calibrator operating at 100% duty cycle during the day time portion of the chosen orbit Spacecraft: A small, low-cost, three-axis stabilized, nadir pointing spacecraft from the RSDO catalog with no propulsion system Key Technologies: S-band LPT & other enhancing technologies at the subsystem or component level Launch Date: FY 2008 Mission Life: 2-5 Years Orbit: 550 km circular with an inclination of 60 degrees Space Access: Pegasus XL or equivalent class launch vehicle Mission Options: Obtain through ESSP program, dual spacecraft in LEO and sun-synchronous orbits, or flight of instrument as a payload of opportunity on other spacecraft Slide 33: 33 Slide 34: 34 Slide 35: 35 OVERVIEW : 36 OVERVIEW Introduction - Why Study Carbon? Background - How Did We Get Involved? Results of the Agency-Wide Study Goddard Activities Post September 11 A New Organizational Paradigm Ongoing Activities GSFC Carbon Cycle Theme Team : 37 GSFC Carbon Cycle Theme Team Carbon Theme Chair: Chuck McClain Atmosphere: Randy Kawa Ocean: Watson Gregg Land: Jim Collatz ESD Organization Representatives DAO: Steve Pawson NSIPP: Michele Rienecker Ocean Color Processing: Gene Feldman SIMBIOS: Giulietta Fargion DAAC: Steve Wharton Land Processing: Ed Masuoka , Jeff Masek Climate Modeling: Jim Hansen Supercomputing: Ricky Rood Instrumentation: Jim Abshire, Frank Hoge, Bob Knox CO2 Cross-Calibration & Merger: Arlyn Andrews Other Theme Representatives: Hydrologic cycle: Paul Houser Atmospheric chemistry: Arlyn Andrews Aerosols: Yoram Kaufman Climate: Jim Hansen Other Key GSFC Carbon Scientists Atmosphere: Chris Barnet (UMD) Land: Jim Tucker, Jon Ranson, Jim Irons, Jeff Privette, Betsy Middleton Oceans: John Moisan, Tiffany Moisan, Alex Chekalyuk, Mike Behrenfeld, Antonio Mannino, David Adamec, Stan Hooker, Wayne Esaias, Doug Vandermark Technology: Bill Heaps (500), Carbon Lidar Working Group* Science Advisor: Forrest Hall (UMD) Mission Formulation: Jan Gervin (400) Technology: Bob Connerton Systems Engng.: Jamie Esper (500) Applications Advisor: Shahid Habib Discipline Leads and Advisors * Carbon Lidar Working Group: A. Andrews, J. Abshire, J. Burris, M. Behrenfeld, B. Blair, A. Chekalyuk, J. Degnan, D. Harding, F. Hoge, R. Kawa, R. Knox, J. Rall, D. Whiteman, P. Dabney, W. Heaps, B. Gentry, R. Nelson, F. Hall, C. McClain Carbon Theme Specific Objectives : 38 Carbon Theme Specific Objectives Inspire new interdisciplinary carbon cycle research at GSFC. Assume responsibility for key “core” data processing, calibration/validation, and data assimilation activities. Enhance communication & understanding of the global carbon cycle across discipline lines (ocean, land and atmosphere). Facilitate formation of interdisciplinary teams for research on the carbon cycle. Promote new instrument concepts and development addressing carbon-cycle research priorities. Engender creative concepts for future missions. Support working groups engaged in carbon-related program and project planning. Provide interface for Earth Sciences Directorate (ESD) scientists to related activities within GSFC (flight projects, technology development programs etc.) Identify program gaps and priorities for carbon cycle work in the ESD. Coordinate responses to NASA HQ and other external requests for information about carbon-cycle activities, and participation in agency planning. Recommend to NASA HQ new carbon cycle science and technology development activities and approaches. GSFC Carbon Theme Activity Priorities : 39 GSFC Carbon Theme Activity Priorities Core Activities North American Carbon Program (NACP) NASA program coordination In situ carbon observation support (Land, Ocean, Atmos.) Field measurement protocol development Ocean color ongoing*; Land & atmospheric carbon protocols to be defined In situ instrument evaluation & development Ocean color ongoing*; Land & atmospheric carbon measurement activities TBD Calibration round robins Ocean color ongoing*; EOS program ongoing Carbon data processing Ocean color data processing facility** Land data processing facility** Carbon data synthesis and distribution Carbon data assimilation*** Atmospheric data: DAO Land & ocean data: NSIPP * *Includes basic sensor calibration, product validation & quality control analyses. * ** Includes resources for implementation of process models designed for carbon data assimilation in collaboration with science team (competed). *Presently supported under SIMBIOS which ends after FY03. GSFC Carbon Theme Activity Priorities (cont.) : 40 GSFC Carbon Theme Activity Priorities (cont.) Competed Activities NACP Ocean, land, & atmosphere field observations Ocean, land, & oceans modeling & data assimilation Land and ocean carbon cycle process model development Land, ocean, & atmosphere mission calibration/validation (activities not covered under “core” & algorithm development) Ocean: MODIS, NPP/VIIRS Land: MODIS, NPP/VIIRS Atmosphere: AIRS Land, ocean, & atmosphere technology development and carbon missions Atmospheric CO2 (active & passive) Land cover and biomass (active & passive) Ocean carbon (active & passive) Measurement concept &/or instrument development underway in all cases. GSFC Earth Science Mission Development : 41 GSFC Earth Science Mission Development Revisit Measurement Requirements Develop & Evaluate Laboratory Breadboards Refine Mission Concepts Perform Enabling Activities/Studies (Mission Design, Trade Space & Technology Dev.) Revisit Measurement Requirements Develop & Demonstrate Aircraft/Field Campaign/Space Prototypes Define Mission Concept (Initial Baseline) Detailed Design & Development Integration & Test Launch CHECK-OUT/ PRE- OPERATIONS OPERATIONS Preliminary Mission (Instrument & Spacecraft) Design Develop Science Questions & Measurement Requirements Identify Innovative (Breakthrough) Science/Technology Concepts Identify Studies (Mission Design, Trade Space and Technology Development & IMDC/ISAL) Perform Advanced (Conceptual) Studies Develop Mission Concepts Fabrication Develop/ Release Solicitation & Select Code 900 Primary Responsibility with Code 400/500 Support Code 900 & 400/500 equal responsibility Note: Support and participation of all three organizations is absolutely essential in each phase of mission development. Constant feedback between Mission Design/Engineering Studies and Science/Measurement Requirements assures optimum scientific return (i.e., not “freezing” mission /measurement requirements too early). In addition, Code 800 assists in sounding rocket and balloon efforts and Code 100 supports proposal preparation. Code 300 is brought in by Codes 400/500 to oversee performance and quality assurance and safety. Preformulation Demonstrate Mission Feasibility Code 100 Receive Approval of Mission Formulation Implementation Code 400/500 Primary Responsibility with Code 900 Support GSFC Earth Science Mission Funding Sources : 42 GSFC Earth Science Mission Funding Sources Develop & Evaluate Laboratory Breadboards Refine Mission Concepts Perform Enabling Activities/Studies (Mission Design, Trade Space & Technology Dev.) Develop & Demonstrate Aircraft/Field Campaign/Space Prototypes Define Mission Concept (Initial Baseline) Perform Conceptual Studies (Mission Design, Trade Space and Technology Development & IMDC/ISAL) Develop Mission Concepts Develop/ Release Solicitation & Select Code 900 Primary Responsibility with Code 400/500 Support Code 400/500 Primary Responsibility with Code 900 Support Code 900 & 400/500 equal responsibility Note: Support and participation of all three organizations is absolutely essential in each phase of mission development. Constant feedback between Mission Design/Engineering Studies and Science/Measurement Requirements assures optimum scientific return (i.e., not “freezing” mission /measurement requirements too early). In addition, Code 800 assists in sounding rocket and balloon efforts and Code 100 supports proposal preparation. Code 300 is brought in by Codes 400/500 to oversee performance and quality assurance and safety. Preformulation Formulation Implementation/ Operations 1, 5 Mission Design: IRAD, DDF, 900 Discretionary (400/500 Support) Trade Space: IRAD, DDF, 900 Discretionary (400/500 Support) Technology Development: IRAD, DDF, ESTO/ACT, SBIR, Code R, Laser Initiative, Code 900 2, 4 Mission Concepts: IRAD, DDF, 900/400/500, Bid and Proposal/Proposal Development (Code 100) 3. Breadboards: IRAD, DDF, ESTO/IIP, NAP, HQ Direct, Code R, Laser Initiative, ESTO Direct 6 Flight Prototypes: STO/IIP, NMP, Shuttle, Space Station, Field Campaign, DOD, HQ Direct, ESSP, Other Mission (HQ) 7 Solicitation: Other Missions (HQ) 8 Mission: ESSP, NMP, Other Missions (HQ), Shuttle/Space Station 9 Implementation: ESSP, NMP, Other Missions (HQ), Shuttle/Space Station 2 5 4 3 6 7 8 9 1 OVERVIEW : 43 OVERVIEW Introduction - Why Study Carbon? Background - How Did We Get Involved? Results of the Agency-Wide Study Goddard Activities Post September 11 A New Organizational Paradigm Ongoing Activities GSFC Carbon Cycle Theme Team : 44 GSFC Carbon Cycle Theme Team Carbon Theme Chair: Chuck McClain Atmosphere: Randy Kawa Ocean: Watson Gregg Land: Jim Collatz ESD Organization Representatives DAO: Steve Pawson NSIPP: Michele Rienecker Ocean Color Processing: Gene Feldman SIMBIOS: Giulietta Fargion DAAC: Steve Wharton Land Processing: Ed Masuoka , Jeff Masek Climate Modeling: Jim Hansen Supercomputing: Ricky Rood Instrumentation: Jim Abshire, Frank Hoge, Bob Knox CO2 Cross-Calibration & Merger: Arlyn Andrews Other Theme Representatives: Hydrologic cycle: Paul Houser Atmospheric chemistry: Arlyn Andrews Aerosols: Yoram Kaufman Climate: Jim Hansen Other Key GSFC Carbon Scientists Atmosphere: Chris Barnet (UMD) Land: Jim Tucker, Jon Ranson, Jim Irons, Jeff Privette, Betsy Middleton Oceans: John Moisan, Tiffany Moisan, Alex Chekalyuk, Mike Behrenfeld, Antonio Mannino, David Adamec, Stan Hooker, Wayne Esaias, Doug Vandermark Technology: Bill Heaps (500), Carbon Lidar Working Group* Science Advisor: Forrest Hall (UMD) Mission Formulation: Jan Gervin (400) Technology: Bob Connerton Systems Engng.: Jamie Esper (500) Applications Advisor: Shahid Habib Discipline Leads and Advisors * Carbon Lidar Working Group: A. Andrews, J. Abshire, J. Burris, M. Behrenfeld, B. Blair, A. Chekalyuk, J. Degnan, D. Harding, F. Hoge, R. Kawa, R. Knox, J. Rall, D. Whiteman, P. Dabney, W. Heaps, B. Gentry, R. Nelson, F. Hall, C. McClain Slide 45: 45 Global Carbon Cycle Climate and Weather Chemistry-Climate Connection Solid Earth & Natural Hazards Earth Sciences Directorate Themes Earth Science Enterprise Themes Aerosols Carbon Cycle Global Water and Energy Cycle Long Term Climate Change Weather and Short Term Climate Forecasting Atmospheric Chemistry Geodynamics and Other Solid Earth Activities Earth Science Themes Climate Change Science Program Key Uncertainties:Aerosols, NA sources-sinks, Feedbacks Climate Quality Observations, Monitoring, and Data Management  Decision Support Resources Atmospheric Composition Climate Variability and Change Water Cycle Land Use/Land Cover Change Carbon Cycle Ecosystems Human Contributions and Responses Grand Challenges CCRI USGCRP Code 900 Theme Connections : 46 Code 900 Theme Connections Carbon Cycle Atmospheric Chemistry Aerosols Hydrologic Cycle CO2, CO CH4, O3, UTH* Aeolian Fe Black Carbon Albedo Evapotranspiration Precipitation Soil Moisture Soil Freeze/Thaw State Ocean Salinity UTH: Upper Tropospheric Humidity Climate Carbon fluxes & pools Carbon sources/sinks Carbon process models Ecology Earth Science Directorate Carbon Theme Elements : 47 Earth Science Directorate Carbon Theme Elements GSFC Carbon Theme Round Table Other Themes Atmospheric CO2 Assimilation Land/Ocean Data Assimilation Hydrologic Cycle, Aerosols, Atmos. Chemistry, Climate Land Use/Land Cover Change & Biomass Ocean Color Cross- Calibration & Merger CO2 Research Ocean Color Data Processing Climate Model Development Supercomputing Support Archival & Dissemination Coupled Model Dev. 923, 971, 974 Climate Modeling 940 NSIPP 971 DAO 910.3 Instrument Development (Links to ESTO & Code 500) Computing 930 Data Archive 902 Land Processing 922, 923 Ocean Color Processing 970.2 SIMBIOS 970.2 Atmos CO2 916 Instru- mentation 916, 924, 972 Coupled Physical-Biogeochemical Process Models Product-Oriented Mission Development Process & Interfaces: In or out-of-house : 48 Product-Oriented Mission Development Process & Interfaces: In or out-of-house Technology Requirements /Planning Mission/ System-Level Requirements Codes 600, 900, Universities Advanced Mission/ System Concepts Mission Systems Engineering Code 530 Instrument/ Subsystem Concept Code 556 Discipline Engineering & Other Organizations Rest of Code 500 Code 400 Systems Safety & Mission Assurance Code 300 Code 531 Codes 532, 533 Science Data Project Formulation Pre-Formulation Implementation Flight Projects (Missions) New Opportunities Office Code 100 Technology Validation Science Goals AETD (Technical Design and Implementation) Operations Non-GSFC Missions GSFC Missions Carbon Cycle Plan NOO Code 100 GSFC Carbon Theme Interfaces & Functions : 49 Interagency Coordination CCIWG DAACS Core Science Activities Flight Projects Outreach Technology Development ESTO • IIP • SBIR Science Teams NASA Centers Science, Engrg., Data Management GSFC 100, 400, 500, 900 NASA HQ Coordination Functions Science Team Participation Funding Opportunities Mission Formulation Technology Development Inputs Field Programs Outreach and Documentation NASA Core Science Observations Processing, Archival, & Synthesis of Carbon Data Modeling & Data Assimilation GSFC Carbon Theme Interfaces & Functions GSFC Carbon Theme Goddard Carbon Theme External Links * : 50 Goddard Carbon Theme External Links * Processing, Archiving and Synthesis of Carbon Data Integration of Satellite Data Streams IPO/NPP & NPOESS USGS/EDC, LCDM, EarthSat, MEA MERIS, POLDER, GLI, etc. (ESA, France, Japan, etc.) Land Cover, Land Cover Change Protocols USGS/EDC •UMD/CP MEA FIA (USFS) Data Synthesis GEWEX IGBP NODC, NIDC (NOAA) CDIAC (DOE) Modeling & Data Assimilation NCAR (NSF) • UCLA/Rutgers/SIO GFDL (NOAA) DAO & NSIPP Science Teams GODAE Georgia Institute of Technology (A) UMD/CP Observations, Field Experiments, Data Networks Ocean Biogeochemistry Science Team Combined Cal/Val & Applications MODIS Ocean & Land Teams AIRS Team SIMBIOS Team NACP (USGCRP) NOAA: PMEL, AOML, CMDL CO2: LaRC, Drexel U. CarboEurope TOGA TAO (O; NOAA) JGOFS follow on (O; NSF) PIRATA (O; Brazil, France) Global Ocean Observing System Global Terrestrial Observing System AERONET * Unless otherwise noted, links apply for oceans, land, atmospheres (O,L,A) Note: Code Y has or is working on MOUs which include Carbon Cycle collaborations with NASDA, ASI, CNES, CSA, and the EU. OVERVIEW : 51 OVERVIEW Introduction - Why Study Carbon? Background - How Did We Get Involved? Results of the Agency-Wide Study Goddard Activities Post September 11 A New Organizational Paradigm Ongoing Activities Preliminary Mission Design Study Timeline& Beyond: Strategic Program Schedule : 52 Preliminary Mission Design Study Timeline& Beyond: Strategic Program Schedule Programmatic Setup LD Biomass / Coastal Ocean Ocean Carbon HD Biomass Advanced CO2 Integrated Summary & Action Plan Preliminary Mission Design Study Continued Pre-Formulation Studies (IMDC / ISAL) 01/04 Determine Programmatic Feasibility (is it sellable?) 04/04 Submit Unsolicited or AO Proposal (s) 05/04 (FY06 Start) Secure additional funding to proceed if not competitively selected 09/04 Recent Carbon Theme Activities : 53 Recent Carbon Theme Activities ‘02 SBIR Solicitation Inputs 900 Carbon Theme Review Carbon Lidar Workshop and Report Core Discipline Processing Formulations Land and Oceans Proposal Development IIP’s 1 DDF’s 6 AIST’s 2 REASoN 4 Responses to Recent Solicitations : 54 Responses to Recent Solicitations IIP Kawa & Heaps: Passive CO2 Fabry-Perot Interferometer aircraft demonstration DDF (selected proposals) Hoge: Bicarbonate Lidar (second year requestz0 T. Moisan: Ocean color curriculum applications Mannino: Optical properties of black carbon and CDOM in coastal ocean Knox & Rall: Spectral ratio biospheric lidar Behrenfeld: Particulate organic carbon lidar AIST Code 500 & 972: multi-platform autonomous platform command & control S/W Code 500 & 972: OSSE S/W development for coastal oceans REASON CAN (in preparation) Hall: Carbon, water, and energy data set synthesis & validation Masek et al.: North American 30-yr land disturbance satellite data record development Gregg et al.: Ocean color time series development & maintenance Knox et al.: Geographic hot spot detection & prioritization EOS Instrument Team Recompetition (several proposals expected; MODIS & AIRS) EOS Atmos. NRA (open) & Upcoming Ocean/Land IDS NRA Issues & Recommendations : 55 Issues & Recommendations HQ fractured funding scenario does not accommodate large coordinated efforts Leads to many disconnected activities GSFC management often by-passed in HQ-discipline science interactions Complicates implementation of strategic plans Define formal links among themes Institute data synthesis across themes Establish core discipline atmospheric data processing activities (e.g., NPP) Increase mission preformulation & formulation funding and streamline funding process Consider a Global Ecology Theme

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