Published on March 9, 2014
GLEASON SYSTEM OF GRADING PROSTATE CANCER GIDEON MUTAI
Grading is of particular importance in prostatic cancer, because grade and stage are the best prognostic predictors. Prostate cancers are stratified into five grades on the basis of glandular patterns of differentiation. Grade 1 Most well-differentiated tumors Neoplastic glands are uniform and round in appearance and are packed into wellcircumscribed nodules Low-grade (Gleason score 1 + 1 = 2) prostate cancer consisting of back-to-back uniform-sized malignant glands. Glands contain eosinophilic intraluminal prostatic crystalloids, a feature more commonly seen in cancer than benign glands and more frequently seen in lower grade than higher grade prostate cancer.
Grade 5 •Tumors show no glandular differentiation •Tumor cells infiltrate the stroma in the form of cords, sheets, and nests Poorly differentiated (Gleason score 5 + 5 = 10) adenocarcinoma composed of sheets of malignant cells.
The other grades fall in between (contain more than one pattern) so one assigns a primary grade to the dominant pattern and a secondary grade to the second most frequent pattern. The two numeric grades are then added to obtain a combined Gleason grade or score. Example, a tumor with a dominant grade 3 and a secondary grade 4 would achieve a Gleason score of 7. Tumors with only one pattern are treated as if their primary and secondary grades are the same, and hence, the number is doubled. An exception to the rule is if three patterns are present on biopsy, the most common and highest grades are added together to arrive at the Gleason score. Thus, under this schema the most well-differentiated tumors have a Gleason score of 2 (1 + 1), and the least differentiated tumors merit a score of 10 (5 + 5).
Gleason scores are often combined into groups with similar biologic behavior, Well-differentiated cancer Grades 2-4 Typically found in small tumors within the transition zone. In surgical specimens, such low-grade cancer is typically an incidental finding on TURP performed for symptoms of BPH. Intermediate-grade tumor Grades 5 and 6 Moderate to poorly differentiated cancer Grade 7 High-grade tumor Grade 8-10 Advanced cancers that are unlikely to be cured The majority of potentially treatable cancers detected on needle biopsy as a result of screening have Gleason scores of 5 through 7.
Needle biopsy of the prostate with variably sized, more widely dispersed glands of moderately differentiated Gleason score 3 + 3 = 6) adenocarcinoma.
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The Gleason grading system is used to help evaluate the prognosis of men with prostate cancer using samples from a prostate biopsy. Together with other ...
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