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Published on January 9, 2008

Author: Perrin


Is There a Glass Ceiling in the Ivory Tower? A Snapshot of Current Research Elizabeth M. O’Callaghan:  Is There a Glass Ceiling in the Ivory Tower? A Snapshot of Current Research Elizabeth M. O’Callaghan UW-Madison Counseling Psychology Department Mini-Conference Student Colloquium March 31, 2005 Lathrop Hall Introduction:  Introduction Ph.D. Program, higher and postsecondary education in ELPA. Previous graduate study Teachers College, Columbia University Columbia University Professional Experience Teachers College, Columbia University Washington Area Women’s Foundation B.A. in Psychology with Certificate of Women’s Studies from UW – Madison in May, 2000. Outline:  Outline Brief overview on the status of women and people of color in higher education Synopsis of The Glass Ceiling Project Future research plans and goals Implications: research, policy and practice Strategies to overcome the glass ceiling Status of women and people of color in higher education:  Status of women and people of color in higher education NCES (2004) – Trends in Educational Equity of Girls and Women Women earned 40% of all master’s degrees in 1970. By 2001, it was 59%. Women earned 13% of all doctoral degrees in 1970 and 45% by 2001. Doctoral degrees for women were awarded predominantly in the fields of education, psychology, health professions and related sciences. Underrepresented in STEM disciplines. Status (cont.):  Status (cont.) NCES (2003) – IPEDS salary data At public 4-year degree granting institutions, 34.8% of women faculty had tenure versus 52.4% of male faculty. Mean salary for women faculty on a 12-month contract across all ranks was $58,693. For males that figure is $72,296. Status (cont.):  Status (cont.) NCES (2000) – Salary, promotion and tenure status of minority and women faculty Full-time female faculty have lower salaries, less experience, less likely to be tenured or full professors, more likely to work in 2-year institutions and spend more time on teaching and service activities. Lower salaries for women faculty exist even after controlling for human capital characteristics. Status (cont.):  Status (cont.) African-American faculty are less likely to be full professors, have tenure and higher salaries. Asian/Pacific Islander faculty are more likely to be full professors, have tenure and higher salaries than their Caucasian, African-American or Hispanic counterparts. Asian/Pacific Islander faculty are more likely to work in the engineering disciplines while African-American faculty are more likely to work in education. Status (cont.):  Status (cont.) The (Un)Changing Face of the Ivy League (2005) African-Americans and Hispanics make up only 6% of faculty positions, but comprise 44% of service and maintenance employees. In 2003, African-Americans and Hispanics with doctoral degrees were 4 times more likely to get hired into NTT positions and women were 3.2 times more likely than their peers. Status (cont.):  Status (cont.) On average, women faculty make only 77% of their male colleagues’ pay. Student enrollment patterns in the ivy league institutions, by demographic cohort, are lower than their national averages. The Glass Ceiling Project:  The Glass Ceiling Project Dr. Jerlando F. L. Jackson, Assistant Professor and WISCAPE Faculty Associate Goal: To research the existence of a glass ceiling for women and people of color in the academic workforce at institutions of higher education. Definition: Artificial barriers based on attitudinal organizational bias that prevent qualified individuals from advancing upward in their organization into management-level positions (U.S. DOL, 1991). PHASE I – Review and analysis of existing literature. PHASE II – Conduct original research and data analyses. PHASE III – Dissemination of research findings. Current Research (PHASE I):  Current Research (PHASE I) Conducted literature search Contacted experts Designed data collection instrument Systematically analyzed existing research Created website Submitted grant proposals Major Findings:  Major Findings Is there a glass ceiling effect in academia? 85% of studies confirm a glass ceiling. Little agreement on a definition Only ONE study employs a specific definition (Cotter, Hermsen, Ovadia & Vanneman, 2001). Major Findings (cont.):  Major Findings (cont.) Women progress through the ranks of their profession more slowly than their comparably skilled colleagues (McDowell, Singell, Larry and Ziliak, 1999). Bias is more severe for women and people of color later in their career than at labor market entry (Maume, 2004). Gender disadvantages are greater for women at higher levels of earnings (Cotter, Hermsen & Vanneman, 1999). Future Research (PHASE II & III):  Future Research (PHASE II & III) NSOPF:99 and IPEDS data analyses to capture the academic workforce. Utilize Cotter et al. definition of a glass ceiling. Disseminate research findings through publications and conference presentations. Implications: policy, practice and future research :  Implications: policy, practice and future research National significance of current research Growing number of institutions and employees Research needs to move beyond outcomes commonly measured: salary, rank, tenure status, authority/power ($) Suggested Strategies:  Suggested Strategies Increase representation on campuses (faculty, staff and students) University of Michigan: Michigan Mandate and Michigan Agenda for Women Ensure pipeline is full (students) WISE program at University of Wisconsin Suggested Strategies:  Suggested Strategies Adhere to affirmative action hiring and promotion policies Leads to increase in women’s numerical presence (Glazer-Raymo, 1999) Institute family friendly policies University of California – Berkeley Mentoring programs Women faculty mentoring program - University of Wisconsin

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