Published on March 19, 2014
Git by Adham Saad
Contents • What is Version Control ? • What is Git • Installing Git • Setup Git for the first time
Contents • Git Basics o Cloning o Staging o Committing o Pushing o Reverting • Git Branching
Contents • Git Stashing • Submodules • Resources
What is Version Control • Version control is a system that records changes to a file or set of files over time so that you can recall specific versions later.
What is Git • The major difference between Git and any other VCS (Subversion and friends included) is the way Git thinks about its data. • Conceptually, most other systems store information as a list of file-based changes.
What is Git • This is how other Systems thinks of files
What is Git • Git doesn’t think of or store its data this way. • Instead, Git thinks of its data more like a set of snapshots of a mini filesystem. • Every time you commit, or save the state of your project in Git, it basically takes a picture of what all your files look like at that moment and stores a reference to that snapshot.
What is Git • To be efficient, if files have not changed, Git doesn’t store the file again , just a link to the previous identical file it has already stored.
Installing Git • on Ubuntu $ apt-get install git • For other OS http://git-scm.com/book/en/Getting-Started-Installing-Git
Setup Git for the first time • There are several servers for git , in which we can create our repositories o Github ( https://github.com/ ) o Bitucket ( https://bitbucket.org/ ) o Assembla ( https://www.assembla.com ) • Let’s go to bitbucket and create an account for free.
Upload your Ssh key • Go to http://wiki.zhibek.com/wiki/Training/Git#SSH_key and follow the steps to upload your ssh key to bitbucket ( https://confluence.atlassian.com/display/BITBUCKET/A dd+an+SSH+key+to+an+account )
New Repository • Create a new repository from here https://bitbucket.org/repo/create • Follow the steps introduced to you from the website to use the repo for the first time
Adding Files • After cloning your repository , cd to it • Add a new text file $ git commit -m “your message” • Here you have added your files to the staging state but not to the server $ git push • You have added your file to the server
Sharing • Let’s share one repository with all of us • One of us will make changes , commit and push • The others should see his changes after running git pull
Branching • Branching in git is not used to solve day to day issues , but usually for introducing new releases , or for working on something different than the master branch (like design)
Branching • Create new branch $ git checkout -b newbranch • This is a shorthand for $ git branch newbranch $ git checkout newbranch • This is also how to switch to an existing branch. $ git checkout master
Stashing • Sometimes , you didn't finish your task yet , but you want to pull the latest changes from the server, and if you do you might have conflicts. Here comes git stash . • The stash command is saving all your non committed changes to something like a stack, and the you can pop it again
Stashing $ git stash $ git pull $ git stash pop
Submodules • Git also provides an easy way to include libraries called submodules • Suppose you want to add zend framework 2 library in your project , it is simply by running the following
Submodules $ git submodule init $ git submodule add email@example.com:zendframework/zf2.git library/zf2 • Note that you might need to add your ssh key to github too )
Submodules • You can clone a repo with its submodules by running $ git clone <repo_ssh_url> -- recursive • or after cloning it you can run $ git submodule init $ git submodule update
Resources • http://wiki.zhibek.com/wiki/Training/Git (Please update this page if you found something interesting) • http://git-scm.com/book
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