Published on March 16, 2016
1. Machine Guarding Draft 1 16 2016 1 firstname.lastname@example.org 815 354-6853
2. Introduction to Machine Guarding • The intent of machine guarding is to minimize the risk of accidents from machine operator contact. 2
3. Introduction to Machine Guarding • Safeguards are essential for protecting workers from needless and preventable injuries such as crushed hands and arms, severed fingers, and blindness. 3
4. Activity • Employees make contact with a machine - usually the moving part - for many reasons, including: • List 5 4
5. Introduction to Machine Guarding • Amputations are some of the most serious and debilitating workplace injuries. • They are widespread and involve a variety of activities and equipment. • Amputations occur most often when workers operate unguarded or inadequately guarded machines. 5
6. Introduction to Machine Guarding • Besides normal operations, the following activities involving stationary machines also expose workers to potential amputation hazards: • setting-up, threading, preparing, adjusting, cleaning, lubricating and maintaining machines as well as clearing jams. 6
7. Machinery & Machine Guarding [1910.211 – .219] 7 MACHINE GUARDS – GENERAL GRINDERS – WORK RESTS POWER TRANSMISSION APPARATUS – PULLEYS GRINDERS – TONGUE GUARDS MACHINE GUARDS – POINT OF OPERATION SUBPARTO 287 382 470 626 1563 219(d)(1) 215(a)(4) 215(b)(9) 212(a)(3)(ii) 212(a)(1) OSHA Top 5 2015
8. Current Events • These are some of the recent machine guarding stories. 8
9. February 2016 • A Utah supermarket worker died on the job Wednesday after accidentally getting caught in the bakery’s industrial mixer, police said. • “In the process of working with that machine, she somehow got caught up and pulled into the machine,” Sandy Police Sgt. Dean Carriger said. 9
10. Oct 2015 10
11. August 2015 • The first day on the job for a new employee ended tragically when a 21-year-old man suffered severe burns and the loss of four fingers at a manufacturing plant in Elyria, Ohio, in March • The accident happened when the man, who had been working for a few hours when the incident occurred, was trying to clear a jam in a plastic molding machine. 11 Blow Molding machine
12. August 2015 • Osceola WI • $207,600 • Egregious spot welder guarding. • Two Amputations in 2015 • 1300+ lbs. ram pressure • Senses metal on metal contact • Soft touch 50 pounds of pressure 12
13. July 2015 • San Luis Obispo, CA • The machine's blades "came around and broke his arm and came around again and broke his arm a little further up the next turnaround," said San Luis Obispo Fire Battalion Chief Neal Berryman • Berryman said the man's head or neck would have been hit next. 13
14. July 2015 • MIDDLEFIELD, Ohio – Shady Knob violated the law when they allowed a 14-year-old boy to operate machinery, which resulted in him losing his hand. • “Workers under age 18 are prohibited from operating power-driven woodworking machinery, such as the wood planer used here,” said Howard Eberts, OSHA’s area director in Cleveland. 14 Unsafe! Safe
15. April 2015 • Elk Grove Village, IL • The worker became caught in a power lathe, a machine that spins quickly to shape or cut products including metal and wood 15
16. April 2015 • Ohio • $1.4 million penalties • Willful Lockout and guarding • On April 7, a 17-year-old temp employee suffered the amputation of his left leg from the knee down when he was cleaning the liver-giblet chiller machine. • The teen has been unable to return to work due to his injuries, and he was fired after the incident. 16
17. March 2015 • Island Lake IL • The machinist was using sandpaper to remove surface rust from a part of a computer-run machine. • His hand was caught and pulled into rotating parts, breaking his bones. • The worker underwent several surgeries and rehabilitation 17
18. March 2015 • Chicago • Allen says that on March 25, a fourteen-year-old boy was operating a planer at the business, when his shirt became caught in the machinery which caused severe damage to one of the teen's hands 18
19. February 2015 • Ashley Furniture Industries Inc. employees have suffered more than 1,000 work-related injuries, including more than 100 amputations from woodworking machinery, over a three-and-a-half year period. • $1,760,000 fine 19
20. December 2015 • Tragedy struck a Sparks, NV, machine shop when a 33-year- old machinist died after his clothing became entangled in a vertical lathe and pulled him into the equipment. • Rescuers responded to a call about 6 a.m. Dec. 10 at Ebara International Corporation, but were unable to save Jason Cheely. 20 Typical lathe
21. October 2014 • The employee was killed after he became entangled in a conveyor belt at the company's lumber mill in Fulton. • The worker, employed at the company for less than two weeks, was cleaning up sawdust and bark around an unguarded conveyor when the entanglement occurred
22. June 2014 • Belvidere, IL • Jake Frisella, a 21-year-old machine operator, was fatally crushed reaching into an auto bumper machine to align parts on June 10, 2014. • A Stateline family has filed a lawsuit against a manufacturer they say installed a machine that led to the death of their 21- year-old son. 22 Typical Auto bumper assembly machine
23. July 2014 • Cordova NY • A 45-year-old lost part of three fingers when his left hand caught in a table saw at a Cordova company that fabricates reusable shipping containers. • Doctors reattached the fingers, but had to amputate the tip of his left middle finger. • The employee has been unable to return to work. This is a guarded table saw. This table saw is in violation because it does not have a guard, anti-kickback, and a spreader.
24. Activity • Do you know of any accidents in your facility where an employee has been injured or killed because a machine safeguard was not in use at the time? • Or any accident which could have been prevented if better safeguarding had been available? • Briefly describe what happened, what was done to prevent its recurrence and what happened to the employee. • __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________24
25. Safety Codes • Safety Code for Mechanical Power Transmission Apparatus published in the 1940’s by American Standards Association • Very similar to OSHA 1910.219 std. • Required forethought guarding vs. afterthought guarding for machine manufacturers 25
26. IL 2000-2007 • 3984 Amputations • 50% of top 10 were temp agencies • 11.5% of the companies had two amputations • 343 whole hand, 68 forearm, 20 upper arm • 24 Whole foot, 32 whole leg, 24 lower leg 26
27. Basics of Machine Safeguarding • There seems to be as many hazards created by moving machine parts as there are types of machines. • Safeguards are essential for protecting workers from needless and preventable injuries 27 Four slide machine
28. Basics of Machine Safeguarding • All machines consist of three fundamental areas • the point of operation, • the power transmission device • the operating controls This plastic injection molding machine has an interlocked guard protecting the point of operation.
29. Basics of Machine Safeguarding • The point of operation is where work is performed on the material, such as cutting, shaping, boring, or forming of stock. A forming press would need guards or light curtains to prevent entry during operations.
30. Nip Point • Nip point - location where machine pieces come together such as belts and a pulley, two in-running rollers, etc. • Also called the Bite 30
31. Basics of Machine Safeguarding • The power transmission apparatus is all components of the mechanical system which transmit energy to the part of the machine performing the work. • These components include flywheels, pulleys, belts, connecting rods, couplings, cams, spindles, chains, cranks, and gears. Many deaths have occurred when caught in the unguarded rotating shafts of equipment.
32. Basics of Machine Safeguarding • Motions Rotating: in-running nip points, spindles, shaft ends, couplings Reciprocating: back-and-forth, up-and-down Transverse: movement in a straight, continuous line • Operations Cutting: bandsaws, drills, milling machines, lathes Punching: punch presses, notchers Shearing: mechanical, pneumatic, or hydraulic shears Bending: press brakes, tube benders, plate rolls
33. ANSI B Series • The user shall ensure that set-up and maintenance personnel and operators are trained to perform the functions for which they are responsible. 33
34. ANSI B Series The user shall designate, provide, and ensure the use of at least one of the following methods of safeguarding that affords protection for the operator, consistent with the requirements of the task: • guard(s) • safeguarding device(s) • awareness barrier(s) or awareness device(s) • safe work procedure(s). 34
35. Machine Hazards? 35
36. Machine Hazards? 36
37. Machine Hazards? 37
38. Machine Hazards? 38
39. Machine Hazards? 39
40. Machine Hazards? 40
41. Principles of Machine Guarding • Safe Distance - 7’ rule of belts, etc. • Guards - employees can’t get in hazardous area through the use of barriers. • Table 0-10 for guard opening design (next page) • Devices - Presence sensing mats, pullbacks, light curtains, restraints 41
42. Table O-10 • Distance of opening from the point of operation hazard (in inches) • 1/2 to 1 1/2 • 1 1/2 to 2 1/2 • 2 1/2 to 3 ½ • 3 1/2 to 5 ½ • 5 1/2 to 6 ½ • 6 1/2 to 7 ½ • 7 1/2 to 12 ½ • 12 1/2 to 15 ½ • 15 1/2 to 17 ½ • 17 1/2 to 31 ½ • Maximum width of opening (in inches) • ¼ • 3/8 • ½ • 5/8 • ¾ • 7/8 • 1 ¼ • 1 ½ • 1 7/8 • 2 1/8 42
43. Types of Machine Safeguards • Barriers and guards • Mechanical or electronic devices that restrict contact, such as presence- sensing, restraining, or tripping devices, two-hand controls, or gates. • Feeding and ejection methods that eliminate part handling in the hazard zone. 43
44. Light Curtains • Some amputations are linked to machine failure, such as failure of a single-stroke linkage resulting in a "double cycle," electronic failure of two-hand controls, brake failure resulting in the slide falling, and jammed relays in light curtains. 44
45. • Unguarded nip points, rotating parts • No P.O.O. Guarding • Tongue grinder ¼” • Work Rest 1/8” • Unguarded pulleys • Unguarded Vertical Belts • Chain and sprocket not guarded • Lower blade guard radial arm saw • No punch press inspection records • Unguarded horizontal belts 45 Most Cited
46. Amputations Most Wanted 46
47. Circular Saws • Lower blade guard required • Clean saw and blade to prevent guard from sticking • Aurora 1998 - 100+ stitches from saw 47
48. Circular saw • Employee #1 was cutting 2x4 sections with the saw in his right hand, and he was using his left hand to position the wood. • Employee #1 made a cut across the wood and his right foot stepped on the power cord, causing the saw to shift its direction and cut his left hand. • Employee #1 will regain full function of his left fingers, but he will suffer some nerve damage in his thumb. 48
49. Vertical Bandsaw • Adjustable guard to height of product • Many injuries by guiding product into POO • Handling cold slippery products will increase chances of slipping into POO • Consider tools or “no Touch” 49
50. Horizontal Bandsaw • Unused portion of blade need to be guarded • No oversized blades used 50
51. Any Issues? 51
52. Radial Arm Saw • Lower blade awareness device • Retracts to original position • Does not extend past plane of table • Anti-kick back device 52
53. Radial Arm saw • June 30, 2008, • Employee was using a radial arm saw to cut a piece of 2-in. by 6-in. lumber for a Truss brace. • Using the radial arm saw mounted on a bench, he placed the piece of lumber beneath the 16-in. blade holding it with his left hand. • The running saw vibrated forward and struck the lumber, amputating the small finger in the process. 53
54. Table Saws • Top guard • Magnetic restart • Spreader • Push sticks • Anti-kick device 54
55. Table saw On December 29, 2011, Employee #1, a 29-year-old male was operating a Sears brand hand-fed table saw in the rear of facility. Employee #1 was ripping about two- inches off one end of pine boards, and the board momentarily paused close to the end of the cut and then went forward. 55
56. Chop Saw • Lower blade awareness device • Speed marked on saw • Clean saw blades to prevent varnish/sap buildup 56
57. Conveyors • Emergency stops placed • ANSI B20.1 • In-running nip points guarded by fixed guards • This elevator section unguarded 57
58. MIOSHA conveyors • Rule 1411. • (1) An employer shall provide training to an employee working on or by a conveyor regarding the hazards and safeguards of such work. • (2) An employer shall establish an inspection program to maintain conveyor components in a condition which does not constitute a hazard to the employee. 58
59. Take-up Coils/Reels • Often slow moving • Several amputations due getting caught in nip point • Interlock guards or barriers used • Unguarded fabrictake- up roll nip point 59
60. Packaging Machines • Multiple pinch points • Employee reach in to clear jams • Fixed guards or light curtains • Lockout is needed • 1999 - Aurora amputation 60
61. Belt Sanders • Hazard is nip point • Use fixed guard 61
62. Inspecting Secondary Operations Equipment Drill Presses: 1. On drill presses, drive belts are properly guarded & compartment closed. 2. Point of Operation guarding, in place and used. If applicable. 3. Check equipment for damage, including wiring.
63. Drill Press • Hair or clothing get caught in rotating shaft • Automatic ones can guard against pinch point via 1/4 opening or presence sensing devices 63
64. Lathe Safety
68. December 2015 • Tragedy struck a Sparks, NV, machine shop when a 33-year-old machinist died after his clothing became entangled in a vertical lathe and pulled him into the equipment. • Rescuers responded to a call about 6 a.m. Dec. 10 at Ebara International Corporation, but were unable to save Jason Cheely. 68 Typical lathe
69. Lathes • Eye protection glasses with side-shields. • Use complete enclosure guard • Interlock No loose sleeves, long hair, or jewelry • Work is securely clamped in the chuck. • Start the lathe at low speed and increase the speed gradually. • Removing the chuck key immediately after use. 69
70. Lathes 2010 - 2012 • While working in the Laboratory’s machine shop, Michele’s hair got caught in one of the shop’s wood lathes, On November 9, 2010, Employee #1 was working on a lathe machine. He caught his clothing in the machine. A witness to the incident said, that somehow, Employee #1 worked his way out of the lathe; however, due to the force of him pulling away from the machine, he fell to the concrete, hit his head, and was killed. 70
71. Lathes • February 24, 2012, Employee #1, a 45-year-old lathe operator, was moving product from an external inspection area to lathe operation area. • He reached across the protruding stack which was being run when the lathe caught his jacket, pulling him into the rotation cycle. • He died of his injuries 10 days after the accident. 71
72. Issues? 72
73. Auctioned or Used Machines • Often missing guards • Employer must guard even if not designed with them • Consult ANSI standard applicable 73
74. Summary • If a four year could get hurt with a machine, an adult will eventually get hurt too. 74
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