Published on May 14, 2008
Getting Started with Business Process Modeling How much BPMN do you really need? Michael zur Muehlen, Ph.D. Center of Excellence in Business Process Innovation Howe School of Technology Management Stevens Institute of Technology Hoboken NJ Michael.zurMuehlen@stevens.edu 1
How do you make a Cup of Coffee? 2
Coffee Lover Put Boiling Water Boil Water Put Coffee in Cup in Cup Thirsty Coffee is Ready The Nescafé Process 3
Water is cold no Kettle empty? Boil Water yes Fill Kettle Coffee Lover Put Boiling Water in Cup Thirsty Coffee is Ready No Put Coffee in Cup dirty? Cup Dishwasher Yes Clean Cup The Espresso Machine Process 4
Hand Coffee Make Coffee To Customer Done Barrista Order cancelled Discard Coffee Coffee Shop Insufﬁcient Payment Cashier Take Order + Collect Payment Coffee Store Open Done Order Payment Household Go To Coffee Order Coffee Pay for Coffee Take Coffee Shop Thirsty Done > 5 min wait Leave The Starbucks Process 5
How to Get Started Find Pick a Model matching tool Problem 6
How to Get Started Find Pick a Model matching tool Problem Pick a Select Solve the Problem Method Problem 6
What is a Good Process Model? Correct Relevant Economical 7
Correct When is a model correct? Relevant Economical Correct Syntax Proper use of the Modeling Method Correct Semantics Accurate representation of Reality 8
“As-If” As-Is Correct Relevant Economical 9 Source: Rob Davis (2006)
Modeling with BPMN 10
What is BPMN? Graphical Notation for Describing Business Processes The “Look” of a process diagram Flowchart based Activity Network – Nodes and transitions Sequential, Parallel and Conditional Paths Arbitrarily complex diagrams The BPMN will provide businesses with the capability of deﬁning and understanding their internal and external business procedures through a Business Process Diagram, which will give organizations the ability to communicate these procedures in a standardized manner. 11
+ Pool, Lane, Grouping, Annotation, Document, Transaction Boundary... BPMN 1.0 - Elements Available 12
BPMN 1.1 Maintenance Update Minor changes to notation New symbol for Multiple Event and Gateway (used to be star, now pentagram) New Signal Event Separation of “catching” and “throwing” events 13
Normal Flow Task End Event Start Event / Event Pool Data-Based XOR Start Message Text Annotation Message Flow Parallel Fork/Join Lanes Gateway Sub-Process (Collapsed) Association Data Object Intermediate Timer Intermediate Message End Terminate Sub-Process (Expanded) End Link Default Flow Inclusive Decision/Merge Activity Looping Exception Task Start Link End Message End Exception Complex Decision/Merge diagrams Event-Based XOR Multiple Instance Group three sources: Transaction Intermediate Event End Cancel Compensation Long-tail usage pattern Intermediate Compensation Consulting Projects Conditional Flow Exception Flow Web (random collection) Intermediate Link not be found among any of the Start Timer BPMN Seminar participants Off-page connector Source: 126 BPMN diagrams from Start Rule Some BPEL-related primitives could Intermediate Rule Intermediate Multiple End Compensation Start Multiple Web Frequency of BPMN Symbol Use Intermediate Exception Seminar Intermediate Cancel Consulting End Multiple 14 Compensation Association
Normal Flow Task End Event Start Event / Event Pool Data-Based XOR Start Message Text Annotation Message Flow Parallel Fork/Join Lanes Gateway Sub-Process (Collapsed) Association Data Object Intermediate Timer Intermediate Message End Terminate Sub-Process (Expanded) End Link Default Flow Inclusive Decision/Merge Activity Looping Exception Task Start Link End Message End Exception Complex Decision/Merge Event-Based XOR Multiple Instance Group Transaction Intermediate Event End Cancel Compensation Intermediate Compensation Conditional Flow Exception Flow Intermediate Link Start Timer Off-page connector Start Rule Intermediate Rule Intermediate Multiple End Compensation Start Multiple Intermediate Exception Intermediate Cancel End Multiple Compensation Association 15
Modeling in the Small: Service Process Improvement 16
Service Process Innovation Problem: Service Processes in truck dealerships are crucial for customers that need to maintain their trucks, potentially very proﬁtable, but not very well understood. Question: How can we improve the existing service process, quantify improvements, and increase both customer satisfaction and proﬁtability? How well is BPMN suited for this task? Approach: Map the existing process in BPMN, identify improvement potential, benchmark process metrics, design new process in BPMN, supervise implementation 17
As-Is Process (v. 13) 18
To-Be Process (v. 11) 19
Useful Abuse 20
Insights A very limited BPMN subset is sufﬁcient to create processes (and produce redesign results) “Creative abuse” can increase readability Management literacy of the BPMN diagrams made it easier to illustrate the ROI of a pure modeling project Process simulation is essential to peg ﬁnancial beneﬁts to process changes Even in a blue collar environment, process improvement ideas can be generated at the front line 21
Correct Relevance Relevant Economical Is everything relevant in the model? Missing process paths? Missing responsibilities? Missing information? Is everything in the model relevant? Information overload 22
Correct 2 Verbs in Activity Constraint Bad Example Relevant Economical “Call Bank” = How “Verify” = What 23
Correct Consistent Level of Abstraction? Relevant Economical 24
Correct When is a model Economical? Relevant Economical Effort spent on documentation vs. Value of model use 25
Correct Relevant Economical 26
As-Is or just To-Be? 27
Perform As Is Modeling? It is important to design as-is models if you feel The as-is will include lots of improvement constraints You aim for minor changes You do not understand the domain at all The organization is risk averse The process is of strategic importance You have a very cost effective methodology for as-is modeling The difference between as-is and to-be is a change management document 28
Skip As Is Modeling? You can skip as-is modeling when The process is a commodity You have a very good understanding of the as-is People would otherwise not be able to think out of the box You have a very good approach for process improvement 29
Modeling in the Large: Enterprise-wide Modeling 30
Project Scope Duration: 21 months Project team: 13 Modelers (Full-time) >80 Subject Matter Experts (Part-time) Goal 1: Development of an Enterprise Process Model Goal 2: Alignment of Organization with new Processes 31
Process Granularity Decided to follow Process Objects to discover process structure. Invoice Pallet Reminder Payment Complaint Package Slip
As-Is Modeling Survey of As-Is Processes in the district ofﬁces Mixture of observation and workshops “How does this typically work” is not a good question Scenarios are helpful (rainy day - sunny day) Standardization of models across different districts 34
To-be Modeling Deﬁnition of strategic Core Processes Development of a Enterprise Process Framework Modeling and reﬁnement of an Enterprise Process Catalog Enhancement of the glossary 35
Process Framework - Facility Management Enterprise Management Customer Asset Process Management Customers Management Controlling Strategical /Operative Portfolio Reporting Mgmt. Market Activities Enactment of Services Der bearbeitete Der relevante Technical Project Planning Services Market study Shareholders Contracting Resource- Administrative Market disposition Services Shareholders Owners Marketing Users and Owners Acquisition Consulting Personnel Users Services Information- Material- Accounting, Informations- Informations- Informations- Legal Issues Informations- processing management Finance verarbeitung verarbeitung verarbeitung verarbeitung Human Resources
Example Level 1-3 Unternehmensführung Kunden Prozeßmanagement Controlling Kunden Strategische/Operative Führung Berichtswesen Der bearbeitete Markt Marktbearbeitung Leistungserbringung !quot;§=== Der relevante Markt Eigentümer Marketing Planung Technische Dienstleistung !quot;§=== Eigentümer Markt und Akquisition Investoren Vertrags- Ressourcen- Kaufmännische Markt Investoren abschluß disposition Dienstleistung Eigentümer Nutzer Eigentümer Personelle Asset Projektstudie Beratung Dienstleistung Nutzer Management !quot;§=== Nutzer !quot;§=== Nutzer Informations- Material- Informations- Rechnungs- Informations- Recht Informations- verarbeitung wirtschaft verarbeitung wesen, Finanzen verarbeitung verarbeitung Personalmanagement Process: Goods Receipt Process: Purchase on site Process: Purchase Resources Process: Evaluate Quotes Process: Goods Issue
Process Framework: Fortune 100 Methods Enterprise Process Architecture Organization 38
Lessons learned Glossary was helpful “Object” in real estate is very different from CS “object” Modeling standards were invaluable Not just words, but naming and phrasing conventions Employees can learn “complicated” modeling techniques Use method ﬁlters wisely Decide who will read and who will contribute Who owns the model? 39
Lessons Learned (2) Method became more and more standardized over time Started with (nearly) all modeling elements Ended with heavily customized method ﬁlters Started with free-form EPC with routing guidelines Ended with swimlane-style EPCs Process modeling can become a self-fulﬁlling purpose Rogue projects sprung up before the implementation phase Integrating 650 models only works if you have standards 2 full time staff for model consolidation in the end, everything changed… 40
What’s the Big Picture? 41
Top Management Support Economics Governance Project Management Project Model Model Setup Design Maintenance Users Info. Tools Modelers Providers and Lang. Modeling in Context 42
Thank You - Questions? Michael zur Muehlen, Ph.D. Center of Excellence in Business Process Innovation Howe School of Technology Management Stevens Institute of Technology Castle Point on the Hudson Hoboken, NJ 07030 Phone: +1 (201) 216-8293 Fax: +1 (201) 216-5385 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: http://www.cebpi.org slides: www.slideshare.net/mzurmuehlen 43
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