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Gestion du risque du prix du pétrole, Ivan Zelenko

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Information about Gestion du risque du prix du pétrole, Ivan Zelenko

Published on July 17, 2008

Author: EPetrilli

Source: slideshare.net

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International Oil and Gas Resource Management Seminar, April 27-30, 2008; held in Libreville, Gabon
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Managing Oil Price Risk with Derivatives Ivan Zelenko Head of Structured Finance and Derivatives The World Bank Treasury Stabilizing Oil Fiscal Revenues over the Short to Medium Term Oil and Gas Seminar April 27-30 Libreville, Gabon

Managing Oil Price Risk Agenda Definition of a Stabilization Policy Risk Management with Derivatives Implementation Case Study: European Airlines

Definition of a Stabilization Policy

Risk Management with Derivatives

Implementation

Case Study: European Airlines

Managing Oil Price Risk Definition of a Stabilization Policy Oil price risk challenges fiscal policy Oil exporting countries may derive a large share of their fiscal revenues from oil sales Exposure to oil price challenges fiscal policy: shelving of planned projects, higher savings and lower investments, wasteful use of oil ‘windfall’ increased vulnerability of governments balance sheet Exporting countries have set up policies to insulate budgetary revenues from oil price shocks

Oil price risk challenges fiscal policy

Oil exporting countries may derive a large share of their fiscal revenues from oil sales

Exposure to oil price challenges fiscal policy:

shelving of planned projects, higher savings and lower investments, wasteful use of oil ‘windfall’

increased vulnerability of governments balance sheet

Exporting countries have set up policies to insulate budgetary revenues from oil price shocks

The objective of an oil price stabilization policy is to reduce the vulnerability to oil price shocks and to smooth the fluctuations in oil fiscal revenues over the short to medium term: at a minimum cost and subject to: tolerance to downside risk and concern with upside gains Managing oil Price Risk Definition of a Stabilization Policy Stabilization Policy Objective

The objective of an oil price stabilization policy is to reduce the vulnerability to oil price shocks and to smooth the fluctuations in oil fiscal revenues over the short to medium term:

at a minimum cost

and subject to:

tolerance to downside risk

and concern with upside gains

Stabilization Funds have been set up to immunize budgets Oil revenues above a certain reference price are saved in the Fund. The Fund pays to the budget to ensure stable oil fiscal revenues based on the reference price. Budget Oil Price sensitive Fiscal Revenues Managing Oil Price Risk Definition of a Stabilization Policy Fluctuate Stabilization Fund Stable

Stabilization Funds have been set up to immunize budgets

Stabilization Funds have shortcomings The initial capitalization of and the reference price should be properly set to avoid either exhaustion or over-accumulation The reference price is difficult to determine as oil prices do not exhibit a natural long term average. It could, however, be defined as a moving average. The accumulated savings may raise the question of their use. But the Fund may include a “Fund for the Future” tranche Stabilization Funds require robust governance rules Cost of carry if invested in short term liquid $ assets Managing Oil Price Risk Definition of a Stabilization Policy

Stabilization Funds have shortcomings

The initial capitalization of and the reference price should be properly set to avoid either exhaustion or over-accumulation

The reference price is difficult to determine as oil prices do not exhibit a natural long term average. It could, however, be defined as a moving average.

The accumulated savings may raise the question of their use. But the Fund may include a “Fund for the Future” tranche

Stabilization Funds require robust governance rules

Cost of carry if invested in short term liquid $ assets

Transfer Risk to Markets using Oil Derivatives Oil Derivatives enable hedging or insurance RM strategies. They do not require immobilization of capital. They can be combined with the Stabilization Fund approach. Managing Oil Price Risk Defining a Stabilization Policy Budget Stabilization Fund Oil Price sensitive Fiscal Revenues Transfer of Risk Fluctuate Derivatives transaction Stable

Transfer Risk to Markets using Oil Derivatives

Managing Oil Price Risk Definition of a Stabilization Policy Objective Governance Approach Time Horizon Risk Tolerance Budget Instruments Implementation infrastructure Formulation of a Risk Management Policy

Managing Oil Price Risk Agenda Definition of a Stabilization Policy Risk Management with Derivatives Implementation Lessons learned: Case Study of European Airlines

Definition of a Stabilization Policy

Risk Management with Derivatives

Implementation

Lessons learned: Case Study of European Airlines

Generic Strategies with Derivatives Remove uncertainty. Fix future oil prices. Low cost (but implied costs of margin calls). Do not permit upside gains An insurance strategy placing a floor on future oil prices. Purchase payments (premiums) for buying puts is the cost of insurance. Permit upside gains. Managing Oil Price Risk RM with Derivatives Forward sales Purchase of puts  Hedging  Insurance

Generic Strategies with Derivatives

Managing Oil Price Risk RM with Derivatives Forward Initial exposure Forward Oil Price Revenues Forward Sale Net exposure Initial exposure Forward Oil Price Put Net exposure Revenues Put Floor future oil price at a cost Fix future oil price Cost of insurance Hedging Insurance

Managing Oil Price Risk RM with Derivatives The purchase cost of puts can be mitigated Forward Oil Price Put Net exposure Revenues But upside gains are capped Forward Oil Price Put Net exposure Revenues Call But protection is lessened Buy Put + Sell Call Buy Put + Sell Put

Oil Prices have increased markedly since 2003 Managing Oil Price Risk RM with Derivatives

Managing Oil Price Risk RM with derivatives The US Energy Information Administration forecasts a decline in prices over the next 10 years Production increases (OPEC, non OPEC), growth of other energy sources

Managing Oil Price Risk Agenda Definition of a Stabilization Policy Derivatives: instruments, strategies and markets Implementation Lessons learned: Case Study of European Airlines

Definition of a Stabilization Policy

Derivatives: instruments, strategies and markets

Implementation

Lessons learned: Case Study of European Airlines

Hedging Board sets policies, ensures accountability and reviews results . Should “ own ” the Hedging policy Hedging Committee selects and implements hedging strategies consistent with objectives and risk tolerance of the Board. Hedging execution teams (traders, analysts) Control teams, responsible for monitoring performance, review strategy based on commodity market changes Good governance = clear separation of roles and accountabilities Managing Oil Price Risk Implementation Hedging Committee Market analysis, hedging strategy, guidelines, eligible instruments Hedging Board Hedging Policy, Risk Tolerance, Time Horizon and Budget Derivatives Traders Execution, Market Knowledge Risk & Analytics Risk Modeling Forecasting Control Compliance Performance Monitoring

Managing Oil Price Risk Agenda Definition of a Stabilization Policy Derivatives: instruments, strategies and markets Implementation Case Study: European Airlines

Definition of a Stabilization Policy

Derivatives: instruments, strategies and markets

Implementation

Case Study: European Airlines

Managing Oil Price Risk Case Study: European Airlines Minimize variability in jet fuel purchase costs Two years 8 million tons of crude/jet fuel p.a. Tighter “cap” on oil price, but reducing the costs by selling out-of-money puts Options (buying calls and selling puts) Hedging committee reporting to the Board 6 staff in Trading, Analytics, Risk Management, M/O & B/O functions, Systems Software bought & customized (~ $1 Mio) Net price of calls = 5% Jet Fuel purchase costs Objective: Time Horizon: Size: Risk Tolerance: Instruments: Governance: Implementation Infrastructure: Budget: Formulation of the Risk Management Policy

Managing Oil Price Risk Case Study: European Airlines Generic Risk Management Strategy based on collars Program: ~ 8 Mio tons purchase of Kerosene per year Annual Cost: ~ $ 4 Bio Budget: ~ 4% of purchase ~ $ 160 Mio ~ $3 / bbl Upside Protection: ~ $ 2 / bbl above forward price Downside Opportunity Risk: ~ - $ 10 $ / bbl

Managing Oil Price Risk Case Study: European Airlines Airline Risk Management Strategy is more geared towards reducing uncertainty 20 40 80 60

Managing Oil Price Risk Case Study: European Airlines Trade off in Hedging Strategy Cost of Insurance Premium Insurance against Price increase (buy call) Acceptance of Opportunity loss (sell put)

Managing Oil Price Risk Case Study: European Airlines Implementation of Risk Management Policy Active Management Can deviate from the mandatory hedging program to take advantage of market conditions Provides flexibility to the hedging program Within the pre-determined parameters such as stop-loss limits and tolerance range of the hedge ratio 6 months 18 months (7 th -24 th ) 90% 85% - 5% Deviation + Mandatory/Automatic Trading Computer-generated automatic trading program (works as a benchmark) Given budget and insurance parameter solves for the last value (strike of sold put) Price averaging approach 6 months 18 months (7 th -24 th ) 90% 85% - 5%

Active Management

Can deviate from the mandatory hedging program to take advantage of market conditions

Provides flexibility to the hedging program

Within the pre-determined parameters such as stop-loss limits and tolerance range of the hedge ratio

Managing Oil Price Risk Quote Quote on collar strategy as of April 29 Spot WTI: $116 / bbl Horizon: 3 years (May 2009, 2010, 2011) Budget: $3 / bbl Downside Protection: $90 / bbl Upside Opportunity Limit : 2009 no limit 2010 $182 / bbl 2011 $ 167 / bbl

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