george introductory presentation

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Information about george introductory presentation

Published on March 21, 2008

Author: Carmina


Slide1:  Economics for a Sustainable and Peaceful Planet Slide2:  That the causes of economic depressions and widespread poverty are largely political and can be solved That economics as taught today does not describe reality That political economy, as formulated by Henry George, was built on a long tradition of scientific investigation that does describe reality What You Will Learn in this Course Slide3:  That Henry George arose from obscurity in his early life to become the foremost writer on political economy of the late 19th century That a robust social and political movement developed to support the changes in public policy advanced by Henry George That the efforts of many individuals committed to Henry George’s proposals continue around the world today What You Will Learn in this Course (continued) A Thought from Carl Sagan:  A Thought from Carl Sagan “In every country, we should be teaching our children the scientific method and the reasons for a Bill of Rights. With it comes a certain decency, humility and community spirit. In the demon-haunted world that we inhabit by virtue of being human, this may be all that stands between us and the enveloping darkness.” Who was Henry George?:  Who was Henry George? Who was Henry George? (continued):  Who was Henry George? (continued) 1839 -- Born in Philadelphia (2 September) Attended St. Paul’s Episcopal Church as a youngster Enrolled by his parents in a private school at age six; then, after three years entered Mount Vernon School briefly before transferring to the Episcopal Academy of Philadelphia A Restless Youth:  A Restless Youth Attended lectures at the Franklin Institute Spent much time at the piers along the Delaware River, learning about the ships and the trade carried on 1855 – Went to sea as a “foremast boy” on the merchant ship Hindoo – bound for Melboune, Australia and Calcutta, India Calcutta Return to Philadelphia:  Return to Philadelphia 1856 – The Hindoo returns to New York on 14 June Henry’s father obtained a position for him with a printing firm, learning to set type Takes an interest in political questions and argued strongly against slavery with family members and friends In Search of Direction:  In Search of Direction 1857 – Quits his job setting type after a quarrel with his foreman, and went to work for the Daily Evening Argus during a labor dispute 1857 – With several friends, forms a literary society and writes several essays, one (critical) on Mormonism 1857 – Signs on to a schooner taking a load of coal from Philadelphia to Boston In Search of Fortune:  In Search of Fortune 1858 – Gains an appointment as ship’s steward aboard a steamship bound for San Francisco, California, arriving in May 1858 – Leaves the ship before his term of enlistment expires and joins with many others headed into the gold fields along the Frazer River San Francisco - 1855 A Long, Hard Climb :  A Long, Hard Climb 1858 – Began his informal study of political economy, reading selections from a small library in the hotel where he was living 1858 – Laid off from his type-setting work, he took a job weighing rice, again, short-lived due to an economic downturn A Long, Hard Climb Continues:  A Long, Hard Climb Continues 1858 – Returns to the printing trade, for the weekly Home Journal 1860 – First begins to think seriously about what population growth in California would bring 1860 – Meets Annie Corsina Fox through a friend Henry George and wife, Annie in later life Journalistic Endeavors:  Journalistic Endeavors 1861 – The Evening Journal survives, but just barely, until mid-November, when the partnership dissolved 1861 – Marries Annie Fox, December 1862 – Son, Henry Jr. is born, 3 November 1863 – Now working for a newspaper in Sacramento Samuel Clemens:  Samuel Clemens In 1862 Clemens is a young newspaperman with a growing reputation as a humorist. He came to Sacramento to lecture. Henry George was hired to take tickets at the door. Serious Poverty:  Serious Poverty 1864 – January. Henry argues with his paper’s foreman and is discharged. He leaves for San Francisco to find work Returns to the Evening Bulletin as a typesetter, but the job lasted for just a few months Enters into partnership with several others in a printing business Steady Work … and Contemplation:  Steady Work … and Contemplation 1865 – Begins serious writing, including a signed letter to the editor urging working men to think about political and social questions Henry George around 1865 From Protectionist to Free Trader:  From Protectionist to Free Trader 1866 – Working at his printing trade in Sacramento, doing work for the state government He believed in the protection of local industry from external competition as the only way to keep employment and wages high After listening to the speech defending protectionist measures, Henry discarded these ideas in favor of free trade From Labor to Management :  From Labor to Management 1867 – June. Appointed managing editor of the San Francisco Times 1868 – Engaged by the San Francisco Herald to travel to New York to try to get the paper admitted to the Associated Press or establish a news service for the paper. Freelance Journalist:  Freelance Journalist 1868 – Article, “What the Railroad Will Bring Us,” published by the Overland Monthly Overland Monthly:  Overland Monthly Back East:  Back East Met with representatives of Associated Press, but they refused to provide its services to the San Francisco paper Established an independent news service in Philadelphia, sent to California using Western Union’s telegraph service, until the Associated Press pressured Western Union to charge the new service higher rates Investigating Political Economy:  Investigating Political Economy 1869 – November. John Stuart Mill responds to Henry George’s article on the assimilation of immigrants; more controversy arises Frustrated Political Ambition :  Frustrated Political Ambition 1869 – Campaigns unsuccessfully to become the Democratic Party’s nominee for the California Assembly 1869 – Meets Henry H. Haight, Governor of California, an avowed Jeffersonian Democrat, as well as a member of the Governor’s staff, John Scott Appointed editor of the Democratic party paper, the Transcript Henry H. Haight The “Sphinx’s Question Answered:  The “Sphinx’s Question Answered 1869 – Concluded that one of the things the railroad would bring was accelerating speculation in land 1870 – February. Accepted an offer by Governor Haight to become managing editor of the state’s main Democratic party paper, the Sacramento Reporter Our Land Policy:  Our Land Policy 1871 – Age 32, he writes a long pamphlet, Our Land and Land Policy Solving the Land Question:  Solving the Land Question George Offers His Views on What our Land Policy Should Be: The Taxation of Land Values “Why should we not go back to the old system, and charge the expense of government upon our lands? “Land taxation does not bear at all upon production; it adds nothing to prices, and does not affect the cost of living. As it does not add to prices, it costs the people nothing in addition to what it yields the Government; while as land cannot be hid or moved, this tax can be collected with more ease and certainty, and with less expense than any other tax; and the land-owner cannot shift it to any one else. “A tax upon the value of land is the most equal of all taxes, because the value of land is something that belongs to all, and in taxing land values we are merely taking for the use of the community something which belongs to the community. …” A New Truth?:  A New Truth? A scholarly lawyer he knew in San Francisco informed Henry George that the proposals he advocated were essentially the same as those put forward a century earlier by a French school of political economists known as the Physiocrats A Final Decade in California:  A Final Decade in California 1871 – Co-founds a new daily, the San Francisco Evening Post, opposing “centralisation and monopolies of all kinds.” 1872 – Is elected a delegate to the Democratic National Convention; then, returning, campaigns hard for Horace Greeley’s election to the Presidency A Final Decade in California (continued):  A Final Decade in California (continued) 1875 – After leaving the Evening Post, he writes to California Governor Irwin to request a position with the state 1876 – January. Henry George is appointed State Inspector of Gas Meters 1876 – March. Makes his first political speech, San Francisco A Final Decade in California (continued):  A Final Decade in California (continued) 1877 – Delivers a lecture on “The Study of Political Economy” to students and faculty of the newly-established University of California at Berkeley A Final Decade in California (continued):  A Final Decade in California (continued) 1877 – July 4. Delivers a stirring speech on “The American Republic” 1877 – September. The writing of his monumental treatise, Progress and Poverty, begins 1878 – June. Speech, “Moses,” delivered at the Young Men’s Hebrew Association of San Francisco A Final Decade in California (continued):  A Final Decade in California (continued) 1879 – March. Completes the manuscript of Progress and Poverty, which is sent to a New York publisher, but is rejected 1879 – May. Decides the only way to have the book published is to make his own plates A Final Decade in California (continued):  A Final Decade in California (continued) 1879 – August. Henry George publishes an author’s edition of Progress and Poverty, which he sends to publishers in the U.S. and England 1879 -- October. D. Appleton agrees to publish Progress and Poverty using the plates provided by Henry George 1880 – January. The D. Appleton edition of Progress and Poverty appears Growing Popularity:  Growing Popularity 1881 – February. Completes a second book, the Irish Land Question: What It Involves, and How Alone It can be Settled 1881 – Embarked on a lecture tour thru New York State, to Montreal, Ottawa and Toronto 1881 – A man named Francis Shaw purchased 1,000 copies of Progress and Poverty to donate to libraries all across the United States To Ireland:  To Ireland 1881 – October. Sails for Liverpool, England but decides to leave the ship when it arrives at the Irish port of Queenstown, then makes his way to Dublin 1881 – November. Address on the land question delivered in Dublin Discovering a Forerunner:  Discovering a Forerunner 1882 – January. From the socialist leader Henry M. Hyndman, receives a copy of a 1775 address by Thomas Spence on “The Real Rights of Man,” delivered before the Philosophical Society of Newcastle Henry M. Hyndman Thomas Spence Enemy of the State:  Enemy of the State 1882 – August. On an investigative trip thru Western Ireland, he and an English companion are arrested by the police “under the Crimes Act as ‘suspicious strangers’.” Later the same day, in the town of Athenry, he is again arrested Bringing the Campaign Home:  Bringing the Campaign Home 1882 – October. Returned from Ireland, his services as a lecturer and writer are in great demand 1883 – Organized labor in the United States begins to champion his proposals 1883 – With supporters, forms the “Free Social Society” to “free the soil from land speculation” Louis F. Post: George’s Right Arm:  Louis F. Post: George’s Right Arm “Louis F. Post had once been an assistant U.S. Attorney in New York City, but he had turned to journalism and had for 15 years edited The Public, a weekly journal devoted to the single tax politics of Henry George. He came to the Department of Labor in 1913 at the request of Sec. Wilson, a friend of many years. When Wilson became sick, responsibility for the Department fell to him. As a supporter of George, he was no socialist but he invariably took the side of the poor and downtrodden.” Champion of Free Trade:  Champion of Free Trade 1883 – His financial condition temporarily buoyed by a $1,000 bequest left by Francis Shaw, he begins a new book attacking tariffs and other restraints on trade 1883 – Writes a series of articles for Frank Leslie’s Illustrated Newspaper under the title “Problems of the Time.” Social Problems:  Social Problems “My endeavor has been to present the momentous social problems of our time, unencumbered by technicalities and without the abstract reasoning which some of the principles of political economy require for thorough explanation.” Henry George - 1883 A Project Left Unfinished:  A Project Left Unfinished 1883 – Prof. William Swinton suggested he produce an abridged and annotated edition of Adam Smith’s Wealth of Nations. George began the work but was soon diverted and never returned to the project A Brief Look at Adam Smith:  A Brief Look at Adam Smith 1776 – Adam Smith’s The Wealth of Nations is published Smith on the Physiocrats:  Smith on the Physiocrats Adam Smith built on system the political economy of this French school of writers, but not uncritically Pierre Samuel du Pont de Nemeurs Francois Quesnay Anne Robert Jacque Turgot The Tableau Economique:  The Tableau Economique The Tableau Economique:  The Tableau Economique Smith on the Physiocrats:  Smith on the Physiocrats In The Wealth of Nations, Smith agrees with the conclusions reached by his French colleagues, but conditions his agreement on the validity of what he calls their “metaphysical arguments” Henry George Takes on Adam Smith:  Henry George Takes on Adam Smith Henry George spends remarkably few pages in his book, Progress and Poverty, analyzing the positions taken by Adam Smith In the end, George is dismayed that Smith’s thinking does not meet a true test of scientific investigation A Movement Stirs in Britain:  A Movement Stirs in Britain 1883 – Supporters in Britain arrange a lecture tour throughout England and Scotland. George accepts the invitation In Britain, the landed elite and their representatives in government were becoming increasingly alarmed over the widening influence of Henry George’s ideas Defenders of the Status Quo:  Defenders of the Status Quo William Gladstone Joseph Chamberlain Arnold Toynbee Raising Hell:  Raising Hell 1883 – December. Henry George arrives in Liverpool, England. His first lecture occurred on 9 January 1884, in St. Jame’s Hall, London. In response to the enthusiastic audiences attending George’s lectures, opponents opened a determined counter-attack Raising Hell (continued):  Raising Hell (continued) 1884 – February. Address, “Moses,” delivered in Kinnaird Hall, Dundee, Scotland 1884 – March. Lectured at Oxford University before an essentially hostile audience, representative of the privileged classes of Britain. Here, the political economist Alfred Marshall challenged George on a number of fronts Raising Hell (continued):  Raising Hell (continued) 1884 – April. Travels to Dublin at the invitation of Michael Davitt, to address a large audience in Dublin; following this event, he sails for New York 1884 – October. Returns to Britain at the request of the Scottish Land Restoration League to assist their campaign Raising Hell (continued):  Raising Hell (continued) 1885 – July. He begins to write a series of articles for publication in the North American Review 1886 – Self-publishes his next book, Protection or Free Trade? several chapters of which had appeared in serial form in various newspapers An Unlikely But Dedicated Supporter Appears:  An Unlikely But Dedicated Supporter Appears 1886 – Wealthy businessman, Tom L. Johnson, who gained his fortune by acquiring street railroad franchises, calls on Henry George in Brooklyn after reading Social Problems and Progress and Poverty Called Upon for Public Service:  Called Upon for Public Service 1886 – Henry George is drafted by the New York labor unions to run for the Office of Mayor of New York City The Tammany political machine nominated Abram S. Hewitt The Republicans nominated Theodore Roosevelt Abram Hewitt Theodore Roosevelt Serious Political Journalism:  Serious Political Journalism 1887 – January. Establishes The Standard in New York City as a weekly newspaper. Louis F. Post joined the paper as editorial and special writer. Henry George’s eldest son came aboard as correspondence editor Defends the Rev. Dr. Edward McGlynn, who in supporting George’s campaign was suspended for holding views contrary to Catholic doctrine The Single Tax:  The Single Tax 1887 – The solution to the land question as Henry George proposed comes to be described as “the Single Tax” 1888 – William Lloyd Garrison, Jr. – son of the anti-slavery crusader – joins the effort 1888 – From Russia, Leo Tolstoy adds his own voice to that of Henry George’s Leo Tolstoy:  Leo Tolstoy To See the People Set Free:  To See the People Set Free 1889 – January and March. Makes two trips to Britain and Ireland in response to requests by supporters, including Ireland’s Michael Davitt. Briefly visits Paris as well To See the People Set Free (continued):  To See the People Set Free (continued) 1890 – Spring. Sails for Australia, stopping first in Hawaii, then New Zealand 1890 – May. After this successful lecture tour, his return trip passes thru the Gulf of Suez into the Mediterranean. He tours Naples, Pompeii, Rome and Venice, then travels thru Switzerland and France before returning to Britain To See the People Set Free (continued):  To See the People Set Free (continued) 1890 – September. Arrives back in New York and takes part in the first national conference in support of the Single Tax 1890 – December. He is stricken with what was a mild stroke that affected his language skills, causing him to use inappropriate or manufactured words To See the People Set Free (continued):  To See the People Set Free (continued) 1891 – April. Determines to write a complete treatise on political economy, tracing its development as a science and explaining the errors of earlier and contemporary writers 1891 – Spring. He interrupts his research to respond to “The Condition of Labor,” an encyclical letter issued by Pope Leo XIII A Philosopher’s Lament:  A Philosopher’s Lament From England, the noted philosopher Herbert Spencer succumbed to the pressure of being described as a forerunner to Henry George and recanted positions taken in the early editions of his book Social Statics A Perplexed Philosopher:  A Perplexed Philosopher 1892. The book sells well and is widely read, but Herbert Spencer does not engage George or respond to his charges that Spencer has abandoned his earlier principles Other Voices:  Other Voices 1890 – Tom L. Johnson is elected to the U.S. House of Representatives 1891 – March. The New Zealand House of Commons approves a resolution in support of the taxation of land values 1892 – August. Faced with rising costs and a falling readership, The Standard ceases publication 1892 – George’s supporters split over who to support in the U.S. Presidential election – William McKinley or William Jennings Bryan William McKinley William Jennings Bryan Other Voices (continued):  Other Voices (continued) 1894 – U.S. Representatives Tom L. Johnson and James G. Maguire introduced a “Single Tax amendment” to an income tax bill 1896 – Supporters in Delaware embarked on a campaign to get legislation passed requiring that all revenue be raised from the taxation of land values Dover Jail Single Tax Club:  Dover Jail Single Tax Club A Last Campaign:  A Last Campaign 1897 – Spring. Sends the manuscript of The Science of Political Economy to his long-time friend in San Francisco, Dr. Edward R. Taylor, for comment 1897 – October. He is drafted to run for the Office of Mayor of the City of New York as an independent candidate “What I stand for is the equal rights of all men!”:  “What I stand for is the equal rights of all men!” 1897 – 22 October. His role in the campaign comes to an end Before rising to speak in Turner Hall, in College Point, George is introduced as “the great friend of labour and Democracy” He speaks twice more that evening, the second time at the Central Opera House in Manhattan, which is described by those attending as disconnected and rambling In the early morning hours of 23 October his wife finds him standing, repeating the word “yes” again and again Within a few hours he drifts into unconsciousness and dies Epitaph:  Epitaph “The truth that I have tried to make clear will not find easy acceptance. If that could be, it would have been accepted long ago. If that could be, it would never have been obscured. But it will find friends – those who will toil for it; suffer for it; if need be, die for it. This is the power of Truth.” From Son to Father:  From Son to Father 1898 – Henry George, Jr. completes the final assembly and editing of The Science of Political Economy. He writes: “Aside from the filling in of summaries …, the addition of an index, and the correction of a few obvious clerical errors, the work is here presented exactly as it was left by the author…” Carrying On:  Carrying On In the United States, Tom L. Johnson became the movement’s most important leader Louis F. Post took over as editor of The Public, a weekly newspaper based in Chicago In New York, a developer named Lawson Purdy campaigned for separate land assessments and the taxation of land values Lawson Purdy Carrying On (continued):  Carrying On (continued) Joseph Fels, whose family had built a sizeable fortune in manufacturing soaps, first became interested in the Single Tax movement in 1891, in Philadelphia. He would soon spend a major portion of his share of this fortune trying to make the Single Tax a reality Carrying On (continued):  Carrying On (continued) 1910 – The first Single Tax conference is held in New York 1914 – Pennsylvania amended its state constitution to permit large cities to apply a separate rate of taxation to assessed land values than to property improvements 1920 – The Single Tax Party holds its first convention in New York City Carrying On (continued):  Carrying On (continued) 1925 – Robert Schalkenbach Foundation established in New York to ensure Henry George’s books remain available 1926 – Henry George Foundation of America is established in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; holds first annual conference 1932 – Henry George School of Social Science founded in New York by Oscar H. Geiger High Profile Advocates Winston Churchill:  High Profile Advocates Winston Churchill In 1909, while still in the Liberal camp, he delivers a series of hard-hitting campaign speeches against land monopoly and calling for the taxation of land values High Profile Advocates Sun Yat-sen:  High Profile Advocates Sun Yat-sen Sun Yat-sen read Progress and Poverty around 1897. George’s influence on his thinking is found in an essay written that year. In this essay, he argued that "China's agrarian problems were not the consequence of overpopulation or of the insufficiency of arable land," but rather of inadequate transport, internal trade barriers, and unfair import competition. By 1899 Sun was calling attention to the heavy burdens of land rents upon the farmers. High Profile Advocates Albert Einstein:  High Profile Advocates Albert Einstein From Berlin in 1931, Einstein -- responding to a letter regarding Henry George from a woman in Pennsylvania – wrote: “I have read for most parts Henry George's book with extraordinary interest and I believe, that its main outline represents an indisputable point of view, particularly with regard to the cause of the poverty.”

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