geography and history of ancient greece

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Information about geography and history of ancient greece

Published on February 14, 2008

Author: Raffaele


The Geography and History of Ancient Greece:  The Geography and History of Ancient Greece Three important factors::  Three important factors: 1. The sea. Mediterranean influenced development The Adriatic on west, Aegean on east, Peloponnesian peninsula Many islands and coast of Asia were Greek 2. The mountains:  2. The mountains Separated city-states (polis) from each other -- Encouraged diversity 3. The climate:  3. The climate Climate is “Mediterranean” Arid and hot in summer Cool and rainy in winter Cold and snowy in mountains Lifestyle affected by geography::  Lifestyle affected by geography: Outdoor lifestyle—marketplace, etc. Clothing simple Dryness made people live in villages for water Farming fairly easy – usually enough food for all Seafaring—fishermen and traders Traveled all over Mediterranean Lifestyle:  Lifestyle Most Greeks were farmers, some craftsmen, fishermen Life hard and short – 35 yrs. Slavery was widely practiced Male-dominated society Women had no political rights Religion gave rise to culture::  Religion gave rise to culture: Polytheistic – large pantheon of gods – the “Olympians” Gods represented natural forces and human behavior Anthropomorphic – “man-form” Survey of Greek History::  Survey of Greek History: Importance of archeology First Greek-like civilization was the Minoan – island of Crete Excavated by Sir Arthur Evans, 19th c. Minoan culture – c. 3000-1450 B. C. E.:  Minoan culture – c. 3000-1450 B. C. E. Capital was Cnossos (Knossos) High level of culture Beautiful architecture, etc. From them comes legends of Theseus and the Minotaur Mycenean Culture- 1600-1200:  Mycenean Culture- 1600-1200 Conquered Minoans around 1400, capital was Mycenae People who fought the Trojan Wars (Iliad, Odyssey) Had an aristocractic form of gov’t – many small kingdoms Mycenae excavated by Heinrich Schliemann– 1870’s:  Mycenae excavated by Heinrich Schliemann– 1870’s Also excavated Troy They had a written language Eventually conquered by northern invaders – the Dorians Greece enters the Dark Ages The Dark Ages—1100-700:  The Dark Ages—1100-700 Primitive times—few foreign contacts Established their characteristic culture By 700 alphabet from Phoenicians Dark Ages:  Dark Ages Homeric epics written (Troy falls in 1250 B. C.) --Iliad, Odyssey c. 800-700 B. C. Polis (city-states) are forming First Olympic games held 776 B. C. Age of Colonization/Expansion—700-500 B. C.:  Age of Colonization/Expansion—700-500 B. C. Establishment of colonies all over Mediterraean Pan-hellenic Centers established – Olympia, Delphi, etc. “Hellenes” Delphi – dedicated to Apollo:  Delphi – dedicated to Apollo “The navel of the world” People/polis consulted oracle about important questions Art flourished in this age:  Art flourished in this age Hesiod – Theogony (the birth of the universe and gods); Works and Days 700 B. B. Homer – Iliad and Odyssey— Tales of the Trojan wars The great heroes – Achilles, Odysseus Two city-states emerged as leaders – Athens and Sparta:  Two city-states emerged as leaders – Athens and Sparta Very different Athens a democracy Sparta a military dictatorship (Sparta conquered most of Peloponnesian peninsula in 500’s) Classical Era– 499-400 :  Classical Era– 499-400 Greece reached her pinnacle of culture and power Athens military and cultural leader Flowering of art, architecture, philosophy, science Persian Wars begin Classical Era :  Persian Wars begin Classical Era Series of battles from 490-479 B. C. led by Athens Little Greece conquers mighty Persia under Darius, Xerxes Battles such as Marathon, Thermopylae, Salamis are still studied Classical Age:  Classical Age After war Delian League formed – controlled by Athens in extensive empire Purpose was to prevent Persia from returning Classical Era:  Classical Era Often called “Age of Pericles” Supported extensive building in Athens Supported drama productions Athens colonized all over Classical Era ended by Peloponnesian War-431-404:  Classical Era ended by Peloponnesian War-431-404 Other polis alarmed at Athens’ domination Sparta formed coalition Athens eventually defeated War extremely bloody and long Sparta – Athens’ rival:  Sparta – Athens’ rival A military dictatorship Warriors lived to fight, lived apart from families in barracks Sparta controlled surrounding peoples -- serfs Eventually defeated in 371 The Fourth Century—399-300 :  The Fourth Century—399-300 Era of political confusion Foreign wars/revolutions Great era for culture, philosophy flourished – era of Plato and Socrates Socrates, Plato, Aristotle:  Socrates, Plato, Aristotle Each made his contributions Socrates Plato’s teacher Plato Aristotle’s teacher Socrates executed by Athens in 399 Rise of power in Macedonia :  Rise of power in Macedonia Athens still the leader, but weaker Philip I of Macedonia extends power Athenian leaders warn of danger Battle of Chaeronea ends Greek independence, conquered by Philip and his 18 yr. old son Alexander Hellenistic Age – 336-30 B. C.:  Hellenistic Age – 336-30 B. C. Alexander, the Great (336-323) conquered most of known world, extended Greek civilization Conquered as far as Persia, India Alexander, the Great:  Alexander, the Great Great military leader and ruler Was educated, student of Aristotle Reorganized govt’s of conquered areas, “Hellenized” these areas After Alexander’s death::  After Alexander’s death: Empire divided among generals Greece never independent again Greece culture continued to spread Rome conquers Greece in 30 B.C. Hellenistic Culture:  Hellenistic Culture Greek art, drama, philosophy, literature, etc. continued to dominate Roman religion similar to Greek Greek culture influenced Christianity Hellenistic Art:  Hellenistic Art More emotional, ornate than “Classical” More humanistic Some great contributions from this era The End:  The End

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