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geog323_Lecture2_Worlds Collides

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Travel-Nature

Published on December 23, 2008

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“Worlds Collide” : “Worlds Collide” Lecture 2 In the News….. : In the News….. Travel http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2005/05/27/AR2005052700555.html?referrer=email Energy http://biz.yahoo.com/cnw/050601/amicroplanet_pilotpro.html?.v=1 Natural Hazards http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2005/05/19/AR2005051901081.html?sub=AR Fishery http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2005/05/21/AR2005052100589.html Media http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2005/05/24/AR2005052401361.html It does not only happen in Latin America http://news.yahoo.com/news?tmpl=story&cid=514&u=/ap/20050601/ap_on_re_us/laguna_beach_landslide_16 What do you think? : What do you think? What term should we use…………. Migration Legend? : Migration Legend? http://www.fotw.us/flags/mx).html; http://www.settlement.org/cp/english/mexico/alook.html The State Emblem was first adopted in 1823 and the eagle and snake have served ever since the Emblem of Arms of then successive republics and empires. It will be immediately apparent that the three hundred years of Spanish rule have been judiciously ignored, and in fact the Emblem recalls an old Indian legend: The Aztec people were guided by god Huitzilopochtli to seek a place where an eagle landed on a prickly-pear cactus, eating a snake... After hundreds of years of wandering they found the sign on a small swampy island in Lake Texcoco. Their new home they named Tenochtitlan ("Place of the Prickly Pear Cactus"). The emblem was re-approved in 1934 and slightly modified in 1968; the plant is a nopal cactus. Early Civilizations : Early Civilizations Olmecs Zapotec Teotihuacan Mayans Toltecs Aztecs Incas Tainos Olmec : Olmec Flourished from 1150-600 B.C. Settlements, involving ceremonial centers, burial mounds, and huge Olmec Stone heads. The Olmecs used a calendar and hieroglyphic writing. http://www.dudeman.net/siriusly/ac/map/olmec.jpg Zapotec Civilization : Zapotec Civilization 500 B.C. in the semi-arid Oaxaca Valley of Central America. Monte Alban was surrounded by two miles of stones walls, and the city included stone temples, pyramids and a ball court. Teotihuacan City : Teotihuacan City Larger than Monte Alban was the city of Teotihuacan which developed into an important city- state. The planned city which included streets, plazas, markets, houses, and large stone pyramids, covered several miles and was astronomically organized to cover 8 squared miles. As many as 200,000 people lived between 300-700 B.C. Mayans : Mayans Highly developed agriculture and water irrigation systems. Maya developed “glyph” writing with phonetic and pictographic elements, mathematic system (based on 20 and with a Zero), and complex series of calendars. http://www.civilization.ca/civil/maya/images/mmgeoenb.gif Toltecs : Toltecs They were invaders from the North that dominated central Mexico and parts of the Yucatan between 900 and 1300 A.D. Their arrival is thought to mark the rise of militarism in Mesoamerica, as their army used its superior force to dominate neighboring societies. Established a capital at Tula. According to legend, a rival Toltec deity, Tezcatlipoca, drove Quetzalcoatl and his followers out of Tula about ad 1000. The legend holds that Quetzalcoatl and his band migrated eastward. Developed trade (cocoa, feathers, and cotton) between the highlands and tropical lowlands in middle America. Aztecs : Aztecs At the height of their power, the Aztec controlled a region stretching from the Valley of Mexico in central Mexico east to the Gulf of Mexico and south to Guatemala. Native American state that ruled much of what is now Mexico from about 1428 until 1521, when the empire was conquered by the Spaniards. http://www.fsmitha.com/h3/map16-az.html Aztecs : Aztecs The Aztec built great cities and developed a complex social, political, and religious structure. Their capital, Tenochtitlán, was located on the site of present-day Mexico City. An elaborate metropolis built on islands and reclaimed marsh land, Tenochtitlán was possibly the largest city in the world at the time of the Spanish conquest. It featured a huge temple complex, a royal palace, and numerous canals. Incas : Incas The Inca Empire, a vast kingdom in the Andes Mountains of South America was created by the Quechua, a Native American people, in the 15th century ad. The Inca Empire was conquered by the Spanish in the early 16th century. The Incas built a wealthy and complex civilization that ruled between 5 million and 11 million people. The Inca system of government was among the most complex political organizations of any Native American people. Although the Incas lacked both a written language and the concept of the wheel, they accomplished feats of engineering that were unequaled elsewhere in the Americas. They built large stone structures without mortar and constructed suspension bridges and roads that crossed the steep mountain valleys of the Andes. http://www.fsmitha.com/h3/map16-az.html http://www.raingod.com/angus/Gallery/Photos/SouthAmerica/Peru/IncaTrail.html Incas : Incas Road building was important to establishing communication throughout the huge, complex empire. The Inca emperors built a 10,000-mi network of stone roads. Trained runners carried official messages, working in relays to cover up 250 mi per day. Terracing agriculture Construction of Massive City Incas : Incas The Inca recorded numbers and perhaps other kinds of information on the knotted strings of a quipu. Inca administrators used quipus to keep accounts of items owned and in storage within their districts, such as agricultural products and livestock. Unlike pre-Columbian civilizations of Mesoamerica such as the Maya and Aztec, the Inca had no form of true writing. Tainos : Tainos At the time of European contact the larger indigenous groups of the Caribbean and Northern Andes culture area included the Ciboney, Taíno (Island Arawak), and Carib, of the Antilles islands The Caribbean and Northern Andes culture area is a tropical region that extends over a huge area between the Tropic of Cancer and the equator. In the Caribbean islands, manioc cultivation probably began around 250 bc, after agricultural peoples in northern Venezuela had begun migrating to the Lesser Antilles. Tainos : Tainos Archaeologists believe that the island of Puerto Rico was first settled in the 1st century ad. When the Spanish arrived in 1493, the island was inhabited by an agricultural people belonging to the Arawakan language family. The Spanish called them Taínos, but they were also known as Island Arawak. The Taínos called the island Boriquén (or Borinquén). They lived in settled villages, in small, thatch-roofed houses or huts known as bohios. http://www.taino-tribe.org/jatiboni.html How did the Worlds Collide? : How did the Worlds Collide? Source: Bergman and Renwick, 2003 When and where the first trips to Latin America? How did the Worlds Collide? : How did the Worlds Collide? 1492-1493 1493-1496 1498-1500 1502-1504 When and where the first trips to Latin America? Spanish Empire in the Americas : Spanish Empire in the Americas http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h1148.html When and where the first viceroyalties and cities were established? Treaty of Tordesillas-1494 : Treaty of Tordesillas-1494 http://www.harpercollege.edu/mhealy/geogres/maps/smgif/smtorde.gif Why is it so important? “Worlds Collide” : The Aztecs believed that one of their Gods was a a white god named Quetzalcoatl, who had sailed away many years ago and who had promised to return from the east. When the Spanish, led by Hernan Cortez, entered the Aztec's land, Montezuma II welcomed him as a god and gave him gifts of gold. “Worlds Collide” http://ntap.k12.ca.us/whs/projects/history/montezuma.html “Worlds Collide” : “Worlds Collide” Montezuma said to Hernan Cortez, "For a long time we have known from the writings of our ancestors that neither I nor any of those who dwell in this land, are natives of it, but foreigners who came from very distant parts...and we have always held that those who descended from him would come and conquer this land and take us as their vassals. So because of the place from which you claim to come, namely, from where the sun rises...and the things you tell us of the great lord or king who sent you here, we believe and are certain that he is our natural lord...So be assured that we shall obey you.” http://ntap.k12.ca.us/whs/projects/history/montezuma.html http://www.crystalinks.com/aztecgods.html The Columbian Exchange : The Columbian Exchange Plants Animals Diseases Demographic Mineral Wealth Trade Items Technology Language Religion Economy Government Urban Planning “The Columbian Exchange” is the sharing of cultures that transformed the lives of two continents. Its was a two-way process with people, goods, and ideas moving back and forth. The three G’s What was exchanged? Plants : Plants Americas Maize Potato Tomato Tobacco Beans Cacao Cotton Europe Sugar Rice Wheat Coffee Banana Grapes Origin of Plants and Livestock : Origin of Plants and Livestock Source: Bergman and Renwick, 2003 Plants : Plants So what? Asian and African plants were introduced such as bananas, plantains, sugarcane, and rice. Crops were introduced to a new environment to which they were better suited and to a location that could easily be transported. The Portuguese made it a policy to introduce plants from one part to another in their empire. Bananas to Brazil and maize, manioc, and peanuts to Africa. These crops became important global commodities. Diffusion of plants throughout the world. Diffusion of Plants : Diffusion of Plants Source: Bergman and Renwick, 2003 Diffusion of Plants : Diffusion of Plants Source: Bergman and Renwick, 2003 Animals : Animals Americas Turkey Europe Cattle Horse Pigs Sheep Animals : Animals Introduction of Animals from Europe had a big impact on land use, economies and lifestyles. L.A. had no large domesticated animals except for llamas. The imported animals became the center of Latin America livestock industry. Environmental impact. Animals : Animals Source: Bergman and Renwick, 2003 Diseases : Diseases Americas New strains of syphilis Europe Smallpox Flu Measles Typhus Diseases : Diseases “The greatest genocide in human history.” Central Mexico: Indigenous population decline from 25 million to less than one million with a century. Mexico and Central America experienced a population decline by as much as 90 percent. Caribbean: In the island of Hispaniola, population declined from one million to 1492 to 46,000 by 1512. North America 90 percent of the Indian population were gone within a century of the Puritan landing on Plymouth Rock. Demographic : Demographic Indian population decrease African Diaspora European Migration Mixing of Populations (miscegenation) Indian Population Decrease : Indian Population Decrease Diseases: In Europe, an outbreak of small pox would kill 30 percent of those infected. However, in the Americas the small pox death rate was nearly 50 percent. War: The battle of Tenochtitlan lasted eight days where 240,000 natives perished. Labor: African Diaspora : African Diaspora A decrease in Native American population prompted labor import from Africa. They worked in: mines, agriculture, port towns, sugar mills. African slaves were imported to all parts of America. African Diaspora : African Diaspora Source: Bergman and Renwick, 2003 European Migration : European Migration A relatively small number of European males migrated to Latin America and the Caribbean during the colonial period. To give an example, from Mexico and Central America in 1570 only about 60,000 or 2 percent of the total population 3,096,000, was classified as white. By 1650 that white population had doubled to 120,000, roughly 6 percent of the depleted total of 1,880,000. At the close of the colonial era in 1825 about 1 million or 14 percent of the total population of just over 7 million was white. European Migration 1800’s : European Migration 1800’s Source: Bergman and Renwick, 2003 Miscegenation : Miscegenation The intermixing of Indians, Africans, and Europeans created a multi-racial society. Color became status symbol. Complex race structure. Peninsulars: Europeans born in the the Iberian Peninsula. Creoles: Children of European descent born in America. Mestizo: Offsprings of European and Indian unions. Mulatto: Children of European and African unions. Zambos: Indians and Black. Coyotes: Mestizos and Indian….. Religion : Religion Religious Proclamation: English crown- ordered their agents to “conquer, occupy and possess” the lands of the “heathens and infidels.” Spanish crown- sought not only to grab the land but to convert any indigenous people to “embrace the Catholic faith and be trained in good morals.” (by any means necessary) Governors- Diego Velasquez, the Cuban governor instructed Hernan Cortez as he departed to Mexico in 1519, “Bear in mind from the beginning that the first aim of your expedition is to serve God and spread the Christian Faith. . . You must neglect no opportunity to spread the knowledge of the True Faith and the Church of God among those people who dwell in darkness” Diffusion of Religion : Diffusion of Religion Source: Getis, Getis, and Fellman, 2005 Religion : Religion Results: Baptism- within a month of Hernan Cortez arriving in Mexico first baptisms took place. Consensual Unions/Marriages- newly baptized Indian women were grabbed as concubines. Marriages were performed by priests. Destruction- The first bishop of Mexico, Juan de Zumarraga, claimed to have destroyed more than five hundred Indigenous temples and twenty thousands idols. In essence, the Spanish conquest of 1519-1521 destroyed the core of Aztec religion—the cult of warfare and human sacrifice. Religion : Religion Transformation- The result of two strong religions was that old god went underground, and the Indians learned to cloak their worship in a Christian disguise. Virgin of Guadalupe: the Virgin of Guadalupe appeared to an Aztec man named Juan Diego. Within six years 9 million Indians had been baptized as Catholics in central Mexico. The Basilica of Our Lady of Guadalupe Christians lyrics were written to Indian melodies and native dances were incorporated into Catholic morality plays. The church accepted a process of mutual adaptation, in which Indians embraced Christianity symbols and forms, while the church turned a blind eye to the pagan content beneath the Catholic surface. Religion : Religion The Spanish missionaries early adopted the myth of Quetzalcoatl and thought that he was actually St. Thomas the Apostle, who had come to Mexico to help convert the Aztec Indians to Christianity and that the spirit of St. Thomas was in Cortes. Jesuits encouraged adaptation of African deities, filled the church with black figures, created Christian rituals in African languages, music, and dances in order to reach the slaves. http://www.crystalinks.com/aztecgods.html Religion : Religion The Church reached every aspect of colonial life. Administrative center- Functioned next to or above the Spanish Civil Government. Financial center- while the crown collected its royal fifth from the elite, the church collected 10 percent from everyone. Large landowner and had large labor force. Revolutionary figures- Father Miguel Hidalgo, a Creole priest, organized an uprising of Mestizos and Indians. Religious symbols- Virgin of Guadalupe http://www.mexconnect.com/mex_/images/virgin.jpg Religion : Religion Source: Bergman and Renwick, 2003 Religion : Religion The importance of the Missions: The church sent an army of Franciscan, Dominican, and Jesuits priests to the new territories. Missionaries sought to escape the moral decay of Europe and save the lost souls of the Americas. Missions became the principal frontier for the Spanish expansion. The first mission was founded in Venezuela in 1520. Tension arose between missions and landowners. In 1767, the colonial elite succeeded in expelling the Jesuits. At that time 2,200 Jesuits were working in the colonies with more than 700,000 living in the missions. Religion : Religion Missions played a key role in colonizing the United States. Franciscans founded 40 thriving missions in Florida and the Southwest. Founders of key USA cities such as San Antonio, El Paso, Santa Fe, Tucson, San Diego, Los Angeles, Monterrey, and San Francisco. Acculturation Center- agricultural practices, cultural, and religious. Fig. 7.25 : Fig. 7.25 Source: Getis, Getis, and Fellman, 2005 Religion Language : Language Source: Bergman and Renwick, 2003 Mineral Wealth : Mineral Wealth Americas Gold Silver Europe Trade Items : Trade Items Americas Minerals Raw Materials Agricultural products Europe Manufactured goods Technology : Technology Americas Europe Wheels Steel Guns Summary of the Legacy of Colonization : Summary of the Legacy of Colonization What you think is the legacy of colonization? Political-audiencia became centers of newly independent states in Spanish America, so the colonial legal and administrative structure influenced state formation. Architecture/Urban planning- The use of architecture and urban planning as tools of European conquest is a recurrent theme in Latin American history. King Philip II of Spain ordered town planners to use a grid or checkerboard plan for the layout of new towns and cities in his “Laws of the Indies” (1573). The plan featured a plaza major, or central square, with the main church, government buildings, and residences of the authorities facing the square. In port cities straight streets connected the plaza major to the warehouses and docks of the port and to the imposing fortresses that protected them. Summary of the Legacy of Colonization : Summary of the Legacy of Colonization Social- a social class was created based on color, class, and culture. Religion- a blending of religion occurred. - The church became an important power. Language- Demographic- Summary of the Legacy of Colonization : Summary of the Legacy of Colonization Economic- colonial Latin America produced primary products and was dependent on the Iberian Peninsula for markets, capital, and credit Land ownership- the colonial era saw the development of large landowners at the top of the hierarchy. Many landless peasants at the bottom. Unequal distribution of land, resources, and wealth continued into the independence era. The gap between rich and poor. Gender relation- Legacy Paper : Legacy Paper Pick a country and answer the following questions: What is the legacy of colonization between 1500-1800 in your country? Was the encounter between the Spaniards and the Natives beneficial or negative in your country? Guidelines: The paper should be a minimum of three pages. Provide a title page and follow the guidelines in your syllabus. Your sources can be internet, newspaper, popular magazines, or scholarly sources. Further Reading : Further Reading Schwarts, Stuart B. (1985) Sugar plantations in the formation of Brazilian society: Bahia 1550-1835. Clayton, Lawerence A. and Conniff, Michael L. (1999). A history of Latin America. Winn, Peter (1992). Americas: The changing face of Latin America and the Caribbean. Blouet, Brian W. and Blouet, Olwyn M. (2002). Latin America and the Caribbean: A systematic and regional survey.

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