geog323 lecture6 urbanization partIII

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Information about geog323 lecture6 urbanization partIII
Education

Published on April 11, 2008

Author: Irvette

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Urbanization:  Urbanization Lecture 6 part III Geog 313 Slide2:  Urbanization How did Latin America to become so urbanized? Urbanization:  Urbanization Urbanization: an increase in the percentage and number of people living in urban settlements The New towns were founded with three major objectives To expand the empire (Santo Domingo) To exploit the mineral and agricultural wealth of the newly-acquired lands (Encomiendas, Buenos Aires) To bring Roman Catholicism to the Indians (Missions) Urbanization-1500s (Establishment):  Urbanization-1500s (Establishment) What was the outcome of these towns? Some of the towns evolved as ports, or “points of attachment” that bounded new lands to Spain and Portugal. Others became new mining towns (particularly for gold and silver) Agricultural towns that supplied food to the growing ports, trading centers, and mining towns. Few cities became centers of colonial government, notably Mexico City, Lima, and Salvador (Bahia). *What is important is that the towns and cities established between 1510 and 1600 constitute the urban framework of mainland Latin America today. Urbanization-1600s (Expansion):  Urbanization-1600s (Expansion) What were the characteristics of the urban development between 1600-1700? Slow growth of existing cities. Urban “in-fill” as some new towns were created in existing urban zones. Movement into frontier areas. Urbanization-1700s (Reshaping):  Urbanization-1700s (Reshaping) What were the characteristics of urban development in the1700’s? Spain made significant changes in the administration of the New World. New regional governments were established. Decline of Lima due to new organizations and an earthquake in 1746 that killed 16,000 people and destroyed the port at Callao. Bogotá and Caracas gained political and economic influences. Buenos Aires became a regional government (viceroyalty) center in 1776. Montevideo became an official port on the Cape Horn route. Urbanization-1800s (Independence):  Urbanization-1800s (Independence) What were the characteristics of urban development in the 1800’s? Transformation be by new technologies. New perceptions of “how a city should look and feel.” Mimicking European and North American cities such as adopting: Electric lights, Elevators, Boulevards, Large parks, Improved water and sewer services. Expand of infrastructure and transportation. Horse-draw trams of rails (1870) Electric trolley: expand Rio de Janeiro and Buenos Aires (1890) Urbanization-1900s (Chaotic):  Urbanization-1900s (Chaotic) Latin American cities are decentralized and polycentric. What are the three major elements of modern Latin American metropolis (p. 189-190)? The center City (Plaza) Mature Inner City (Transportation Hub) The City edge (Shantytowns) Slide10:  Urban Population Percent Source: United Nations, World Urbanization Prospects: The 2001 Revision (medium scenario), 2002. Trends in Urbanization, by Region An Increase of Urbanization in the Developing World resulted in…:  An Increase of Urbanization in the Developing World resulted in… Excessive metropolitan areas Creation of slums and squatter settlements Overcrowding in slums and squatter settlements Unemployment and underemployment Poverty Inadequate transportation system Inadequate infrastructure - physical and social Environmental Degradation Migration Westernization vs. Local Culture. Lost of agricultural lands- San Jose, Costa Rica Characteristics of the third world cities:  Characteristics of the third world cities Young population: 37% of the inhabitants of cities in the developing world are under the age of 15. (22% in the developed world) Lack of economic growth: High unemployment: can hardly keep pace with population growth Lack of education: Schooling is difficult to keep up Less resources: in the developing cities Low taxation base: lower base must be stretched to cover double the portion of young dependents Mexico City:  Mexico City How has Mexico City become the largest city in the world? The population began increasing in the 1930s when the mortality began declining and the fertility rate was constantly increasing. Mexico city has grown as a result of being the center of the country’s road and rail network. In the 1960’s, it manufactured over 40 percent of Mexico’s services. The country’s media (television and radio) are concentrated in Mexico city influencing perception about city life with soap operas and t.v. shows. Source: (Blouet and Blouet, 2005, p. 260) pg. 248-249 Mexico City:  Mexico City How has Mexico City become the largest city in the world? In the 1940’s, instead of supporting subsistence agriculture, the government promoted commercial agriculture. Ex. Instead of growing maize and beans, they devoted their lands for strawberries and tomatoes. This created unemployment at high rates both in the agriculture and mining. Ex. Zacatecas, Mexico Since WWII, there has been a massive migration from the rural areas to the Mexico City, border towns, industrial towns (Monterrey), and United States. Government policies were implemented such as industrial investment, control of food prices for the urban poor, and concentration of such services as education and electricity in the cities. In addition, the government also promoted the concentration of economic services in the city. Mexico City:  Mexico City How has Mexico City become the largest city in the world? In 1977, the city was booming from the oil profits. Migrants were coming at a rate of a thousand persons a day. The Mexican government compounded the problem by abandoning any serious attempts to regulate migration and environmental policies. Resulted in Mexico City becoming the most polluted city in the world. For example in 1992 the air quality was so bad that officials were forced to close factories and eliminate cars. The boom of the 1970’s came to an end in the global recession of the 1980’s, leaving Mexico with one of the highest foreign debts in the world. No financial resources to maintain its urban infrastructures or extend social services to new arrivals. Contributed to the rise of urban crime. Mexico City:  Mexico City What is the current state of Mexico City? 30 million inhabitants and contains 1/5 of the country’s population. Population density is higher than Tokyo, and four times those of London. Is considered the largest city in the world. Border Towns:  Border Towns Why is the most rapid urban growth in Latin America taking place along the US-Mexico border? The border towns of Tijuana, Mexicali, Nogales, Ciudad Juarez, Nueva Laredo, and Matamarros had a population of 30,000 in 1990 and 3 million by 2000. Why are the border towns so interlinked with the U.S.? - Dependence on U.S. markets - Tourism - Employment- Bracero program in 1942-1964 - Culturally - Physically Border Towns:  Border Towns What were the origins of the border towns? (pg. 195, & 228) Ciudad Juarez= as a mission. Matamarros= a mission that became a refugee for blacks escaping slavery. Nueva Laredo= founded by Mexican Nationals that moved south after the 1848 treaty. Nogales= evolved as a railroad and market town. Mexicali= founded by the U.S. interest as a consequence of an irrigation system. Tijuana= as a ranch settlement. Border Towns:  Border Towns What are the maquiladoras? In 1965, duty free maquiladora zones were established to attract foreign industries to Mexico after the Bracero program ended. Maquilas were only allowed to be established 20 km from the border. But by 1972, they could be located anywhere in Mexico except in Mexico City. Most maquilas are electronic firms, clothing manufacturers, and furniture making industries. Border Towns:  Border Towns What are the problems facing border towns? - Environmental degradation - inadequate infrastructure - housing crisis - over population - illegal migration to the U.S. - Crime - Drug activity - low paying jobs - taking advantage of women workers. Growing Population:  Growing Population What are the ramifications of a growing population? Difficulty in maintaining its agricultural self-sufficiency. Exports would have to be curtailed. Imports of consumer products will increase at the expense of capital goods. Less foreign investment. Less per capital income. Higher dependency ratio (population between 0-14) Lack of Housing. Any other???????? What are the problems of Latin American Cities?:  What are the problems of Latin American Cities? Unemployment. Growing informal sector that does not pay taxes. Crime. Housing crisis. Inadequate infrastructure. Environmental degradation. Fragile economies. Corrupt and incompetent federal, state, and local governments. Growing gap between rich and poor. Eroding middle class. Growing consumption of natural resources (oil, gasoline, firewood) Growing shantytowns around the periphery of the city. Has the gap between rich and poor increased?:  Has the gap between rich and poor increased? 80% of the of the world’s population lives in 20% of the world’s income. What does this mean? It is estimated that it would take approximately 100 years of constant growth at rates higher than those now experienced by industrialized states just to reach current American income levels. World Population Living on $2 or less Day:  World Population Living on $2 or less Day What Are The Causes of Inequality?:  What Are The Causes of Inequality? Colonization and its legacy The structure of the World economy (import and export) Increasing of globalization of the economy Overpopulation in the developing country Ineffective and detrimental government policies or decisions. Political and economic instability. Natural disasters. How Do We Narrow the Gap?:  How Do We Narrow the Gap? Education and Family Planning. Change of Governements that are more representative and just. Sharing technology-crops, medicine, food, etc. Formation of a trading block of developing countries Debt reduction Social and economic reforms by developing country governments Reward system of aid. Squatter Settlements:  Squatter Settlements Squatter housing accounts for 1/3 of total urban population in developing countries. Mexico city squatters exceed 4 million people. 15% growth a year (doubling in size every 6 years). Lack of government support in housing, infrastructure, and public services. Removing squatters result in higher unemployment rates of this population because of the increase in transportation costs. This problem is particularly faced by women. In summary, poverty is excessive. Forecasts for squatters:  Forecasts for squatters The total number of squatter-dwellers in the world increased by about 36% during the 1990s. In the next 30 years, the global number of squatter-dwellers will increase to about two billion if no action to address the challenge of slums is taken. Urban Poverty:  Urban Poverty Some 43% of the urban population of all developing regions combined live in substandard housing; Some 78.2% of the urban population in the developing countries live in substandard housing; Some 6% of the urban population in developed regions live in slum-like conditions. In numbers :  In numbers Asia has about 550 million people living in slums/squatters, followed by Africa with 187 million, and Latin America and the Caribbean with 128 million. While slums have largely disappeared in developed countries, the report still found that there were approximately 54 million urban dwellers in high-income countries living in slum-like conditions. According to an unpublished UNICEF report :  According to an unpublished UNICEF report It is estimated that by the year 2000 90 % of the poor in Latin America will live in urban areas, with 40% in Africa, and 45% in Asia. 74.3 million households will live in poverty as compared to 33.5 million households in 1975 - a 220% increase. In 1960 the ratio of the richest 20% to the poorest was 30: 1; today it is 60:1 with 25% of the world's population controlling an excess of 85% of the world's industries and consuming 80% of its energy supplies. Urban poverty by region:  Urban poverty by region Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest rate of slum-dwellers with 72 per cent of the urban population living in slums, South Central Asia with 59%, East Asia with 36%, Western Asia with 33%, and Latin America and the Caribbean with 32% Asia accounts for some 60% of the world’s urban slum residents. Discussion:  Discussion Pick a Latin American city When was the city established? What was its function? How it evolved? What was the population change? Look at pages 170, 176, 178, 188

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