Geog 102 Topic 5

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Travel-Nature

Published on March 28, 2008

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Topic 5 – Migration and Urbanization:  Topic 5 – Migration and Urbanization A – Migration Issues B – Migration Theory C – Refugees D – Urbanization Conditions of Usage:  Conditions of Usage For personal and classroom use only Excludes any other form of communication such as conference presentations, published reports and papers. No modification and redistribution permitted Cannot be published, in whole or in part, in any form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. Citation Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. A. Migration Issues:  A. Migration Issues 1. Types of Migration What are the major forms of migration? 2. Selective Migration Why migration can be considered as a selective process? 3. Brain Drain What is the extent of movements of skilled labor? 4. Migration Policy How do governments regulate migration? 1. Types of Migration:  1. Types of Migration Emigration and immigration Change in residence. Relative to origin and destination. Requires information People and conditions. Two different places. Two different times. Duration Permanent. Seasonal / Temporary. Choice / constraint Improve one’s life. Leave inconvenient / threatening conditions. A B Problems or benefits? Problems or benefits? Emigrant Immigrant 1. Types of Migration:  1. Types of Migration Gross migration Total number of people coming in and out of an area. Level of population turnover. Net Migration Difference between immigration (in-migration) and emigration (out-migration). Positive value: More people coming in. Population growth (44% of North America and 88% of Europe). Negative value: More people coming out. Population decline. Emigration Immigration Net migration Gross migration Annual Net International Migration by Continent, 1990-95:  Annual Net International Migration by Continent, 1990-95 Net Migration, 2000-05:  Net Migration, 2000-05 1. Types of Migration:  1. Types of Migration International Migration Emigration is an indicator of economic and/or social failures of a society. Crossing of a national boundary. Easier to control and monitor. Laws to control / inhibit these movements. Between 2 million and 3 million people emigrate each year. Between 1965 and 2000, 175 million people have migrated: 3% of the global population. World Migration Routes Since 1700:  World Migration Routes Since 1700 European African (slaves) Indian Chinese Japanese Majority of population descended from immigrants Major International Migration Patterns, 1990s:  Major International Migration Patterns, 1990s International Migration: Main Destination Countries, 1997:  International Migration: Main Destination Countries, 1997 Immigration to the United States, 1820-2005 (Millions):  Immigration to the United States, 1820-2005 (Millions) British Isles Germany Scandinavia Southeast Europe Latin America Asia Region of Birth of the Foreign-Born Population: 1850 to 2000:  Region of Birth of the Foreign-Born Population: 1850 to 2000 Top 10 Countries of Origin for US Legal Immigrants, 1995-2003:  Top 10 Countries of Origin for US Legal Immigrants, 1995-2003 US Population by Race and Ethnicity, 1990-2050:  US Population by Race and Ethnicity, 1990-2050 Foreign Born as % of Metropolitan Population:  Foreign Born as % of Metropolitan Population Illegal Aliens in the United States by Country of Origin, 1990-2000 (in 1,000s):  Illegal Aliens in the United States by Country of Origin, 1990-2000 (in 1,000s) Foreign Nationals in Germany by Country of Origin, 2004:  Foreign Nationals in Germany by Country of Origin, 2004 1. Types of Migration:  1. Types of Migration Internal Migration Within one country. Crossing domestic jurisdictional boundaries. Movements between states or provinces. Little government control. Factors: Employment-based. Retirement-based. Education-based. Civil conflicts (internally displaced population). Net Migration for Some Selected States, United States, 2000-2005:  Net Migration for Some Selected States, United States, 2000-2005 1. Types of Migration:  1. Types of Migration Local Migration No state boundaries are crossed. Buying a new house in the same town or city. Difficult to research since they are usually missed in census data. Based on change of income or lifestyle. Often very high levels of local migration. Americans change residence every 5 to 7 years. 1. Types of Migration:  1. Types of Migration Temporary migration The mover still maintains roots at the source. Activity space. Difficult to quantify. Commuting: Cyclical migration. Usually done on a daily basis. Shopping. Often “consolidated” in one trip with several stops. Students/military. Periodic migration. Tourism or business travel. Permanent place of residence Work Education Vacation Shopping Leisure Consolidation 1. Types of Migration:  1. Types of Migration Voluntary migration The migrant makes the decision to move. Most migration is voluntary. Involuntary Forced migration in which the mover has no role in the decision-making process. Slavery: About 11 million African slaves were brought to the Americas between 1519 and 1867. In 1860, there were close to 4 million slaves in the United States. Refugees. Military conscription. Children of migrants. Situations of divorce or separation. 1. Types of Migration:  1. Types of Migration 2. Selective Migration:  2. Selective Migration Context Many migrations are selective. Do not represent a cross section of the source population. Differences: Age. Sex. Level of education. Age-specific migrations One age group is dominant in a particular migration. International migration tends to involve younger people. The dominant group is between 25 and 45: Peak age of immigrants is 26. Studies and retirement are also age-specific migrations: Emergence of international retirement migration. Population Pyramid of Native and Foreign Born Population, United States, 2000 (in %):  Population Pyramid of Native and Foreign Born Population, United States, 2000 (in %) Male Female Female Male Foreign Born Native Age 2. Selective Migration:  2. Selective Migration Sex-specific migrations Males: Often dominant international migrations. Once established, try to bring in a wife. Females: Often dominate rural to urban migrations. Find jobs as domestic help or in new factories. Send remittances back home. Filipino females 17-30 to Hong Kong and Japan. “Mail-order bride”: 100,000 – 150,000 women a year advertise themselves for marriage. About 10,000 available on the Internet at any time. Mainly from Southeast Asia and Russia. Come from places in which jobs and educational opportunities for women are scarce and wages are low. 2. Selective Migration:  2. Selective Migration Education-specific migrations May characterize some migrations (having or lacking of). Educational differences: 21% of all legal immigrants have at least 17 years of education. 8% for native-born Americans. 20% of all immigrants do not have 9 years of schooling. Foreign students: Often do not return to their home countries after their education. Often cannot utilize what they have learned. Since 1978 some 130,000 Chinese overseas students have returned while some 250,000 have remained abroad. Most research-oriented graduate institutions have around 40% foreign students. 2. Selective Migration:  2. Selective Migration Immigration and jobs Related to the economic sector. High level: Filling high skilled position in science, technology and education. Not enough highly trained personnel in the US. Result in recruiting abroad (see brain drain). Low level: Filling low paid jobs (minimum wage) that most people do not want (agriculture and low level services). Maintain low wages in low skilled jobs. Possibility of an informal economy. 3. Brain Drain:  3. Brain Drain Definition Relates to educationally specific selective migrations. Some countries are losing the most educated segment of their population. Can be both a benefit for the receiving country and a problem to the country of origin. Receiving country 50% of skilled migrants go to the US. Only 5% go to Europe. Highly qualified labor contributing to the economy right away. Promotes economic growth in science and technology. Not having to pay education and health costs. It costs about $300,000 to educate an average American. 30% of Mexicans with a PhD are in the US. 3. Brain Drain:  3. Brain Drain Country of origin Education and health costs not paid back. Losing potential leaders and talent: Developing countries lose 15% of their graduates. 15 to 40% of a graduating class in Canada will move to the US. 50% of Caribbean graduates leave. Long term impact on economic growth. Possibility of remittances. Many brain drain migrants have skills which they can’t use at home: The resources and technology may not be available there. The specific labor market is not big enough. Non US Citizens with Science and Engineering Doctorates in the United States, 1999:  Non US Citizens with Science and Engineering Doctorates in the United States, 1999 Likelihood of the Well-Educated to Stay, 1998:  Likelihood of the Well-Educated to Stay, 1998 10 = most likely Percentage of College Educated Citizens Living Abroad:  Percentage of College Educated Citizens Living Abroad 3. Brain Drain:  3. Brain Drain A reverse migration trend High costs in developed countries. New opportunities in developing countries. Part of the offshoring process of many manufacturing and service activities. Qualified personnel coming back with skills and connections: Korea, Taiwan, China and India. 25,000 Indian technicians went back to India between 2001 and 2004. Number of Students Returning to China, 1978-2004:  Number of Students Returning to China, 1978-2004 4. Migration Policies and Global Migration Patterns:  4. Migration Policies and Global Migration Patterns 4. Migration Policy:  4. Migration Policy Growing level of temporary migration schemes Work permits. More in tune with seasonal and economic cycles. Skilled migrants are increasingly sought after Lower costs. Cannot be easily recruited by another corporation. Growing anti-immigration stance in many countries Health: carry endemic diseases. Economic: depress wages and increase social burden. Nationalism: undermine the cohesion of nation-states. Environment: cause additional population burdens. B. Migration Theory:  B. Migration Theory 1. Push - Pull Theory What are the major “push” and “pull” factors behind migration? 2. Economic Approaches How can migration be explained from an economic perspective? 3. Behavioral Explanations to Migration How can migration be explained from a human behavior perspective? 1. Push - Pull Theory:  1. Push - Pull Theory Context Migrations as the response of individual decision-makers. Negative or push factors in his current area of residence: Positive or pull factors in the potential destination Intervening obstacles. The problem of perception Assumes rational behavior on the part of the migrant: Not necessarily true since a migrant cannot be truly informed. The key word is perception of the pull factors. Information is never complete. Decisions are made based upon perceptions of reality at the destination relative to the known reality at the source. When the migrant’s information is highly inaccurate, a return migration may be one possible outcome. 1. Push - Pull Theory:  1. Push - Pull Theory 1. Push - Pull Theory:  1. Push - Pull Theory Positive factors Neutral factors Negative factors Origin Destination Intervening obstacles Push-Pull Factors for Chinese Students Deciding to Stay in the United States, 1997:  Push-Pull Factors for Chinese Students Deciding to Stay in the United States, 1997 Push-Pull Factors for Chinese Students Deciding to Return to China, 1997:  Push-Pull Factors for Chinese Students Deciding to Return to China, 1997 2. Economic Approaches:  2. Economic Approaches Labor mobility The primary issue behind migration. Notably the case at the national level. Equilibrate the geographical differences in labor supply and demand. Accelerated with the globalization of the economy. Remittances Capital sent by workers working abroad to their family / relatives at home. $276 billion in 2006 ($85 billion in 2000): $16 billion each year goes out of Saudi Arabia as remittances. 2nd most important most important source of income for Mexico (after oil and before tourism); $25 billion in 2006. Now higher than official aid. Labor shortages High wages Surplus labor Low wages Migration Remittances received by developing countries, 1990 – 2005 (Billions of US dollars):  Remittances received by developing countries, 1990 – 2005 (Billions of US dollars) Worker’s Remittances, top 10 countries, 2006:  Worker’s Remittances, top 10 countries, 2006 2. Economic Approaches:  2. Economic Approaches Illegal immigration and economic (financial) booms Short periods of unsustainable fast economic growth (5-10 years). Often creates a boom in construction (real estate) and services. High labor demands for manual tasks. National labor market cannot cope. Pressures to find labor abroad. Incentives to “bend” or to overlook immigration rules. Illegal immigrants tolerated as long as the boom lasts. Examples: Malaysia 1990-1997 (from Indonesia). United States 2000-2006 (from Mexico). 2. Economic Approaches:  2. Economic Approaches (Illegal) Immigration and the welfare state Welfare policies appear to be promoting illegal immigration. Welfare: Creates a disincentive to work among the national population. Attracts immigrants seeking benefits (e.g. health and education). Some analysis indicate that low skilled immigrant (illegal or not) cost more than they bring to an economy. Employment laws (minimum wage, benefits): Make employing nationals artificially high. Attracts immigrants that can offer lower wages and no benefits. Emergence of a significant black labor market used even by large corporations (through subcontracting). The government, in an attempt to protect U.S. workers, has priced them out of the market. 3. Behavioral Explanations of Migration:  3. Behavioral Explanations of Migration Life-cycle factors Migration linked to events in one’s life. People in their 30s are the most mobile. Education, career, and family are being established. Later in life, flexibility decreases and inertia increases. Retirement often brings a major change. Large migrations of retired people have been occurring in the direction of amenities-oriented areas. 25 50 75 Stay with parents Move to college First job Promotion Marriage Retirement Children leave home Loss of mobility 3. Behavioral Explanations of Migration:  3. Behavioral Explanations of Migration Migrants as risk-takers Why, among a population in the same environment (the same push factors), some leave and some stay? Migrants tend to be greater risk-takers, more motivated, more innovative and more adaptable. Non-migrants tend to be more cautious and conservative. Can be used to explain the relative dynamism in some societies, like the USA since the 1800s. Summary No one theory of migration can adequately explain this huge worldwide phenomenon. Each brings a contribution to the understanding of why people move. C. Refugees:  C. Refugees 1. Definition What is a refugee and how one qualifies for this status? 2. Contemporary Evolution How the refugee situation has evolved in time? 1. Definition:  1. Definition The United Nations definition The 1951 Convention Regarding the Status of Refugees and the 1967 Protocol on the Status of Refugees: “..... any person who, owing to a well-founded fear of being persecuted for any reasons of race, religion, nationality, member of a particular social group or political opinion, is outside the country of his nationality, and is unable or, owing to such fear, is unwilling to avail himself of the protection of that country.…” . The problem lies in the definition of who is a refugee. There are no international agreements to protect people who cross boundaries for their economic survival. 1. Definition:  1. Definition Conditions to qualify for refugee status Political persecution must be demonstrated. An international boundary must be crossed: Domestically displaced persons do not qualify. Protection by one’s government is not seen an alternative: The government may be the persecutor. Could be incapable of protecting its citizens from persecution. 1. Definition:  1. Definition Environmental and economic refugees People who can no longer gain a secure livelihood in their homelands because of what are primarily environmental or economic factors of unusual scope. Sources: Natural disaster. Human alterations to the environment; climate change. Contamination (pollution) of the environment. Lack of development and opportunities. Render continued residence in that particular location unsustainable. Mozambique, February 2000: Floods made 1 million people homeless. Destroyed agricultural land and cattle. 2. Contemporary Evolution:  2. Contemporary Evolution Origins The first recorded refugees were the Protestant Huguenots who left France to avoid religious persecution. About 200,000 at the end of the 17th century. Went to England, Germany, the Netherlands, Switzerland, and the English colonies in North America. Pre-WW II and during WW II Primarily political elites: Fleeing repression from the new government, which overthrew them. Usually small in number and often had substantial resources available to them. War-driven refugees: About 12% of the European population displaced. Usually could be expected to repatriate after the war ended. 2. Contemporary Evolution:  2. Contemporary Evolution Post WW II Change in the patterns of refugee flows: The majority of refugees are now coming from the developing world. De-colonization in Asia, Africa, and the Caribbean: Political unrest in many newly independent states. Multi-ethnic nature of those states. The result of the drawing of colonial boundary lines by Europeans. The Cold War also increased political instability in a number of countries. Political instability in Latin America increased due to the vast social inequalities existing in that region. New kind of refugee flow: Large and of long (or permanent) duration. 2. Contemporary Evolution:  2. Contemporary Evolution Current issues Refugees are a controversial issue: Especially in the developed world. Only a small share of the asylum seekers are granted the refugee status. Less than 20% for the European Union. Increasingly, refugees are no longer accepted. Economic refugees resorting to asylum as the only way to get a legal status. 1996 amendment to US immigration law: Enforcing detention for all refugees entering the United States. Homeland Security can summarily deport those who arrive without valid travel documents. 4,000 detained on any given day. Refugees per Continent, 1981-2003:  Refugees per Continent, 1981-2003 Refugees per Country of Origin, 2006:  Refugees per Country of Origin, 2006 Origins and Destinations of Refugees, 2003:  Origins and Destinations of Refugees, 2003 Red = Origin Green = Destination Main Asylum Countries and Internally Displaced Population, 2001:  Main Asylum Countries and Internally Displaced Population, 2001 D. Urbanization:  D. Urbanization 1. Context and Issues What is urbanization and what are its causes? 2. Why People Move to Urban Areas? 3. Megacities and Urban Regions What is the current state of global urbanization? 4. Shantytowns What characterizes the prevailing urban environment? 1. Context and Issues:  1. Context and Issues What is urbanization? Urbanization is the agglomeration of population in cities: Growth of the proportion of the population living in cities. Demographic process: Urban population growth (natural increase or migration). Infrastructure process: Expansion of urban infrastructures and land use. Economic process: Creation of secondary, tertiary and quaternary sectors. Creates a society where values and lifestyles are urban. Population growth (Natural increase or migration) Urban expansion 1. Context and Issues:  1. Context and Issues Causes of urbanization Historical: Defense. Trade routes. Social: Increased social interactions. Institutions representing a society (government, religion & education). Economic: Linked with agricultural surpluses. Increased economic opportunities. Access to labor. Specialization. Economies of scale and of agglomeration. 1. Context and Issues:  1. Context and Issues The two waves of urbanization First Wave (1750-1950): Began in Europe and North America in the early 18th century. First demographic transition, first industrialization and first wave of urbanization. Produced the new urban industrial societies. Gradual process that involved a few hundred million people. Second Wave (1950-): Concern less developed regions of the world. Achieving in one or two decades what developed countries accomplished in one or two centuries Demographic impacts much greater. Limited recourse to migration. 1. Context and Issues:  1. Context and Issues The urban explosion Urban population growth is the most important change in population geography. In 2008, about 50% of the global population is urbanized (3.3 billion). Almost all the population growth between 2000 and 2030 will occur in cities. By 2050, 6.2 billion people will live in cities, more than the current (2000) population. Much of this growth will come in the world’s poorest countries. World Urban Population, 1950-2000 with Projections to 2020 (in billions):  World Urban Population, 1950-2000 with Projections to 2020 (in billions) Annual Growth of World and Urban Populations, 1950-2030 (in millions):  Annual Growth of World and Urban Populations, 1950-2030 (in millions) 1. Context and Issues:  1. Context and Issues Developed countries Developed countries are already urbanized. Passed through the rural - urban migration process. Concurrent with demographic transition and industrialization. Developing countries Going through a major phase of urbanization. Urbanization mainly occurs in developing countries: Will account for 93% of the 2 billion increase in the global urban population between 2000 and 2030. Latin America and East Asia is farthest along. The rest of Asia is a little further behind. Africa is urbanizing more slowly than the other world regions. Stages of Urbanization:  Stages of Urbanization Time Urban Population 0 20 40 60 80 100 Developed countries Terminal Stage Transition Stage Initial Stage Developing countries Least developed countries Rural to urban migration Demographic transition Rural Society Urban Society Urbanization Percentage of Population Urban, 2000:  Percentage of Population Urban, 2000 % of Urban Population, 1950-2030:  % of Urban Population, 1950-2030 Urban Population, 1950-2030 (in millions):  Urban Population, 1950-2030 (in millions) 2. Why People Move to Urban Areas?:  2. Why People Move to Urban Areas? Context 50 million new urbanites each year. 1 million new urbanites each week. About 155,000 new urbanites each day. About 75,000 rural poor migrate to cities each day. Major changes in the developing world. Migration: Makes a significant contribution to the growth of urban areas. Accounts for between 40% and 60% of annual urban population growth in the developing world. Huge rural-to-urban migration potential in areas having a large rural population. 2. Why People Move to Urban Areas?:  2. Why People Move to Urban Areas? Push-Pull considerations Both are affecting rural-urban migrations. “Pull” of the cities may determine the destination. Migrants are pulled toward cities: Prospect of jobs and higher incomes. Most early urbanization was the result of pull considerations. Pushed out of rural areas: “Push” factors predominate as the motivation to move. Poverty, lack of land, declining agricultural work, war, and famine. Play more importance today than push considerations. Push - Pull Factors for Urbanization in the Third World:  Push - Pull Factors for Urbanization in the Third World PUSH PULL Instability Rural structures Low employment Demographic pressure Employment market Better services Low barriers Modernity Migration 18-35 Rural Urban 2. Why People Move to Urban Areas?:  2. Why People Move to Urban Areas? 2. Why People Move to Urban Areas?:  2. Why People Move to Urban Areas? Urbanization and economic survival Decision to move to an urban area: Part of a complex survival strategy. Families minimize risk by placing members in different labor markets. Largest labor market maximizing the chances of employment and survival. Cities are the largest labor markets. Favelas (squatter settlements) of Rio de Janeiro: Cannot be understood without reference to the latifundia land system in rural Brazil. Characterized by large landholdings owned by a limited elite. Peasants as contract labor with no ownership. 3. Megacities and Urban Regions:  3. Megacities and Urban Regions Concentration An increasing share of the global population lives in megacities: Megacities (over one million). Supercities (over 4 million). Supergiants (over 10 million). First modern megacity, Beijing 1770. 1900: 233 million urbanites (14% of the global population); 20 megacities. 1950: 83 megacities. 34 cities in developing countries. 2000: 3 billion urbanites (50%); 433 megacities. All new millionaire cities are in developing countries. 11 of the 15 largest cities are in developing countries. World’s Largest Cities, 1900:  World’s Largest Cities, 1900 Number of Cities with Populations of 5 Million or More, 1950-2000:  Number of Cities with Populations of 5 Million or More, 1950-2000 Cities of more than 8 million, 1950-2000:  Cities of more than 8 million, 1950-2000 The 15 Largest cities in the world, 1975-2015 (millions):  The 15 Largest cities in the world, 1975-2015 (millions) 4. Shantytowns:  4. Shantytowns Context Many of the new urban dwellers, particularly women and their children, are among the poorest people in the world. Difficulty to access housing: Economic costs. Availability. 100 million people are homeless. 928 million live in precarious housing conditions (slums). Shantytowns; informal habitat or squatter housing: Favelas (Brazil). Pueblos jovenes (Young towns). Asentamiento irregulares (Irregular settlements). Villas miserias (Miserable villages, Argentina). Jughi Jopri (India). 4. Shantytowns:  4. Shantytowns Definition Dwellings are built by the current or original occupant: Rudimentary construction materials. Did not receive a construction permit. Do not follow norms in terms of housing and sanitation. Inhabitants have no legal title to the land: Most are located in areas being declared inhabitable. Own by the municipality. Abandoned private land. Exploiting a legal vacuum of land ownership. Lack of urban services: Generally not serviced by public utilities such as tap water, electricity, roads, public transportation and sewage. 4. Shantytowns:  4. Shantytowns Setting Shantytowns are constructed over the least desirable land. Put the population at risk. Caracas, Venezuela, 1999: Mudslides killed 50,000 inhabitants. Created 400,000 homeless. 500,000 of the 6 million inhabitants were considered at high risk. Bhopal, India, 1984: Union Carbide release of toxic cocktail. 500,000 people exposed. 16,000 deaths. CBD Disamenity Disamenity Commercial/Industrial Elite Residential Sector Zone of Maturity Zone in Situ Accretion Zone of peripheral squatter settlements 4. Shantytowns:  4. Shantytowns Habitat Informal settlements: Perhaps the most visible sign of widespread poverty. About 25% of the surface of cities in developing countries is covered by shantytowns. 30-60% of the urban population. Emerged in all Third World cities: Following the demographic explosion. Now the norm more than the exception. Incapacity of private and public instances: Provide low price housing for the majority of the population. The State more concerned about providing housing for its public servants and its middle class. Housing crisis that could not be solved. Shantytowns as Share of the Total Population:  Shantytowns as Share of the Total Population 4. Shantytowns:  4. Shantytowns Growth process People expelled from gentrification in downtown areas. Inflow of people expelled from poverty in rural areas. Vacuum in ownership: Rightful owners of land have divided it in small lots and sold it in order to have a higher profit. Land was illegally sold to dwellers being framed. Is there any hope? Housing has always been a priority for investment. As the population of Third World cities gets higher incomes, the priority will be improving their housing conditions. On the long run, shantytowns are likely to disappear (or at least become less significant).

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