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General Principles of Pathophysiology

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Information about General Principles of Pathophysiology
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Published on October 15, 2008

Author: aSGuest1074

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General Principles of Pathophysiology : General Principles of Pathophysiology The Normal Cell Homeostasis Cellular & Tissue Response to Injury Topics : Topics Discuss the structure and function of normal cells Describe the mechanisms for the general maintenance of homesostasis Discuss the general responses to injury Structural Levels : Structural Levels Cellular Functions : Cellular Functions Organization Metabolism Catabolism Anabolism Responsiveness Conductivity Movement Reproduction Growth Differentiation Respiration Secretion Excretion Cell Kingdoms : Cell Kingdoms Prokaryotes bacteria Eukaryotes plants, animals, fungi Building Blocks of Life : Building Blocks of Life Amino Acids -> Proteins Structure & Function Nucleic Acids -> DNA / RNA Information Transmission, energy storage Simple Sugars -> Polysaccharides Energy Sources, structure Fatty Acids -> Lipids Structure, Energy Source Human Genome as a Book : Human Genome as a Book There are 23 chapters, called CHROMOSOMES Each chapter contains several thousand stories, called GENES Each story is made up of paragraphs, called EXONS Each story is interrupted by advertisements called INTRONS Each paragraph is made up of words, called CODONS. Each word is written in letters called BASES Speaking of DNA… : Speaking of DNA… Cellular Components : Cellular Components Phospholipid bilayer Membrane proteins Cytoplasm Nucleus Ribosomes Mitochondria Endoplasmic Riticulum Golgi Apparatus Lysosomes Generic Eukaryotic Cell : Generic Eukaryotic Cell Generic Eukaryotic Cell Cell Membrane : Cell Membrane Phospholipid bilayer w/ proteins : Phospholipid bilayer w/ proteins Fluid Mosaic Model System Integration : System Integration Homeostasis Homeo = alike, same Stasis = always, staying Energy Needs of Homeostasis : Energy Needs of Homeostasis Endothermic vs Exothermic Reactions Spontaneous vs Nonspontaneous Reactions ‘Coupling’ Metabolism Catabolism Anabolism Feedback Loops : Feedback Loops Negative Opposes a change Positive Enhances a change Feedback Loop Example : Snickers Feedback Loop Example Methods of Communication : Methods of Communication Endocrine Hormones Nervous Neurotransmitters Slide 18: Nervous Endocrine Mechanism of Action : Mechanism of Action Synaptic Transmission : Synaptic Transmission Synapse Pre-synaptic Membrane Post-synaptic Membrane Neurotransmitter Nervous System : Nervous System Central N.S. Autonomic N.S. Brain Spinal Cord Sympathetic Parasympathetic Autonomic Nervous System : Autonomic Nervous System Sympathetic Parasympathetic Sympathetic Receptors : Sympathetic Receptors 1 2 alpha beta Constriction ( Peripheral Vascular Resistance) Inhibit further NE Discharge  Contractility  Automaticity (heart rate) Bronchodilation Vasodilation General Response to Injury : General Response to Injury Cellular Adaptation Mechanisms of Cell Injury Manifestations of Cell Injury Cellular Death Cellular Adaptation : Cellular Adaptation Atrophy Hypertrophy Hyperplasia Dysplasia Metaplasia Atrophy : Atrophy  Workload (or disease state)  Efficiency -OR-  Functionality in disease state Hypertrophy :  Size  # of organelles Hypertrophy  Workload (or disease state)  ability to meet demands! -OR-  Functionality in disease state Hyperplasia : Hyperplasia  Workload Physiological state  ability to meet demands! ... 2 types: Compensatory & Hormonal  tissue size by  # of cells Hyperplastic endometrium : Hyperplastic endometrium Dysplasia : Dysplasia Pathological Epithelial Tissue Cerical Dysplasia : Cerical Dysplasia Normal Tissue Abnormal Tissue Metaplasia : Metaplasia Pathological Ex: Cigarette Smoking Mechanisms of Injury : Mechanisms of Injury Hypoxic Chemical Structural (trauma…tons next semester!) Infectious Immunologic / Inflammatory Hypoxic Injury : Hypoxic Injury  Atmospheric Oxygen Loss of Hb  Hb function (CO)  erythropoiesis  Respiratory Function  Cardiovascular Function Most Common Cause of Cellular Injury! Hypoxic Injury (pathway 1) : Hypoxic Injury (pathway 1) Hypoxic Injury (pathway 2) : Hypoxic Injury (pathway 2) Hypoxic Injury (pathway 2) : Hypoxic Injury (pathway 2)  Na+ Pump Function... Hypoxic Injury (pathway 2) : Hypoxic Injury (pathway 2) Hypoxic Injury (pathway 2)  Glycolysis (anaerobic metabolism)... Na+ K+ ATP pump : Na+ K+ ATP pump K+ Na+ Chemical Injury : Chemical Injury Pressure Saturation oxyhemeglobin Carboxy- hemeglobin Manifestations of Injury : Manifestations of Injury Cellular Swelling Cool Graphics To come! Physiological Cell Death : Physiological Cell Death Apoptosis Normal to process of cell Replacement & Development! Ex: endometrial sloughing during menstruation Ex: induced apoptosis during Immune response Balance between the “DO IT!” and “DON’T DO IT!” voices… Necrotic Cell Death : Necrotic Cell Death Necrotic Cell Death (pathological) Firm & opaque Walled-Off Liquid Goo ‘Cased’-Off Cheese Globules Opaque, Chalky Soapy Coagulative Necrosis - Kidney : Coagulative Necrosis - Kidney Necrosis Liquefactive Necrosis - brain : Liquefactive Necrosis - brain Necrosis Caseous Necrosis : Caseous Necrosis Typical of TB tubercule Necrosis Fatty Necrosis - pancreas : Fatty Necrosis - pancreas Necrosis Cirrhosis of the liver : Cirrhosis of the liver Necrosis Note nodular surface Gangrene : Gangrene Caused by severe hypoxic injury Tissues not just cells! Release gas into tissue Dry Gangrene : Dry Gangrene Wet Gangrene 2º to diabetes : Wet Gangrene 2º to diabetes Necrosis w/ liquefactive component Web Resources : Web Resources Cell Membrane: http://www.d.umn.edu/~sdowning/Membranes/lecturenotes.html#anchor360899 Sodium Potassium ATP pump: http://arbl.cvmbs.colostate.edu/hbooks/molecules/sodium_pump.html Kimbal’s Biology Page(s): You want it, he’s got it!: http://www.ultranet.com/~jkimball/BiologyPages/T/TOC.html Web Resources : Web Resources Virtual Library of Cell Biology: http://vl.bwh.harvard.edu/  On-line pathophysiology course: http://sonser4.nur.uth.tmc.edu/patho/

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