Published on March 5, 2014
8.6 Gene Expression and Regulation KEY CONCEPT Gene expression is carefully regulated in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
8.6 Gene Expression and Regulation Prokaryotic cells turn genes on and off by controlling transcription. • A promotor is a DNA segment that allows a gene to be transcribed. • An operator is a part of DNA that turns a gene “on” or ”off.” • An operon includes a promoter, an operator, and one or more structural genes that code for all the proteins needed to do a job. – Operons are most common in prokaryotes. – The lac operon was one of the first examples of gene regulation to be discovered. – The lac operon has three genes that code for enzymes that break down lactose.
8.6 Gene Expression and Regulation • The lac operon acts like a switch. – The lac operon is “off” when lactose is not present. – The lac operon is “on” when lactose is present.
8.6 Gene Expression and Regulation Eukaryotes regulate gene expression at many points. • Different sets of genes are expressed in different types of cells. • Transcription is controlled by regulatory DNA sequences and protein transcription factors.
8.6 Gene Expression and Regulation • Transcription is controlled by regulatory DNA sequences and protein transcription factors. – Most eukaryotes have a TATA box promoter. – Enhancers and silencers speed up or slow down the rate of transcription. – Each gene has a unique combination of regulatory sequences.
8.6 Gene Expression and Regulation • RNA processing is also an important part of gene regulation in eukaryotes. • mRNA processing includes three major steps.
8.6 Gene Expression and Regulation • mRNA processing includes three major steps. – Introns are removed and exons are spliced together. – A cap is added. – A tail is added.
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