Gender Differentials in Productivity: Identifying Opportunities for Agricultural Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa

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Published on March 10, 2014

Author: FAOoftheUN

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Author: Talip Kilic, Research Economist, The World Bank

For the Living Standards Measurement Study

Gender Differentials in Productivity: Identifying Opportunities for Agricultural Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa TALIP KILIC Research Economist Living Standards Measurement Study Poverty & Inequality Group Development Research Group The World Bank tkilic@worldbank.org www.worldbank.org/lsms-isa Presented at the International Women’s Day 2014 Event “Closing the Gender Gap in Agriculture” 7 March 2014 FAO Headquarters, Rome, Italy

Narrative in a nutshell Closing the Gender Gap in Agricultural Productivity Smallholderbased Agricultural Growth Poverty Reduction & Improvement of Nutritional Outcomes

What do (don’t) we know? • Estimates of the gender gap in agricultural productivity in Africa range from 4 to 40 percent, the majority around 20 to 30 percent However…. • Hurdle #1: Household level analyses overlook within household differentiation of individual roles • Hurdle #2: Plot level analyses are largely based on detailed but non-representative/case study data. • Hurdle #3: Inadequate coverage of large & diverse populations

How do we improve the knowledge base ? • New research program, with funding from IFAD & World Bank • Using new (gender-disaggregated) data from the Living Standards Measurement Study – Integrated Surveys on Agriculture (LSMS-ISA), with funding from BMGF • Nationally- & regionally- representative multi-topic household panel surveys with an emphasis on agriculture • Geo-referenced household & plot locations for improved links to geospatial data sources, allowing better understanding of environmental constraints • Focus: Ethiopia, Malawi, Niger, Nigeria, Tanzania & Uganda

How do we improve the knowledge base ? (Cont’d) • Applying new empirical methods to differentiate between the contributions of gender differences in – Levels of factors of production: Endowment effect – Returns to factors of production: Structure effect • Outlining relative contributions of each factor towards the gap, across & within countries • Key step in informing policies to alleviate gender differences underlying the gap

Measuring the Gender Gap in Malawi • 26% of agricultural plots managed by females • On average, female-managed plots are 25% less productive • Gap is bigger for the more productive farmers Kilic, T., Palacios-Lopez, A., & Goldstein, M. (2013) “Caught in a productivity trap: a distributional perspective on gender differences in Malawian agriculture.” World Bank Policy Research Working Paper No. 6381

Explaining the 25% Gap • 80% of the gap is driven by unequal endowments – – – – Household adult male labor input High-value export crop cultivation Access to agricultural implements Inorganic fertilizer • Where does the 20% structure effect come from? – Lower returns to adult male labor & inorganic fertilizer on female-managed plots – Domestic duties (children in particular) lower agricultural productivity

Way forward • Set of empirical country studies using similar methodology to be published in Agricultural Economics (under review) • Selected results distilled in a report “Leveling the Field: Improving Opportunities for Women Farmers in Africa, jointly produced by WB Africa Region Gender Practice & ONE Campaign, targeted at policymakers • The report pulls together the binding constraints to closing the gap within & across countries, teases out commonalities

Ethiopia Factor Malawi Niger Northern Nigeria Southern Nigeria Tanzania Uganda Levels Returns Levels Returns Levels Returns Levels Returns Levels Returns Levels Returns Levels Returns Land Size Other Land Characteristics* Improved/Purchased Seeds Pesticide/Herbicide Use† Non-Labor Fertilizer Use (Organic or Inorganic)† Inputs Irrigation Farm Tools & Equipment Household Size HH Male Farm Labor† HH Female Farm Labor† Labor Hired Farm Labor† Time Spent on Farm Activities Child Dependency Ratio Information Agricultural Extension Export/Cash Crops Access to Credit or Agricultural Capital Markets Distance to Market or Road Non-Farm Income/Activity Land • Offers a cross-country outlook on binding constraints in the domains of:       Age & Human  Capital Wealth Land Labor Inputs Non-Labor Inputs Information Market Access Human Capital Age Wealth • Identifies policy priorities to address gender differences in levels of & returns to key inputs • Reviews the (scant) evidence on how to address the differences, provides a set of emerging & promising policy options Years of Schooling Wealth/Consumption Launched planned for March 18/19. Stay tuned!

Gender Differentials in Productivity: Identifying Opportunities for Agricultural Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa TALIP KILIC Research Economist Living Standards Measurement Study Poverty & Inequality Group Development Research Group The World Bank tkilic@worldbank.org www.worldbank.org/lsms-isa Presented at the International Women’s Day 2014 Event “Closing the Gender Gap in Agriculture” 7 March 2014 FAO Headquarters, Rome, Italy

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