Published on December 14, 2016
1. Gender Budgeting & Relevance of Indicators Dr. Paramita Majumdar Senior Consultant (UNW), Gender Budgeting Ministry of Women and Child Development, Govt. of India 30th November, 2016 Administrative Training Institute, Kohima, Nagaland Training Programme for Officials of State Government of Nagaland 28-30 November 2016
2. Processes of GB Conceiving Planning Approving Executing Monitoring Analysing & Auditing How do you decide for a new scheme? How do you plan? Plan Documents whether Gender Sensitive Who plans? Capacity to plan? Stakeholders ? At what level? What to plan? How is the Dt. Plan prepared? Who approves? Whether they are Gender sensitive? What is approved? Staff (M/F) Resources Guidelines What to observe and check? How often? How to monitor? Checking against what is planned What is audited? Why? Who does the audit? What happens to the audit report? Does it impact the planning process of your Dept.?
3. process product process product process product policy formulation policy statement budget (activities) compilation budget expenditure on activities outcomes revenue collection Analysis - From Policy to Outcomes Policy appraisal (Gender appraisal) Audit (Gender Audit) Budget appraisal (Gender budgeting)
4. What are measurements of change? • Measuring change means tracking the degree to which, and in what way, changes take place over time. From a gender perspective, it might address changes in the Relations between men and women, changes in the outcomes of a particular policy, programme or activity for women and men, or changes in the status or situation of men and women with regards to a particular issue such as levels of poverty or political participation.
5. What are measurements of change? • To measure these changes we need to know where we are now – our starting point. • We must also decide what we want to measure, what kind of data is needed, and how that data should be collected and analysed.
6. Gender-sensitive indicators compare the situation of one sex with the other - incorporates sex-disaggregated indicators which provide separate measures for men and women on a specific indicator such as literacy. The emphasis is on the gap between women and men Gender sensitive indicators may also refer to gender- specific indicators where the indicator is specific to women or men. Women-specific indicators record the absolute position of women at particular points in time, for example, in Nagaland, x% of women reported having been physically abused by a partner in 2005 and 2015 Indicators
7. December 14, 2016 7 60.94 / 52.58 88.69 / 81.4887.54 / 81.77 83.66 / 72.21 92.18 / 91.01 90.81 / 84.48 87.85 / 82.62 76.31 / 69.59 82.84 / 72.58 74.88 / 63.97 74.48 / 69.63 Literacy Rate - 2011
8. Need for gender-sensitive Indicators To take gender equality seriously To enable better planning and action because they form the basis for analysis to assess differences in the situations of women and men and whether those are changing To provide an evidence base for research and policy development Needed to monitor and evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of policy developments • To hold the Government Departments/ agencies/ commitment-makers accountable for their actions, or their lack of action
9. • While measuring is often considered to be a technical exercise, the process of choosing what to measure is political – and indicators tend to reflect the priorities of decision-makers rather than those of the beneficiaries themselves • Valuable data does not always lead to useful actions
10. Which methods should we use? • Quantitative • Qualitative • Participatory
11. Quantitative Indicators • Quantitative methods of data collection produce quantifiable results, and as such focus on issues which can be counted such as percentages of women and men in parliament, male and female wage rates, school enrolment rates for girls and boys etc. • Quantitative methods are favoured because - perceived to be more objective and verifiable Concrete and straightforward to track Easy to compare over time and space • Quantitative data is generally collected through censuses, administrative records and other large-scale surveys
12. Qualitative Indicator • Qualitative methodologies capture people’s opinions, attitudes and feelings and are generally derived from more qualitative processes of investigation (e.g. Focus group discussions). • Qualitative data can also be collected through surveys measuring perceptions and opinions. • Qualitative data can also be quantified, for example the level of women’s satisfaction with PMJDY • Qualitative data - Constraints • Non-concrete • based on subjective opinions and is open to differing interpretations which causes scepticism about the validity of this data • more labour-intensive and they are therefore limited to smaller sample sizes.
13. • Participatory methodologies are based on the principle that men and women should be the agents of their own development, contributing to decisions about what should be measured and what indicators should be used, and participating in the research themselves.
14. Gender Mainstreaming • Gender mainstreaming is a systematic inclusion of both women’s and men’s concerns, experiences and needs. • It is a process of consistently incorporating sensitivity to gender differences in governance, decision- making, policy, needs analysis, institutional offices and mechanisms, planning, budgeting, implementation, monitoring and evaluation in institutions so as to create an organisation that is gender equitable • Mainstreaming gender necessitates that gender perspectives become part of the normal perspective of an organization without its having to resort to special vehicles, units or offices that isolate and marginalize these issues.
15. How to mainstream gender? • Effective gender mainstreaming should be context-and content- oriented. This means a much more qualitative analysis over and beyond the quantitative presentation. • Pre-requisites for context and content analysis - Profiling generally provides a quantitative picture of the status of men and women in any given sector, e.g. employment at university. Gender analysis is an essential first step of collecting and analysing sex-disaggregated information in order to understand gender differences and how these differences may have an effect on policies' effectiveness. Gender audit is an evaluation process aimed at figuring out whether set policies or interventions are doing that which they are meant to be doing. It is an Institution’s self-assessment, monitoring and evaluation of interventions with the broad aim of diagnosis and transformation.
16. The SDGs
17. Critical Areas of Gender Concern - 1 Infant Mortality, Maternal Mortality Discrimination in Consumption pattern of male and Female Children Discrimination in education, employment, salary and wages Stereotyping in employment opportunities Feminization of Poverty: The persistent and increasing burden of poverty on women; Poverty to be interpreted as “lack of” not only income but also in other aspects Health issues including HIV / AIDS and Nutrition: Inequalities and inadequacies in and unequal access to health care and services; more social stigma attached to women with diseases Education and training: Inequalities and inadequacies in and unequal access to education and training
18. Critical Areas of Gender Concern - 2 Violence: Gender-based violence, including domestic violence, sexual violence, stalking, sexual harassment at work, trafficking into prostitution, dowry violence, forced marriage, traditional and honour-based violence, women as witches, eve teasing, marital rape, abuse of women/men working as domestic workers Armed conflict: The effects of armed or other kinds of conflict on women, including those living under foreign occupation Economic empowerment : Inequality in economic structures and policies, in all forms of productive activities and in access to resources
19. Critical Areas of Gender Concern - 3 Power and decision Making: Inequality between men and women in the sharing of power and decision-making at all levels Institutional mechanism for the advancement : Insufficient mechanisms at all levels to promote the advancement especially of women for skill development, entrepreneurial development Human rights : Lack of respect for and inadequate promotion and protection of the human rights especially of women Media: Stereotyping of women and inequality in women’s participation in all communication systems, especially in the media
20. Critical Areas of Gender Concern - 4 Environment: Gender inequalities in the management of natural resources and in the safeguarding of the environment Time use of men and women through which the unpaid work of both genders are captured. The Unpaid work could be domestic work , care work , work done in household enterprises. Not only the unpaid work but also the leisure time available can be measured.
21. Identifying Entry Points in the New Framework
22. 15-year Vision Document • Co-terminus with 2030 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) • Main objective of the vision - Poverty Eradication • 7-year strategy (2017-18 to 2023-24 )to convert a long-vision document into implementable policy and • 3-year action plan (2017-18 to 2019-20) as part of the national developmental agenda - aligned with the 14th FC • Focus Areas - Infrastructure, commerce, education and health, also • internal security and defence, which were not part of the earlier five year plans.
23. 12th Plan Key Strategies – not over Engendering National Policies/Programmes Enabling Legislations Women’s Participation in Governance Social Inclusion of Vulnerable women Economic Empowerment Social and Physical Infrastructure
24. INPUTS Log Frames IMPACT OUTCOME Logical Framework is an analytical tool used to plan, monitor and evaluate projects
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