Gender and Geography

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Information about Gender and Geography

Published on July 15, 2008

Author: maamlumanglas

Source: slideshare.net

Description

Report on Gender and Geography for IR 236 Class, July 5, 2008

Gender and Geography BY Maam Lumanglas IR 236, 5 July 2008

Geography (from Wikipedia) Study of the earth and its features, inhabitants and phenomena “ To describe or write about the Earth"

Study of the earth and its features, inhabitants and phenomena

“ To describe or write about the Earth"

Geography (from Wikipedia) seeks to understand the world and all of its human and natural complexities not merely where objects are, but how they have changed and come to be “ The bridge between the human and physical sciences“ Human Geography Physical Geography

seeks to understand the world and all of its human and natural complexities

not merely where objects are, but how they have changed and come to be

“ The bridge between the human and physical sciences“

Human Geography

Physical Geography

Feminist Geography (from Wikipedia) An approach in human geography Applies the theories, methods and critiques of feminism to the study of the human environment, society and geographical space

An approach in human geography

Applies the theories, methods and critiques of feminism to the study of the human environment, society and geographical space

Feminist Geography (from Wikipedia) STRANDS TO FEMINIST GEOGRAPHY Geographic differences in gender relations and gender equality The geography of women spatial constraints, welfare geography The construction of gender identity through the use & nature of spaces & places Geographies of sexuality

STRANDS TO FEMINIST GEOGRAPHY

Geographic differences in gender relations and gender equality

The geography of women

spatial constraints, welfare geography

The construction of gender identity through the use & nature of spaces & places

Geographies of sexuality

Feminist Geography (EXAMPLES) urban planning has a gender dimension with the expectation that men travel to a distant location for employment while women are involved with child care, basic shopping, and domestic functions in a suburban location.

Feminist Geography (EXAMPLES) gender differences in terms of personal access, mobility and safety, especially in respect to the design and use of urban space and open places such as public parks and footpaths

Feminist Geography (EXAMPLES) worldwide migration of women from the Third World to the First World to perform domestic labor and sex work

KEY ISSUES Gender relations and geographies are mutually constructed and transformed Spaces affect gender and gender affects spaces Assumptions about gender have influenced the study of geography and the position of women in the discipline Conceptions of the body are central to understanding gender and space relations

Gender relations and geographies are mutually constructed and transformed

Spaces affect gender and gender affects spaces

Assumptions about gender have influenced the study of geography and the position of women in the discipline

Conceptions of the body are central to understanding gender and space relations

KEY ISSUES Gender influences the ways in which people understand, experience and use spaces like the home, the workplace and the street Although geographic research on gender has “traditionally” focused on the experiences and needs of women, geographers are increasingly interested in gaining a greater understanding of men and masculinities

Gender influences the ways in which people understand, experience and use spaces like the home, the workplace and the street

Although geographic research on gender has “traditionally” focused on the experiences and needs of women, geographers are increasingly interested in gaining a greater understanding of men and masculinities

History of Gender 1 st Phase – 1970s 2 nd Phase – 1980s 3 rd Phase – Current Gender and Geography

1 st Phase – 1970s Sexist bias in the content, methods and purpose of geographical research meant that only “half of the human” were being included in geography Geographical research reflected white, able-bodied, male, middle class values and issues as the norm

Sexist bias in the content, methods and purpose of geographical research meant that only “half of the human” were being included in geography

Geographical research reflected white, able-bodied, male, middle class values and issues as the norm

1 st Phase – 1970s Drawn from the Liberal Feminist Movement There should be equality between men and women in both public and private spaces Include women in geography and geographical research Resulted in a growth in research into women’s lives particularly in the spaces of the home, the workplace and the street

Drawn from the Liberal Feminist Movement

There should be equality between men and women in both public and private spaces

Include women in geography and geographical research

Resulted in a growth in research into women’s lives particularly in the spaces of the home, the workplace and the street

2 nd Phase – 1980s Move from simply placing women in geography to examining the mechanisms that created the wide range of socio-material inequalities between men and women particularly in the context of the workplace and the home

Move from simply placing women in geography to examining the mechanisms that created the wide range of socio-material inequalities between men and women

particularly in the context of the workplace and the home

2 nd Phase – 1980s Recognition that spaces were gendered Space was previously viewed as “neutral” Space can be seen to reflect gendered and heterosexual values and norms Many spaces can be argued as hetero-patriarchal spaces

Recognition that spaces were gendered

Space was previously viewed as “neutral”

Space can be seen to reflect gendered and heterosexual values and norms

Many spaces can be argued as hetero-patriarchal spaces

2 nd Phase – 1980s Influenced by radical Socialist/Marxist trends Links are made between the home as a site of reproduction and the workplace as a space of production Thereby linking patriarchy and capitalism

Influenced by radical Socialist/Marxist trends

Links are made between the home as a site of reproduction and the workplace as a space of production

Thereby linking patriarchy and capitalism

3 rd and Current Phase Recognition that even when increasing numbers of women are achieving economic equality with men broader social and cultural beliefs and practices still influence the opportunities and expectations of women

Recognition that even when increasing numbers of women are achieving economic equality with men

broader social and cultural beliefs and practices still influence the opportunities and expectations of women

3 rd and Current Phase Geographers in the contemporary era have begun to unsettle the binary construction “male”/“female” They have become increasingly interested in the differences that exist amongst and between men & women Influenced by Post-Structural Feminists who seek to disrupt what is taken for granted

Geographers in the contemporary era have begun to unsettle the binary construction “male”/“female”

They have become increasingly interested in the differences that exist amongst and between men & women

Influenced by Post-Structural Feminists who seek to disrupt what is taken for granted

Theoretical Approaches The Natural and the Social The Mind/Body Dualism Bodily Compartment Gender and Geography

The Natural and the Social Notions that women’s bodies are both different and inferior to men’s: Women’s menstruation was read as a sign of their inherent lack of control over their bodies Women leaked, while men were self-contained

Notions that women’s bodies are both different and inferior to men’s:

Women’s menstruation was read as a sign of their inherent lack of control over their bodies

Women leaked, while men were self-contained

The Natural and the Social Notions that women’s bodies are both different and inferior to men’s: Women’s role in reproduction was understood to mean that they were “naturally” more nurturing and more closely linked to “Mother Earth” than men

Notions that women’s bodies are both different and inferior to men’s:

Women’s role in reproduction was understood to mean that they were “naturally” more nurturing and more closely linked to “Mother Earth” than men

The Natural and the Social Association between women and nature: Just as nature is wild and potentially uncontrollable, women were less able to control their emotions and passions than men Women’s unstable bodies were considered to be a threat to their minds Women’s bodies were used to justify what was regarded as “natural inequality” between the sexes

Association between women and nature:

Just as nature is wild and potentially uncontrollable, women were less able to control their emotions and passions than men

Women’s unstable bodies were considered to be a threat to their minds

Women’s bodies were used to justify what was regarded as “natural inequality” between the sexes

The Natural and the Social ESSENTIALISTS Sexual differences are determined by biology Bodies have particular stable, fixed properties or “essences” SOCIAL CONSTRUCTIONISTS There is no “natural” body The body is always “culturally mapped” “ Essence” is actually socially constructed difference

ESSENTIALISTS

Sexual differences are determined by biology

Bodies have particular stable, fixed properties or “essences”

SOCIAL CONSTRUCTIONISTS

There is no “natural” body

The body is always “culturally mapped”

“ Essence” is actually socially constructed difference

The Natural and the Social SOCIAL CONSTRUCTINISTS What is understood by “man” and “woman” varies historically and in different cultural contexts The social meanings ascribed to men and women (or gender) is socially constructed in a hierarchical way

SOCIAL CONSTRUCTINISTS

What is understood by “man” and “woman” varies historically and in different cultural contexts

The social meanings ascribed to men and women (or gender) is socially constructed in a hierarchical way

The Mind/Body Dualism MIND Only the mind had the power of intelligence, spirituality and therefore selfhood Associated with positive terms such as rationality, consciousness, reason and masculinity BODY The corporeal body was nothing but a machine Associated with negative terms such as emotionality, nature, irrationality and femininity

MIND

Only the mind had the power of intelligence, spirituality and therefore selfhood

Associated with positive terms such as rationality, consciousness, reason and masculinity

BODY

The corporeal body was nothing but a machine

Associated with negative terms such as emotionality, nature, irrationality and femininity

The Mind/Body Dualism MAN Transcend their embodiment by regarding the body as merely the container of their consciousness Able to separate himself from his emotions and experiences WOMAN More closely tied to, and ruled by, their bodies due to natural cycles of menstruation, pregnancy & childbirth Presumed to be a “victim of the vagaries of her emotions, a creature who cannot think straight as a consequence”

MAN

Transcend their embodiment by regarding the body as merely the container of their consciousness

Able to separate himself from his emotions and experiences

WOMAN

More closely tied to, and ruled by, their bodies due to natural cycles of menstruation, pregnancy & childbirth

Presumed to be a “victim of the vagaries of her emotions, a creature who cannot think straight as a consequence”

The Mind/Body Dualism Applied to Geography: Men have tended to marginalize women as producers of geographical knowledge and what are considered women’s issues as topic of study Until the mid-late 1990’s topics such as embodiment, emotion & sexuality were regarded as inappropriate

Applied to Geography:

Men have tended to marginalize women as producers of geographical knowledge and what are considered women’s issues as topic of study

Until the mid-late 1990’s topics such as embodiment, emotion & sexuality were regarded as inappropriate

Bodily Comportment “ Throwing Like a Girl” BOYS use their whole bodies to throw, leaning back, twisting and reaching forward GIRLS tend to be relatively stiff and immobile, only using their arms to produce a throwing action

“ Throwing Like a Girl”

BOYS use their whole bodies to throw, leaning back, twisting and reaching forward

GIRLS tend to be relatively stiff and immobile, only using their arms to produce a throwing action

Bodily Comportment Women are alienated from their bodies and as a result, occupy and use space in an inhibited way compared with men Women demonstrate restricted body movements and inhibited comportment in some physical activities

Women are alienated from their bodies and as a result, occupy and use space in an inhibited way compared with men

Women demonstrate restricted body movements and inhibited comportment in some physical activities

Bodily Comportment Women are inhibited and do not put their bodies into the task with the same ease as men

Women are inhibited and do not put their bodies into the task with the same ease as men

Bodily Comportment Women also fear getting hurt Their bodies tend to become the object of the male gaze It has become acceptable for men to look at, comment on or touch women’s bodies in public space As a result women are fearful that their body space may be invaded

Women also fear getting hurt

Their bodies tend to become the object of the male gaze

It has become acceptable for men to look at, comment on or touch women’s bodies in public space

As a result women are fearful that their body space may be invaded

Bodily Comportment “ To be an adult male is distinctly to occupy space, to have a physical presence in the world”

“ To be an adult male is distinctly to occupy space, to have a physical presence in the world”

Gender and Space Relations in Context Domestic Space Workplace Streets Gender and Geography

Domestic Spaces Women were attributed with the sort of emotional qualities necessary to nurture families and run the house Whereas men were seen as fiery, active, aggressive, and so more suited the public world of work.

Women were attributed with the sort of emotional qualities necessary to nurture families and run the house

Whereas men were seen as fiery, active, aggressive, and so more suited the public world of work.

Domestic Spaces Early 19 th C – residential areas developed along road and railway lines allowing men to travel into the city to the workplace, leaving women and children in residential suburbs

Early 19 th C – residential areas developed along road and railway lines allowing men to travel into the city to the workplace, leaving women and children in residential suburbs

Domestic Spaces Early 19 th C – residential areas developed along road and railway lines allowing men to travel into the city to the workplace, leaving women and children in residential suburbs After WW II – Planners used the pro-natalist approach in housing design To address falling birth rates and improve family housing To persuade more women to have children and remove temptations for them to work outside the home

Early 19 th C – residential areas developed along road and railway lines allowing men to travel into the city to the workplace, leaving women and children in residential suburbs

After WW II – Planners used the pro-natalist approach in housing design

To address falling birth rates and improve family housing

To persuade more women to have children and remove temptations for them to work outside the home

Domestic Spaces With the rising standards of housing came the rising standards of housework Washing machines and vacuum cleaners became commonplace Women’s magazines became preoccupied with cleaning products (e.g., VIM) Domestic ideology: housework is not just a set of chores but a moral undertaking A dirty home was equated with slovenliness, cleanliness was equated with goodness

With the rising standards of housing came the rising standards of housework

Washing machines and vacuum cleaners became commonplace

Women’s magazines became preoccupied with cleaning products (e.g., VIM)

Domestic ideology: housework is not just a set of chores but a moral undertaking

A dirty home was equated with slovenliness, cleanliness was equated with goodness

Domestic Spaces Late 20 th C – Women in paid employment continue to do the lion’s share of domestic work & childcare Women juggled these dual roles and confronted spatial constraints

Late 20 th C – Women in paid employment continue to do the lion’s share of domestic work & childcare

Women juggled these dual roles and confronted spatial constraints

Gender and the Workplace Are women unsuited to the skilled and relatively well-paid work? Women had weaker spines Women were too soft and afraid of getting hurt Women were too irrational for an occupation that requires logical & problem solving Women had an innate aversion to machinery

Are women unsuited to the skilled and relatively well-paid work?

Women had weaker spines

Women were too soft and afraid of getting hurt

Women were too irrational for an occupation that requires logical & problem solving

Women had an innate aversion to machinery

Gender and the Workplace These justifications rested on assumptions that it was logical and proper for the male head of the family to be the breadwinner and so well-paid jobs should be the preserve of men That women would be coarsened by working alongside men because they would be subject to swearing and the general sexist abuse and so would lose their femininity

These justifications rested on assumptions that it was logical and proper for the male head of the family to be the breadwinner and so well-paid jobs should be the preserve of men

That women would be coarsened by working alongside men because they would be subject to swearing and the general sexist abuse and so would lose their femininity

Gender and the Workplace In a male-dominated and aggressive work environment, women need to appropriate masculine styles of behavior to be accepted in this space Yet they are constantly reminded of their sex by negative comments from male colleagues

In a male-dominated and aggressive work environment, women need to appropriate masculine styles of behavior to be accepted in this space

Yet they are constantly reminded of their sex by negative comments from male colleagues

Streets of Fear Street violence: women are at most risk Women are most fearful of sexual violence or assault by strangers Most women encounter more minor forms of harassment (verbal abuse, wolf whistling, flashing)

Street violence: women are at most risk

Women are most fearful of sexual violence or assault by strangers

Most women encounter more minor forms of harassment (verbal abuse, wolf whistling, flashing)

Streets of fear In cases where women have been attacked in public space at night, the police and media have sometimes implied that they are to a certain degree responsible for their own fate and have warned other women to avoid putting themselves in similar situations of vulnerability

In cases where women have been attacked in public space at night, the police and media have sometimes implied that they are to a certain degree responsible for their own fate and have warned other women to avoid putting themselves in similar situations of vulnerability

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