gender

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Information about gender
Education

Published on April 16, 2008

Author: Marianna

Source: authorstream.com

Slide1:  LOIS J. McDERMOTT, Ph.D. UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON DEPARTMENT OF PSYCHOLOGY Copyright c 1996 by Lois J. McDermott. All rights reserved. Development of Sex & Gender Who should use a women’s bathroom?:  Who should use a women’s bathroom? a person with a penis, wearing a dress? (TV, TS, TG) a person with a penis, uterus, and ovaries wearing a dress? (Intersex) a mother with her son, age 4? a father with his daughter , age 4? Western sex and gender variations:  Western sex and gender variations intersexual transsexual transvestite drag queen female impersonator male impersonator fetishist cross-dresser androgyny cross-genderist androgyne andro- gynephile intergenderist he/she gynemimic adromimic autogynephile autoandrophile ambigenderist butch - femme non-Western sex and gender variations:  non-Western sex and gender variations cross-sex gender - Acault of Nyanmar (Burma) neither man nor women - Amer. Indian Two-Spirit (Berdache) both man and women - Hjiras of Indian in between gender - Muxe or Isthmus Zapotic Slide5:  Anatomic sex traits are congruent Gender is congruent with anatomic sex Embryonic development weeks 1-5:  Embryonic development weeks 1-5 sex chromosomes XX VS. XY 22 pairs of autosomes - direct growth of 5 sexually dimorphic structures primitive gonad two sets of internal ducts urethral primordia urogenital tubercle brain (hypothalamus) Slide7:  XX + autosomes male - female differentiation XY (TDF gene/ H-Y antigen) Slide8:  testosterone + MIS male - female differentiation autosomes + absence of hormones Slide9:  male - female differentiation autosomes + absence of hormones 5a-dihydrotestosterone DHT Slide10:  autosomes + absence of hormones FNBP estradiol male - female differentiation Feto-natal binding protein:  Feto-natal binding protein blood vessel hormone FNPB receptor Female trait Male trait Reproductive Hormones:  Reproductive Hormones Female Cycle E>A Male non Cycle A>E Slide13:  male - female differentiation high estrogen low androgen from the ovary high androgen low estrogen from the testes Puberal Differentiation: Secondary Sex Characteristics:  Puberal Differentiation: Secondary Sex Characteristics blood vessel hormone receptor receptor receptor breast tissue skin fat cells Mullerian cells follicles, ova pubic bone long bone - inhibit genitalia Wolffian cells hair follicles sebaceous glands larynx skeleton & muscle aggression sex drive BIOLOGICAL FACTORS DETERMINING ANATOMIC SEX:  BIOLOGICAL FACTORS DETERMINING ANATOMIC SEX Genetic Sex Gonadal Sex Prenatal Hormone Status Internal Structures External Genitalia Hypothalamic Status Reproductive Function Secondary Sex Characteristics Intersex Variations:  Intersex Variations NON-DICHOTOMOUS ANATOMIC SEX SOME TRAITS ARE INCONGRUENT 5+ RATHER THAN 2 ANATOMIC SEXES Slide17:  XX + autosomes adrenogenital syndrome exogenous progestin Slide18:  autosomes + absence of hormones adrenogenital syndrome exogenous progestin Slide19:  adrenogenital syndrome exogenous progestin ABNORMAL SOURCE OF ANDROGENS FROM FETUS OR FROM MOTHER synthesis of sex steroids from blood cholesterol:  synthesis of sex steroids from blood cholesterol cholesterol progesterone (P) testosterone (A) 5a-DHT (A) mineral corticoids corticosteroids estradiol (E) androstenedione (A) Slide21:  autosomes + absence of hormones FNBP adrenogenital syndrome exogenous progestin Slide22:  adrenogenital syndrome exogenous progestin SURGICAL CONSTRUCTION SURGICAL REMOVAL SURGICAL IMPLANT “TESTES” OR Slide23:  high estrogen, low androgen from the ovary adrenogenital syndrome exogenous progestin DELAYED Slide24:  adrenogenital syndrome exogenous progestin FEMALE MALE no testis in scrotum internal menses no ejaculation breast development Slide25:  androgen insensitivity syndrome XY (TDF gene/ H-Y antigen) synthesis of sex steroids from blood cholesterol:  synthesis of sex steroids from blood cholesterol cholesterol progesterone (P) testosterone (A) (internal ducts) 5a-DHT (A) (genitals) mineral corticoids corticosteroids estradiol (E) androstenedione (A) Slide27:  testosterone + MIS female structures suppressed by MIS androgen insensitivity syndrome Slide28:  autosomes + absence of hormones 5a-dihydrotestosterone DHT androgen insensitivity syndrome Slide29:  estradiol androgen insensitivity syndrome Slide30:  androgen insensitivity syndrome surgical construction Slide31:  high androgen, low estrogen from the testes androgen insensitivity syndrome Slide32:  FEMALE androgen insensitivity syndrome US Olympic committee labels as female Slide33:  DHT deficiency (guevedoces) XY (TDF gene/ H-Y antigen) Slide34:  testosterone + MIS DHT deficiency (guevedoces) Slide35:  autosomes + absence of hormones DHT deficiency (guevedoces) DHT ABSENT synthesis of sex steroids from blood cholesterol:  synthesis of sex steroids from blood cholesterol cholesterol progesterone (P) testosterone (A) 5a-DHT (A) mineral corticoids corticosteroids estradiol (E) androstenedione (A) a-reductase is absent Slide37:  estradiol DHT deficiency (guevedoces) Slide38:  RAISED AS GIRL WAIT AND SEE DHT deficiency (guevedoces) Slide39:  high androgen, low estrogen from the testes DHT deficiency (guevedoces) normal hormones Slide40:  DHT deficiency (guevedoces) Intergender Variations:  Intergender Variations Dichotomous anatomic sex All traits are congruent Gender-crossing occurs spontaneously Gender-crossing is engineered Western gender variations:  Western gender variations Masc-hets; Fem.- hets, androgynous hets Cross-sex, cross-gender, - M/F TS, F/M TS Intergenderal - TV, androgyny gay-masc, swish, androgynous; lesbian - femme, butch, androgynous Ambigenderists- pangenderists Slide43:  cross-gender engineering in MZ male twin XY (TDF gene/ H-Y antigen) Slide44:  testosterone + MIS cross-gender engineering in MZ male twin Slide45:  5a-dihydrotestosterone DHT cross-gender engineering in MZ male twin Slide46:  estradiol cross-gender engineering in MZ male twin Slide47:  surgical construction remove testes cross-gender engineering in MZ male twin Slide48:  EXOGENOUS ESTROGENS cross-gender engineering in MZ male twin Slide49:  FEMALE cross-gender engineering in MZ male twin Slide50:  M/F Transsexual F/M Transsexual Transvestism/Cross-dressing Androgyny Slide51:  condemnation celebration 2 sexes 2 genders biologically determined fixed, involuntary expression many sexes many genders socially constructed, fluid, personal expression gender variations PROCREATIONAL RELATIONAL RECREATIONAL sex - sex + CELIBATE CHASTE ACTIVE EXPRESSIVE Slide52:  male to female transsexual XY (TDF gene/ H-Y antigen) Slide53:  testosterone + MIS male to female transsexual Slide54:  5a-dihydrotestosterone DHT male to female transsexual Slide55:  estradiol male to female transsexual Slide56:  male to female transsexual Slide57:  high androgen, low estrogen from the testes male to female transsexual Slide58:  male to female transsexual Slide59:  XX + autosomes female - male transsexual Slide60:  autosomes + absence of hormones female - male transsexual Slide61:  autosomes + absence of hormones female - male transsexual Slide62:  autosomes + absence of hormones FNBP female - male transsexual Slide63:  female - male transsexual Slide64:  high estrogen, low androgen from the ovary female - male transsexual Slide65:  ADULTHOOD female to male transsexual transvestism: cross-dressing:  transvestism: cross-dressing transsexual: create a congruent identity fetishist-auto(gyne/adro)philia: gratification from feeling fem/masc fetishist-gyne/andro mimic: gratification from being perceived as fem/masc gender role expansion: express both masc. and fem. aspects of personality drag queens - flaunting, spoofing “unmasculinity” female impersonators - a vocation, employment androgyny:  androgyny occupational and social roles decrease gender stereotyping - police offices, fire fighters, nurses, house-husbands personal sphere decrease gender stereotyping - hair styles, clothing emotional and sexual expression Slide68:  condemnation celebration 2 sexes 2 genders biologically determined, fixed, unalterable expression many sexes many genders social construction, fluid personal expression gender variations PROCREATIONAL RELATIONAL RECREATIONAL sex - sex + CELIBATE CHASTE ACTIVE EXPRESSIVE path model of gender development:  path model of gender development sex versus gender:  sex versus gender anatomic sex genetic sex primary sex (organs) secondary sex (body traits) reproductive function gender core gender gender role contributing factors:  contributing factors biological determinism psychosocial determinism biopsychosocial interactionism Path Model of Gender Development :  Path Model of Gender Development biopsychosocial interactionism biology creates physical structures, and hormonal influences biology sets a predisposition and range of possible outcomes psychosocial factors control the expression of the range interplay between and biologic and psychosocial factors:  interplay between and biologic and psychosocial factors genetic sex gonadal sex prenatal hormones internal structures hypothalamic struct. external genitalia assigned gender and rearing core gender identity gender role puberal hormones reproductive function secondary sex traits adolescent socialization adult gender identity Path Model:  Path Model genes xx xy prenatal hormones absent present gender label femal males gender rearing fem masc gender identity fem masc puberal hormones estrog andro adult identity fem masc. fem masc female male prenatal differentiation of hypothalamic nuclei:  prenatal differentiation of hypothalamic nuclei FUNCTION NUC TIME CON FEMALE CON MALE PUBERAL 1 20 W PF CYCLE TONIC HORM SEXUAL 2,3 BOTTOM TOP PLAY GENDER 4, 5 FEM MASC IDENTITY GENDER 5,6 FEM MASC ROLE EROTIC 7,8 MALES FEMALES INTEREST Western sexual variations:  Western sexual variations Heterosexuals - masc, fem Homosexual - gays, lesbians Bisexuals - masc, fem Ambisexuals - pansexuals Asexuals -

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