gen2112 lecture10 renaissance and reformation

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Published on November 1, 2007

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Renaissance, Reformation & Scientific Revolution as Reaction to the Age of Faith :  Renaissance, Reformation & Scientific Revolution as Reaction to the Age of Faith GEN 2112 The Characteristics of Western Culture An Overview:  An Overview The Middle Ages (Age of Faith) 信仰時代 as reaction, ↓ Renaissance 文藝復興, Reformation 宗教改革, Scientific Revolution 科學革命 ↓ Enlightenment 啟蒙時代 ↓↑ 承先啟後 (Age of Reason) Slide3:  Definition Renaissance: the revival of antiquity (golden age) “Renaissance” means rebirth (再生,重生,復興) and it refers specifically to the intellectual and artistic flowering that began in Italy in the 14th century, & eventually spread across the Alps 其實,地域:不限於意大利;範圍亦不限於文藝 +architecture, theology, science & technology (anatomy) e.g. Leonardo da Vinci Mona Lisa, The Last Supper + “anatomy” Renaissance Slide4:  We may employ the term, however, in a more general sense to describe the entire process of change that transformed medieval into modern Europe. (中大:”Early Modern Europe”) Renaissance man was heir of Middle Ages man, but more secular ∴ 承先啟後 Renaissance Slide5:  Background Italy, the symbol of Roman civilization, in the 14th c., was not united A group of city-states/republics, (Absence of feudalism) Freedom of trade International trade (Shakespeare, Merchant of Venice) Mercantile economy ↑ commerce & industry created a group of wealthy middle-class laymen They were concerned with everyday problems of politics & business than with questions of salvation, faith, & the relationship of the soul to God. Renaissance Slide6:  Renaissance man was more attracted to the beauties of NATURE than the piety of saints. + a new kind of individual, self-conscious, + many-sided universal man + the discovery of the world, & of “man” Renaissance Slide7:  14th c. Florentine upper class society was many-sided: secular (BUT not clerical nor feudal) based on wealth, & political influence only social mobility individuals had the opportunity for personal success the surest road to success = business & politics Renaissance Slide8:  Florence (佛羅倫斯/翡冷翠),[發源地] With its large textile industry & its international banking, was to become the focal point of Italian Renaissance culture (1450 - ) In Florence, enterprising individuals & families grew wealthy from the profits of international commerce & banking The Bardi, the Peruzzi, & the Medici were the great Florence banking families & great patrons of art Renaissance Slide9:  Renaissance people tended to be this worldly Materialistic, ambitious, practical, competitive, individualistic, middle class +patronizing artists & writers Renaissance Slide10:  Florentines: Dante 但丁 (1265-132) Divine Comedy (神曲) Boccaccio (1313-1375) The Decameron (十日談) Petrach (1304-1374) Dante 但丁 Divine Comedy An allegory of man’s search for salvation – Hell, Purgatory (煉獄), the Heaven criticism of the times, written in Italian poems Dante Slide11:  Hell 33 chapters Purgatory 33 chapters Heaven 33 chapters + Introduction = 100 chapters Dante and His Work Slide12:  “Humanism” (人文主義) may be defined as an intellectual movement that stressed the study of the classics and imitation of classic modes of thought & expression. : grammar, rhetoric, history, poetry, & moral philosophy Humanism Slide13:  Petrach (the founding humanist in the mid-14th c.) “When the darkness breaks, the generations to come may manage to find their way back to the clear splendor of the ancient past.” The humanists sought the answers to their questions in the classics. The ancient writers became authorities. Favourite sources: Cicero, Plato Petrach Slide14:  Machiavelli (1469-1527) (申不害? 商鞅?) Was the son of a Florentine family that had been in the Florentine politics for generations The Prince Machiavelli seems to advocate tyranny as the only sure antidote to man’s natural egoism & contentiousness domestic peace is to be sought at all costs, even to the exclusion of liberty. In practice, any action by a dictator is “good”, so long as it serves the state It is only by means of a strong & ordered state that man’s dangerous natural qualities can be curbed. Machiavelli Slide15:  This recognition of the state as a sovereign entity was one of Machiavelli’s greatest contributions to modern thought --- national state The Prince controversial satire? real? Or: an expression of an idealistic man’s disillusionment with the failure of republican institutions even in his beloved Florence Like ancient Athenians (希臘城邦) Renaissance Slide16:  Renaissance men were many-sided (all-roundedness) e.g. Leonardo da Vinci e.g. Michelangelo (1475-11564) a universal man – a writer, poet, sculptor, painter, and an architect – supremely gifted in everything that he undertook Renaissance Men Slide17:  The Northern Renaissance Sir Thomas More (England) (1478-1535) Utopia (烏托邦) + printing, gunpowder, compass in the discovery of the New World The Northern Renaissance Slide18:  Conclusion: Renaissance The emphasis had shifted, however, from the medieval stress on the omnipotence of God to a new vision of man’s own grandeur in the heavenly scheme Renaissance: Conclusion Slide19:  Reformation 1517 Johann Tetzel sold “indulgences” (贖罪券) in Juterbog near Wittenberg Martin Luther nailed “the 95 Thesis” on indulgences to the door of the castle-church in Wittenberg. symbolized the beginning of Reformation -- as a kind: “protests” Protestants 基督新教 Reformation Slide20:  Martin Luther, d. 1546 faith alone Bible + sole religious authority Background 14th/15th/16th c. Papacy e.g. Pope Boniface 8th: Unam Sanctum Martin Luther Slide21:  yet, kidnapped by King Philip the Fair of France 1309-1377 Avignon “Babylonism captivity of the popes” 1378-1417 “great schism” (大分裂) & then 3 popes Council of Constance Reformation Slide22:  + rise of Christian mystics & Christian humanists (Reformation) (secularization) + “inquisition” worsened the confrontation + church “money” (e.g. indulgence) – corruption dissatisfaction w/ the Church + widespread discontent over political, economic, & social charge Reformation Slide23:  The rise of Lutheranism Martin Luther (1483-1546) U. of Erfurt (“Law” [legal career] encouraged by his proud father) Suddenly gave up & entered the Augustinian monastery at Erfurt bachelor of theology, master of the Sentences, & licentiate in theology The Rise of Lutheranism Slide24:  Martin Luther’s attack = threatened the authority of the papacy Martin Luther was summoned to Rome for a hearing, but his prince, Elector Frederick the Wise (Saxony), arranged for a hearing before a papal legate at Augsburg in 1518 Martin Luther tried to clarify his doctrines concerning indulgences Reformation Slide25:  1519 Dr. Johann Eck (1486-1553) a Prof. of theology, debated the issues w/ Martin Luther at Leipzig & got him to state that the Bible was the sole authority in religious matter & that the papacy, the entire Church hierarchy, & even Church Councils were human & therefore, not infallible Reformation Slide26:  “Address to be X. Nobility” (in German) wide reading-public, & appealed to the HRE (Martin Luther argued a heretic should be overcome w/ arguments not fire.) Martin Luther reduced to no. of sacraments from 7 to 2 the Lords’ supper & baptism & denied the doctrine of transubstantiation Martin Luther insisted that the bread & wine were not changed to the body & blood of Christ, even though Christ was really present in these elements after consecration Reformation Slide27:  1512 new HRE Charles V (1519-56) first diet at Worms (trademark the wise gave Martin Luther a public hearing) then, to U. of Wittenberg (newly founded), in Electoral Saxony = sub-prior of the Augustinian monastery & lecturer in theology then, degree of doctor of theology Reformation Slide28:  Martin Luther insisted that the sole authority in religious matters was the Bible Reformation: beginnings in theological problem Then + abuses in the church e.g. sale of indulgences Reformation Slide29:  April 18, 1521 Diet at Worms Luther’s address to the Diet, “I cannot and will not retract anything, since it is neither safe nor right to go against conscience. I cannot do otherwise, here I stand, may God help me, Amen. ”Tr. New Testament, Old Testament, (Bible) into German (1534) Reformation Slide30:  Martin Luther urged his prince to abolish – relic worship -- indulgences, etc. & reform the Mass HRE Charles V, + ruler of Spain, Low Countries, Hapsburg of Austria, Styria, Carinthia, & Carniola, etc., faced too many problems, (1526) – granted each G. prince the right to solve the religious problems in his territory, according to his conscience Reformation Slide31:  Frederick the Wise of Saxony -- protection & patronage + “printing” spread success Reformation Slide32:  Ulrich Zwingli (Swiss) (1483-1513) Xn. Humanist study the Bible U. of Vienna – Basel: classics, music, & Biblical theology 1506 = master of liberal arts = priest preacher at the great Minister in Zurich direct interpretation of the Bible Ulrich Zwingli Slide33:  serious concern over political & social as well as religious abuses 1522 preached against fasting 1524 Zurich married a widow (Martin Luther, too, was married) Zurich “77 Conclusions” the word of God was the sole norm of faith man was justified only by faith in Jesus Christ Christians owed obedience to their secular govt. unless it acted contrary to the word of God etc. Reformation Slide34:  Both Martin Luther & Zurich hoped to reform the Church from within When this proved impossible, they retained the medieval conception of the all-inclusive church protected by the prince so “God’s sword on earth”. Reformation Slide35:  John Calvin (1509-64) France Paris priesthood, laws, humanism Exiled for his protestant views 1536 John Calvin to Basel & published Institutes of the Christian Religion (doctrinal synthesis) Like Martin Luther & Zurich, John Calvin believed that the Bible was the sole authority the Bible was the sole authority in religious matters. + absolute authority of God as eternal lawgiver & judge. Predestination: God decreed the fate of all individuals John Calvin Slide36:  Reformation in England Henry VIII (r. 1509-47) 1523 originally was “Defender of Faith” claimed by the Pope but “heir” [Henry VIII wished to ensure the continuation to ensure the continuation of the Tudor dynasty {started by his father Henry VIII after wars of the Roses – 30 years of civil war}] 1st wife = decreased brother Arthurs’ wife Catherine of Aragon [“if a man shall take his brother’s wife, it is an unclean thing: he hath uncovered his brother’s nakedness, they shall be childless.”] Anne Boleyn wives BUT Catherine = aunt of HRE Charles V Pope refused to permit divorce Anglican Church (not doctrinal not much change) Reformation in England Slide37:  The Catholic Counter-Reformation Ignatius of Loyola (1491? – 1556) 1521 badly wounded & crippled for life army officer Xn mystics spiritual soldier fighting for Mother Mary & Christ emphasis on education, too 1534: Society of Jesus to the service of God Counter-Reformation Slide38:  Pope Paul III (scientific) 1540 constituted the Society of Jesus 1514 I. L. = 1st general Jesuits – demanded strict education + complete suppression of all self-will, + absolute obedience to the General of the Order, & through him, to the Pope Counter-Reformation Slide39:  Conclusion: 14th c., humanism 15th c., Reformation 16th c., (Scientific Rev.) Reformation Slide40:  Scientific Revolution (in the 16th c. – 17th c.) Renaissance, Reformation, Conception of “man” & “universe” + printing, gunpowder, & compass, + international trade “the Scientific Rev. outshines everything since the rise of Christianity, & reduces the Renaissance & Hubert Butterfield, Origins of Modern Science Scientific Revolution Slide41:  Exaggerated? Most historians believe that the Scientific Revolution was itself an outgrowth of the Renaissance. 1543 usually was marked as the beginning of the Scientific Revolution 1543: 3 books were published Versalius, On the Structure of Human Body (accuracy on anatomy) *2. Copernicus, On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres (inspired a revolution in astronomy) the first Latin translation of the works of Archimedes (in Greek) (stimulated new discoveries in Physics  navigation) Scientific Revolution Slide42:  Nicholas Copernicus (a Polish Cleric) Most distinguished astronomer (Pope Paul III was interested in astronomy, too) Yet, problems: “the sun (not the earth) was center of the solar system (universe).” ↑↓ “highly controversial”, “clash” with traditional astronomy & religion (“earth was stationery & at the Center of universe”) finally, Catholic Church condemned Copernicus as heretic Copernicus ↑↓ ∴ Christian creation: Men were descended from Adam on earth where, then, did God reside? Where is heaven? Nicholas Copernicus Slide43:  Copernicus: (“heliocentric”) [sun-center theory] the earth revolved about its axis once every day it completed an orbit of the sun once a year its axis rotated in a conical motion once a year (∴seasons/year) religious leaders, such as Luther, Calvin denounced Copernicus Nicholas Copernicus Slide44:  then 1627, Johannes Kepler (a German scientist & astrologer) a tireless advocator of the heliocentric system Laws of Planetary Motion Scientific Revolution Slide45:  Galileo Galili (Italian scientist) telescope discovered phenomena that decisively confirmed the heliocentric theory Dialogue on the Great World System Persecuted, When leaving the court, Galileo Galili muttered “Eppur si mouve” (and yet it does move!) Galileo Galili Slide46:  Physics Mechanics 1586 Stevin (Dutch) Principles of statics Applications of statics Principles of hydrostatics Scientific Revolution Slide47:  II. Optics, Maurolycus 1567 “ on Shadows & Reflection” transparent bodies rainbow structure of human eyes & the forms of spectacles Scientific Revolution Slide48:  1687 Issac Newton Published Principia: Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy Which united the rev. in astronomy & physics into a vast, uniform system of laws governing the heaven & earth. + discover “force of gravity” Profound “center of gravity” ↓ Impact, consequence + Discovery of the New World (compass) [navigation] (gun-powder) (printing) 「近代西方歷史的回顧與展望」 William McNeil, Prof. of History, University of Chicago Scientific Revolution

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