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Travel-Nature

Published on March 25, 2008

Author: Dabby

Source: authorstream.com

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The theories of dependent development:  The theories of dependent development Ge203 28.07.2005 Colonialism and development Stages of colonialism:  Stages of colonialism Mercantile colonialism (1500+) Transitional phase (~1800) Industrial colonization (1850-1900s) Rapid demand for raw materials State central role Urban structure heavily influenced by: Culture, Technology Political structure Stages of colonialism-2:  Stages of colonialism-2 Late colonialism (1920s-) Economic recession Influx of large numbers of blue- and white-collar European workers Early independence period (1950s-70s) Independence spreads through Asia and Africa Urban surge, but few economic opportunities—led to migration Neo-colonialism Colonialism:  Colonialism System of control over a dependent area or people outside the own territory Often described as beginning after the discovery of America (1492) and the Sea Route to the Far East (1498) Without any doubts there are consequences for the present time, however historians and social scientists disagree on the extent and quality of these consequences Modern Colonialism:  Modern Colonialism Stages of Colonialism pre-colonial discoveries / exploration trade and exploitation control and administration Antecedents of European expansion:  Antecedents of European expansion The geographic knowledge gathered by the Greek and Romans was lost in the Middle Ages (Dark Ages). The Christians in the Middle Ages were believing that the Earth is a flat disc (not a globe), with the ocean around it and the paradise in the centre. Only in the Arab world this knowledge was preserved and brought to Europe by the Arabs when the conquered Spain after the 10th century. Renaissance (“rebirth”) bringing back the classical knowledge as a precondition for the age of exploration Slide8:  The World According to Eratosthenes Antecedents of European expansion:  Antecedents of European expansion Political and economic competition Medieval Europe was largely self-contained until the First Crusade (1096-99), which opened new political and commercial communications with the Muslim Near East. Commercial relations continued, and the European end of this trade fell largely into the hands of Italian cities. The Oriental land and sea routes terminated at ports in Constantinople (now Istanbul), Asiatic Tripoli (in modern Lebanon), Antioch (in modern Turkey), Beirut (in modern Lebanon), and Alexandria (Egypt), where Italian merchants exchanged European for Eastern products. Slide10:  Products of the Roman Empire, c. 200 C.E. Slide11:  Trade Routes of the Ancient World Antecedents of European expansion:  Antecedents of European expansion Competition between Mediterranean nations for control of Asiatic commerce narrowed to a contest between Venice and Genoa, with the former winning. In partnership with Egypt, Venice principally dominated the Oriental trade coming via the Indian Ocean and Red Sea to Alexandria. Overland routes were not wholly closed, but Venice had a virtual monopoly of some Oriental products, principally spices. The word spices then had a loose application and extended to many Oriental luxuries, but the most valuable European imports were pepper, nutmeg, cloves, and cinnamon. Exploration: Motivations:  Exploration: Motivations Economic: to make profits through trade Political: Competition for power Religious: Search for a christian state in Africa. Improvements in technology and knowledge (ship-building, geography, cartography) Slide14:  Spread of Islam Slide15:  The Spread of Island to Europe Age of Exploration:  Age of Exploration 1492 Christoph Columbus discovers the West Indies 1498 Vasco da Gama reaches India 1511 the Portuguese conquer Malakka The Spanish concentrate on America as they lost their war against the Portuguese in Asia Slide17:  Spanish and Portuguese Voyages in the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries Slide18:  Exploration and Expansion Islam and the Spice Trade, Malacca Marco Polo, 1271 Marco Polo, Travels Portuguese Maritime Empire Prince Henry the Navigator (1394-1460) Slaves Bartolomeu Dias, 1497 Vasco da Gama, 1498 Admiral Alfonso de Albuquerque Goa, 1510 Malacca, 1511 Success of the Portuguese Slide19:  The travels of Marco Polo Slide20:  Voyages to the New World Christopher Columbus (1451-1506), 1492 John Cabot, 1497 Pedro Cabral, 1500 Treaty of Tordesillas, 1494 Mexico, 1519-1522, and Peru, 1531-1536 Slide21:  Other European States Involved in Expansion England Holland France Africa Portuguese in east Africa Gold trade Mwene Matapa Bantu South Africa Zulu Afrikaners Slide22:  The Slave Trade Slide24:  Slave trade African slavery Portuguese São Tomé, 1490 Sugar Atlantic passage Mortality rates Obtaining slaves Effects of the slave trade Slide25:  State and Society in Precolonial Southeast Asia Buddhist kings Burma, Ayuthaya, Laos, and Cambodia Javanese kings Blend of Buddhist and Islamic political traditions Islamic sultans Malay peninsula Rule according to the Shari’ah Vietnamese emperors Slide26:  The Pattern of World Trade Slide27:  Economy Expansion before the Europeans Spices Southeast Asia an importer of manufactured goods Exports of tin, copper, gold, fruits, ceramics Daily life Rice farmers, traders, hunters, fishermen Changing religious beliefs Slide28:  Global Trade Patterns of the European States in the Eighteenth Century Slide29:  The Columbian Exchange Slide30:  Economic Change and Development Population Growth Falling death rate Agricultural revolution Textile industry New methods and machines Cottage manufacturing system Cotton Richard Arkwright (1732-1792) Worldwide trade Global economy Slide31:  Society Class divisions New economic patterns Free peasant and serf Villages Nobles Urban population Slide33:  European Possessions in the West Indies Early Modern Colonialism:  Early Modern Colonialism Two Types of Colonialism Massive immigration of European Colonists (e.g. North America) / (= Colonisation) Few European Settlers. Colonial powers dominating trade, and later administration without having big European population (e.g. India) Colonialism:  Colonialism A political-economic phenomenon whereby various European nations explored, conquered, settled, and exploited large areas of the world. The age of modern colonialism began about 1500, following the European discoveries of a sea route around Africa's southern coast (1488) and of America (1492). With these events sea power shifted from the Mediterranean to the Atlantic and to the emerging nation-states of Portugal, Spain, the Dutch Republic, France, and England. By discovery, conquest, and settlement, these nations expanded and colonised throughout the world, spreading European institutions and culture. Colonialism:  Colonialism The „Optimists“ Colonialism has been beneficial for the „center“ as well as the „periphery“ Ideology of free trade / comparative advantage of trade Civilising the Uncivilised Colonialism:  Colonialism The „Pessimists“ Humanitarian and Liberal Critics of Colonialism mainly as a consequence of the Spanish treatment of Indians in the Americas Economic critics of Colonialism Adam Smith (no free trade) Karl Marx (and Neo-Marxists, Luxemburg, Lenin,.... exploitation of labour) R.C. Dutt (de-industrialisation in India) After Independence the colonial structure is perpetuated through modern international trade and international agencies that become the “bridge heads” of the developed world (neo-colonialism). Colonialism:  Colonialism The „Optimists“ Colonialism has been beneficial for the „center“ as well as the „periphery“ Ideology of free trade / comparative advantage of trade Civilising the Uncivilised Colonialism:  Colonialism The „Pessimists“ Humanitarian and Liberal Critics of Colonialism mainly as a consequence of the Spanish treatment of Indians in the Americas Economic critics of Colonialism Adam Smith (no free trade) Karl Marx (and Neo-Marxists, Luxemburg, Lenin,.... exploitation of labour) R.C. Dutt (de-industrialisation in India) After Independence the colonial structure is perpetuated through modern international trade and international agencies that become the “bridge heads” of the developed world (neo-colonialism). Portuguise Colonialism in Latin America:  Portuguise Colonialism in Latin America On the way to India Brazil was discovered in 1500 by Chabral (Portugal) Soon exploitation of wood and establishment of sugar plantations, Tobacco and cotton. Labour was provided by indigenous groups and slaves brought from Africa. Spanish Colonialism in Latin America:  Spanish Colonialism in Latin America 1492 discovery of America by Columbus (Guanahani, San Salvador; Cuba und Haiti/Hispaniola) Gold Hunger and the search for "El Dorado". Violent colonisation („Konquestadores“) Hernando Cortes (1519) Mexico (Aztec) Pizarro conquers the Inka empire (1525) Spanish Colonialism in Latin America:  Spanish Colonialism in Latin America The first major American civilization to fall to the Spanish was that of the Aztecs. The Aztec Empire was relatively new - it dated from the fourteenth century - but enjoyed a successful history of expansion. The empire was still growing when the Spaniards appeared at the southern boundary of the Valley of Mexico. The Aztec capital, Tenochtitlan, was a splendid complex of cities, lakes, and canals that served as the centre of Mesoamerican civilization. Spanish Colonialism in Latin America:  Spanish Colonialism in Latin America Cortes motivation was not to explore, to trade or to convert people to Christianity His motivation was the conquest of Mexico for the Spanish He co-operated with native allies who were hostile to the Aztecs By the Aztecs he was considered to be one of their gods, returning to them. In 1521 the Spanish blockaded the city of Tenochtitlan, denying food and water to the people. Outbreak of smallpox weakened the defenders also. Spanish Colonialism in Latin America:  Spanish Colonialism in Latin America For about 2000 years there were high civilizations in Mesoamerica. They constructed pyramids, had their own scripture and Tenochtitlan, the capital of the Aztech-Empire was bigger and modern than any European town in the 15th century. At around 1520 this culture was destroyed by the Spanish conquerors. Tenochtitlan :  Tenochtitlan Tenochtitlan :  Tenochtitlan Reconstruction of Tenochtitlan :  Reconstruction of Tenochtitlan The Mayas:  The Mayas The Mayas:  The Mayas There was not this much a Maya Empire, but more a Maya culture (250 - 1524) Already decrease of various powers before the arrival of the Spanish Conquest and christanisation Various revolts are suppressed by the Spanish Tikal, one of the oldest and biggest towns of the Mayas:  Tikal, one of the oldest and biggest towns of the Mayas The Mayas:  The Mayas Spanish Colonialism in Latin America:  Spanish Colonialism in Latin America Francesco Pizarro (1532) occupies the Inka Empire (Equador - North Chile). Indian numbers shrank in all mainland areas: at the beginning of Spanish settlement there were perhaps 50,000,000 aborigines; the figure had decreased to an estimated 4,000,000 in the 17th century, after which it slowly rose again. Slide54:  The Inka The Inka:  The Inka Francisco Pizarro 1524 exploring the area south of Panama Met Inka merchants who had plenty of gold Went back to Spain to return with an armee Invited Atahualpa, the ruler of the Inka, saying he is coming with peaceful intentions Pizarro put Atahualpa into jail and kills 6000 of his soldiers. The Inka:  The Inka To be released Atahualpa pays more than 7.000 kg gold and 13.000 kg silver More Spanish conquerers coming searching for gold and silver. 1536 attempt of the Inka to fight the Spanish, which fails. 1572 last ruler of the Inka is executed by the Spanish Within 50 years of Spanish conquest the population of Peru decreased from 7 million to about 500.000 (smallpox, measles, slavery) The Inka:  The Inka Slide58:  The Columbian Exchange

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