GD Materials Flow Analysis Briefing1

55 %
45 %
Information about GD Materials Flow Analysis Briefing1
Entertainment

Published on September 19, 2007

Author: Pravez

Source: authorstream.com

Materials flow analysis: Finding $100 on the sidewalk (or, a way of looking at and organizing information to help us better understand our effect on ecological services):  Materials flow analysis: Finding $100 on the sidewalk (or, a way of looking at and organizing information to help us better understand our effect on ecological services) Ecosystem services: What they areand where to find them.:  Ecosystem services: What they are and where to find them. Conceptually, a simple framework:  Conceptually, a simple framework A sustainability model: The hive of activity within the framework:  A sustainability model: The hive of activity within the framework A sustainability model (cont’d):  A sustainability model (cont’d) Natural systems are interconnected; changes in one has the potential to affect others. This model shows the chain of events required to supply natural resources to the market. But, what is a natural resource? A sustainability model (cont’d):  A sustainability model (cont’d) This model leads naturally to materials flow analysis. MFA increases understanding of eco-implications of our materials use; it allows us to track the movements of materials from extraction through to final disposition. The same thing, only different:  The same thing, only different How much stuff have we pulled from the ground? Does this matter?:  How much stuff have we pulled from the ground? Does this matter? Resource consumption (Log Metric tons per $m of Real GDP):  Resource consumption (Log Metric tons per $m of Real GDP) Zinc smelting operations in the northeast:  Zinc smelting operations in the northeast Between 1800 and 2001 a significant primary zinc smelting industry existed in a five state area in the northeastern United States. Elements released to the environment, and known to have detrimental ecological effects, included arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, sulfur, and zinc. Zinc smelting operations in the northeast (Locations and capacity):  Zinc smelting operations in the northeast (Locations and capacity) Zinc smelting operations in the northeast (Feedstock type and source) :  Zinc smelting operations in the northeast (Feedstock type and source) Worldwide material flows: An analysis of copper production:  Worldwide material flows: An analysis of copper production Copper smelting generates many material flows, some of large magnitude. In this study, materials balances for 2/3 of the world’s copper smelting capacity were developed on a smelter-by-smelter basis. Slide14:  Worldwide copper smelting: Associated mine and mill flows (per unit of Cu) Slide15:  Worldwide copper smelting: Why trade matters:  Worldwide copper smelting: Why trade matters Mine waste and mill tailings are the two largest materials flows (by weight) associated with copper smelting (325 t per Cu t). Copper smelting does not always occur near copper mines; Japan, Germany, and Spain import concentrate to feed their large smelter capacities. Worldwide copper smelting: How trade matters:  Worldwide copper smelting: How trade matters Total consumption: Lead embedded in traded products :  Total consumption: Lead embedded in traded products Apparent consumption statistics typically do not account for materials contained in manufactured products imported to or exported from the United States. For 2003, USGS apparent consumption for lead was reported at 1.44 million metric tons. Total consumption of lead, including lead contained in imported and exported products, was estimated at 1.8 million metric tons in 2003. Total consumption: Lead embedded in traded products (cont’d):  Total consumption: Lead embedded in traded products (cont’d) Mobile phones: Use:  Mobile phones: Use There were approximately 180 million mobile phone subscribers in the United States in 2004; about 300m in China. It was estimated that in 2004 there were 1.5 billion subscribers worldwide; forecast to reach 2b in 2006. Worldwide mobile phone sales in 2005 were estimated to be 780 million. Sales are projected to exceed 1 billion units per year in 2009. Mobile phones: Obsolescence:  Mobile phones: Obsolescence In the year 2005, up to 130 million mobile phones became obsolete in the United States. Less than 1 percent of phones that become obsolete each year are recycled. As of 2005, an estimated 500 million obsolete mobile phones had accumulated in consumers’ desk drawers, store rooms, or in other storage in the United States. Mobile Phones:El Dorado in the basement:  Mobile Phones: El Dorado in the basement Aluminum material flows:  Aluminum material flows Aluminum material flows (cont’d):  Aluminum material flows (cont’d) In 2003 one pound of aluminum made 34 cans, in 1980 one pound made 24 cans. In 2003, U.S. aluminum can manufacturers produced and distributed nearly 100 billion cans from 1.3 million tons of aluminum sheet. Each year about 56 billion used beverage cans (UBCs) end up in landfills – worth over 18 million barrels of oil. End uses of arsenic:  End uses of arsenic Prior to 2003, the U.S. was the world’s largest consumer of arsenic, supplied mainly from China. A shift in the pattern of arsenic use occurred in 2004 as wood preservative industry voluntarily ended the use of CCA in pressure-treated wood for most applications. End uses of arsenic (cont’d):  End uses of arsenic (cont’d) Uses of arsenic to the very end:  Uses of arsenic to the very end Mercury use in the U.S. lamp sector:  Mercury use in the U.S. lamp sector Mercury is persistent, reactive, and toxic in the environment. On an annual basis, about 47 percent of this flow goes to controlled landfills or incinerators; 25 percent to emissions; 19 percent to recovered mercury; and 8 percent to mercury waste exports. The residential sub-sector mercury-containing lamps contains about 14 metric tons, and only 2 percent of the annual 3 metric ton outflow from this sub-sector is recycled. Flow of Mercury through the U.S. lamp sector, 2001 (metric tons):  Flow of Mercury through the U.S. lamp sector, 2001 (metric tons) Lead wheel weights flow:  Lead wheel weights flow Lead wheel weights flow (cont’d):  Lead wheel weights flow (cont’d) Approximately 2,000 t of lead-based wheel weights were lost from vehicles and likely abraded, resulting in lead dissipated into the environment. Approximately 4,000 t of lead-based wheel weights were unaccounted and may have been; disposed appropriately and inappropriately, exported on new and used vehicles, lost, stored on-site, treated at U.S or foreign smelters, and used in sports and hobbies or other uses. The Environmental Protection Agency, state governments, and non-government organizations have expressed interest in the results of this study as the issue has risen to legislative levels. Residual Materials from tire wear:  Residual Materials from tire wear In 2003, the total number of miles traveled by all registered vehicles in the United States was nearly 2.9 trillion miles. Tire residue, a fugitive dust, is dispersed over wide areas by run-off from rainfall and snowmelt, natural and vehicle-created wind, and vaporization. It was estimated by the U.S. Geological Survey that, as result of tire wear (a dissipative use), approximately 1 million tons of tire residue containing 10,000 t of zinc, was deposited on the Nation’s roads in 2003. From 1975 through 2003, approximately 23 million tons of tire residue containing 230,000 tons of zinc was generated. For more information:ph: x4911Web: minerals.usgs.gov/minerals:  For more information: ph: x4911 Web: minerals.usgs.gov/minerals

Add a comment

Related presentations