GCE Sociology Revision (AQA)- Unit 1 Couples Families and Households

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Information about GCE Sociology Revision (AQA)- Unit 1 Couples Families and Households

Published on March 4, 2014

Author: HaleemaB

Source: slideshare.net


For AQA GCE Sociology Unit 1 Chapter 1 Revision. Print out as a handout, it is a good way to revision: associating the picture with the title allows you to fill in the info by your own associations. Good luck!!!

Unit 1: Families and Households 1) Couples Haleema Begum Sutton Coldfield Grammar School for Girls Sixth form

Interpretation • Is the question about a particular form of inequality (e.g. domestic labour)? If yes, then stick to this. • Or is it about inequality more generally? If yes, then (cover all sections) i.e. decision making, resources and domestic violence aswell.

The domestic division of labour

Parsons (1955) • Take a Functionalists view • A couple should have separate (marital roles), women: expressive, whilst men have: instrumental roles • It is better for wider society • Biologically based gender division of labour is the best way of organising family life.

Young & Willmott (1962) • They studied working-class extended families in Bethnal Green • Men were the breadwinners and women were the home-makers. • They see a long-term trend towards the “symmetrical family”. • Roles are becoming more similar • Most women go out to work • Men help with housework, the “new man”

Why is there a rise of the “symmetrical family”? • There are smaller family sizes • More women are starting to work • Therefore a higher standard of living and better housing (the house becomes home-centred) • Can afford labour saving devices

Ann Oakley (1974) • The family is patriarchal • They are not symmetrical or equal!! • The housewife role is socially constructed (not BIOLOGICALLY NATURAL)

cont. Ann Oakley (1974) • There is no evidence of symmetry in domestic labour • Young + Willmott exaggerate the “new man” !!! • Husbands “helped” was ironing their own shirt once a week

Boulton (1983) • We need to look at who is responsible for tasks, NOT just who performs it • Wife is seen responsible for children’s welfare, even when men “help” • Less than one in five husbands took a major part in childcare

The impact of women working

Gurshuny (1994) • Men whose wives worked full-time did started to do more work than before (despite going up to only 27%) • But domestic tasks are still sex-typed • There is a change in values and role-models or “lagged adaption” resulting in gradually women working fulltime • (Crompton): argues changes are because of ECONOMIC factors not values. • Women’s increasing earning power means men have to do more in the home • But men still earn more, so the division of labour is still unequal

Schor (1993) • The “commercialisation of housework” has led to the DEATH of the housewife role!! – but only for the better off • Couples can now buy and invest in ready meals, nurseries, etc therefore cuts the amount of domestic labour • (HOWEVER): not all couples are in the same economic positionclass and income play a role in the domestic division of labour

Ferry and Smith (1996) • They found that women who were carrying duel burden had little impact on the D.O.L • Under 4% of fathers were the main child-carer

Morris (1990) • Morris (1990) found that even when the wife was working and the husband was unemployed, she still did most of the housework!! • Men suffered the crisis of MASCULINITY • Losing their breadwinner role, they did not want to give in to the feminine domestic role

Duncombe and Marsden (1995) • Found that women required Triple Shift • Emotional work • Domestic labour • Paid work

Gillian Dunne (1999) • She studied 37 lesbian couples finding a more equal D.O.L • She says heterosexual relationships are “inevitably patriarchal” • They have allocate the masculine and feminine identities (GENDER SCRIPTED) • Lesbians were more open to negitiation • (HOWEVER): She found that when one partner did ... More paid work less domestic work • i.e paid work was still an important influence

Resources and decision making

Kempson (1994) • Women in low-income families denied their own need- to make ends meet • Even households with adequate incomes, resources are often shared unequally  leaving women in poverty • The man is usually in control of the family’s income and deciding how to spend it • This leads to unequal shares and resources for the wife

Pahl and Vogler (1993) The allowance system: • The allowance system is when the men work and give their non-working wives an allowance to budget to meet the family’s needs. Pooling: • Pooling is where both partners work  having joint responsibility for spending i.e. Having a joint bank account  Despite the massive increase in pooling over the recent years, Vogler (1994) found out that men still make the major decisions, reflecting their greater earnings

Edgell (1980) 1) Economic • Men earn more  have more power • Women are economically dependent  have less say 2) Patriarchal socialisation • Some Feminists argue that gender role socialisation in patriarchal society instils the idea that men are the decisionmakers

Domestic violence

British Crime Survey (BCS) • There are 6.6 million assaults per year (mainly men against women) • Nearly 1 in 4 women were assaulted by her partner at some time • 1 in 3 of assaults are reported

Police statistics • Police statistics under-estimate its extent because of • Under- reporting: (BCS) say 1 in 3 assaults are reported • Under-recording: police are reluctant/unwilling to investigate, record or get involved with the family’s “private sphere” • Victim should just leave if unhappy (HOWEVER): many women are financially dependent on their partners and cannot leave their children

Dobash and Dobash • Found out that violence was triggered when husbands felt their authority was being challenged • They conclude that marriage legitimates violence by giving power to men Elliot (1996) argues not all men benefit from it

The Radical Feminist Explanation • It is patriarchy- male domination • Men oppress women through the family  domestic labour + sexual services • Violence or the threat of it allows them to get what they want • Men dominate the state  police and courts fail to take domestic violence seriously  Radical Feminists fail to explain violence against children, men, or lesbians Discuss D.V as well as housework

Domestic violence and inequality

Wilkinson (1996) • Families who lack resources i.e. Low income, poor housing, suffer more stress, this increases violence • Lack of resources: stress  social inequality  HOWEVER: He doesn’t explain why women rather than men are the main victims

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