Gastrointestinal System

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Information about Gastrointestinal System

Published on April 29, 2008

Author: pinoynurze2

Source: slideshare.net

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Medical Surgical Nursing The GASTRO-INTESTINAL System Nurse Licensure Examination Review pinoynursing.webkotoh.com

The Gastro-Intestinal System Review of the GIT Anatomy and Physiology Review of Common laboratory procedures Review of Common Symptoms and their nursing interventions Review of common disorders of the: Esophagus -gallbladder Stomach -exocrine pancreas Small intestine -liver Large Intestine

Review of the GIT Anatomy and Physiology

Review of Common laboratory procedures

Review of Common Symptoms and their nursing interventions

Review of common disorders of the:

Esophagus -gallbladder

Stomach -exocrine pancreas

Small intestine -liver

Large Intestine

 

The GIT System: Anatomy and Physiology The GIT is composed of two general parts The main GIT starts from the mouth  Esophagus  Stomach  SI  LI The accessory organs are the Salivary glands Liver Gallbladder Pancreas

The GIT is composed of two general parts

The main GIT starts from the mouth  Esophagus  Stomach  SI  LI

The accessory organs are the

Salivary glands

Liver

Gallbladder

Pancreas

The GIT ANATOMY The Mouth Contains the lips, cheeks, palate, tongue, teeth, salivary glands, masticatory/facial muscles and bones Anteriorly bounded by the lips Posteriorly bounded by the oropharynx

The Mouth

Contains the lips, cheeks, palate, tongue, teeth, salivary glands, masticatory/facial muscles and bones

Anteriorly bounded by the lips

Posteriorly bounded by the oropharynx

The GIT Physiology The Mouth Important for the mechanical digestion of food The saliva contains SALIVARY AMYLASE or PTYALIN that starts the INITIAL digestion of carbohydrates

The Mouth

Important for the mechanical digestion of food

The saliva contains SALIVARY AMYLASE or PTYALIN that starts the INITIAL digestion of carbohydrates

The GIT ANATOMY The Esophagus A hollow collapsible tube Length- 10 inches Made up of stratified squamos epithelium

The Esophagus

A hollow collapsible tube

Length- 10 inches

Made up of stratified squamos epithelium

The GIT ANATOMY The Esophagus The upper third contains skeletal muscles The middle third contains mixed skeletal and smooth muscles The lower third contains smooth muscles and the esophago-gastric/ cardiac sphincter is found here

The Esophagus

The upper third contains skeletal muscles

The middle third contains mixed skeletal and smooth muscles

The lower third contains smooth muscles and the esophago-gastric/ cardiac sphincter is found here

The GIT PHYSIOLOGY The Esophagus Functions to carry or propel foods from the oropharynx to the stomach Swallowing or deglutition is composed of three phases:

The Esophagus

Functions to carry or propel foods from the oropharynx to the stomach

Swallowing or deglutition is composed of three phases:

The GIT ANATOMY The stomach J-shaped organ in the epigastrium Contains four parts- the fundus, the cardia, the body and the pylorus The cardiac sphincter prevents the reflux of the contents into the esophagus The pyloric sphincter regulates the rate of gastric emptying into the duodenum Capacity is 1,500 ml!

The stomach

J-shaped organ in the epigastrium

Contains four parts- the fundus, the cardia, the body and the pylorus

The cardiac sphincter prevents the reflux of the contents into the esophagus

The pyloric sphincter regulates the rate of gastric emptying into the duodenum

Capacity is 1,500 ml!

The GIT PHYSIOLOGY The functions of the stomach are generally to digest the food (proteins) and to propel the digested materials into the SI for final digestion The Glands and cells in the stomach secrete digestive enzymes:

The functions of the stomach are generally to digest the food (proteins) and to propel the digested materials into the SI for final digestion

The Glands and cells in the stomach secrete digestive enzymes:

The GIT PHYSIOLOGY Stomach: 1. Parietal cells- HCl acid and Intrinsic factor 2. Chief cells- pepsin  digestion of PROTEINS! 3. Antral G-cells- gastrin 4. Argentaffin cells- serotonin 5. Mucus neck cells- mucus

Stomach:

1. Parietal cells- HCl acid and Intrinsic factor

2. Chief cells- pepsin  digestion of PROTEINS!

3. Antral G-cells- gastrin

4. Argentaffin cells- serotonin

5. Mucus neck cells- mucus

The GIT ANATOMY The Small intestine Grossly divided into the Duodenum, Jejunum and Ileum The duodenum contains the two openings for the bile and pancreatic ducts The ileum is the longest part (about 12 feet)

The Small intestine

Grossly divided into the Duodenum, Jejunum and Ileum

The duodenum contains the two openings for the bile and pancreatic ducts

The ileum is the longest part (about 12 feet)

The GIT physiology The intestinal glands secrete digestive enzymes that finalize the digestion of all foodstuff Enzymes for carbohydrates  disaccharidases Enzymes for proteins  dipeptidases and aminopeptidases Enzyme for lipids  intestinal lipase

The intestinal glands secrete digestive enzymes that finalize the digestion of all foodstuff

Enzymes for carbohydrates  disaccharidases

Enzymes for proteins  dipeptidases and aminopeptidases

Enzyme for lipids  intestinal lipase

The GIT ANATOMY The Large intestine Approximately 5 feet long, with parts: 1. The cecum  widest diameter, prone to rupture 2. The appendix 3. The ascending colon 4. The transverse colon 5. The descending colon 6. The sigmoid  most mobile, prone to twisting 7. The rectum

The Large intestine

Approximately 5 feet long, with parts:

1. The cecum  widest diameter, prone to rupture

2. The appendix

3. The ascending colon

4. The transverse colon

5. The descending colon

6. The sigmoid  most mobile, prone to twisting

7. The rectum

The GIT Physiology Absorbs water Eliminates wastes Bacteria in the colon synthesize Vitamin K Appendix participates in the immune system

Absorbs water

Eliminates wastes

Bacteria in the colon synthesize Vitamin K

Appendix participates in the immune system

The GIT Physiology SYMPATHETIC Generally INHIBITORY! Decreased gastric secretions Decreased GIT motility But: Increased sphincteric tone and constriction of blood vessels PARASYMPATHETIC Generally EXCITATORY! Increased gastric secretions Increased gastric motility But: Decreased sphincteric tone and dilation of blood vessels

SYMPATHETIC

Generally INHIBITORY!

Decreased gastric secretions

Decreased GIT motility

But: Increased sphincteric tone and constriction of blood vessels

PARASYMPATHETIC

Generally EXCITATORY!

Increased gastric secretions

Increased gastric motility

But: Decreased sphincteric tone and dilation of blood vessels

The GIT ANATOMY The Liver The largest internal organ Located in the right upper quadrant Contains two lobes- the right and the left The hepatic ducts join together with the cystic duct to become the common bile duct

The Liver

The largest internal organ

Located in the right upper quadrant

Contains two lobes- the right and the left

The hepatic ducts join together with the cystic duct to become the common bile duct

The GIT Physiology: LIVER Functions to store excess glucose, fats and amino acids Also stores the fat soluble vitamins- A, D and the water soluble- Vitamin B12 Produces the BILE for normal fat digestion The Von Kupffer cells remove bacteria in the portal blood Detoxifies ammonia into urea

Functions to store excess glucose, fats and amino acids

Also stores the fat soluble vitamins- A, D and the water soluble- Vitamin B12

Produces the BILE for normal fat digestion

The Von Kupffer cells remove bacteria in the portal blood

Detoxifies ammonia into urea

The GIT anatomy The gallbladder Located below the liver The cystic duct joins the hepatic duct to become the bile duct The common bile duct joins the pancreatic duct in the sphincter of Oddi in the first part of the duodenum

The gallbladder

Located below the liver

The cystic duct joins the hepatic duct to become the bile duct

The common bile duct joins the pancreatic duct in the sphincter of Oddi in the first part of the duodenum

The GIT Physiology Stores and concentrates bile Contracts during the digestion of fats to deliver the bile Cholecystokinin is released by the duodenal cells, causing the contraction of the gallbladder and relaxation of the sphincter of Oddi

Stores and concentrates bile

Contracts during the digestion of fats to deliver the bile

Cholecystokinin is released by the duodenal cells, causing the contraction of the gallbladder and relaxation of the sphincter of Oddi

The GIT anatomy The pancreas A retroperitoneal gland Functions as an endocrine and exocrine gland The pancreatic duct (major) joins the common bile duct in the sphincter of Oddi

The pancreas

A retroperitoneal gland

Functions as an endocrine and exocrine gland

The pancreatic duct (major) joins the common bile duct in the sphincter of Oddi

The GIT Physiology The exocrine function of the pancreas is the secretion of digestive enzymes for carbohydrates, fats and proteins Pancreatic amylase  carbohydrates Pancreatic lipase (steapsin)  fats Trypsin, Chymotrypsin and Peptidases  proteins Bicarbonate  to neutralize the acidic chyme. Stimulated by SECRETIN!

The exocrine function of the pancreas is the secretion of digestive enzymes for carbohydrates, fats and proteins

Pancreatic amylase  carbohydrates

Pancreatic lipase (steapsin)  fats

Trypsin, Chymotrypsin and Peptidases  proteins

Bicarbonate  to neutralize the acidic chyme. Stimulated by SECRETIN!

Gastrointestinal Assessment Laboratory Procedures

COMMON LABORATORY PROCEDURES FECALYSIS Examination of stool consistency, color and the presence of occult blood. Special tests for fat, nitrogen, parasites, ova, pathogens and others

FECALYSIS

Examination of stool consistency, color and the presence of occult blood.

Special tests for fat, nitrogen, parasites, ova, pathogens and others

COMMON LABORATORY PROCEDURES FECALYSIS: Occult Blood Testing Instruct the patient to adhere to a 3-day meatless diet No intake of NSAIDS, aspirin and anti-coagulant Screening test for colonic cancer

FECALYSIS: Occult Blood Testing

Instruct the patient to adhere to a 3-day meatless diet

No intake of NSAIDS, aspirin and anti-coagulant

Screening test for colonic cancer

COMMON LABORATORY PROCEDURES Upper GIT study: barium swallow Examines the upper GI tract Barium sulfate is usually used as contrast

Upper GIT study: barium swallow

Examines the upper GI tract

Barium sulfate is usually used as contrast

COMMON LABORATORY PROCEDURES Upper GIT study: barium swallow Pre-test : NPO post-midnight Post-test : Laxative is ordered, increase pt fluid intake, instruct that stools will turn white, monitor for obstruction

Upper GIT study: barium swallow

Pre-test : NPO post-midnight

Post-test : Laxative is ordered, increase pt fluid intake, instruct that stools will turn white, monitor for obstruction

 

 

COMMON LABORATORY PROCEDURES Lower GIT study: barium enema Examines the lower GI tract Pre-test : Clear liquid diet and laxatives, NPO post-midnight, cleansing enema prior to the test

Lower GIT study: barium enema

Examines the lower GI tract

Pre-test : Clear liquid diet and laxatives, NPO post-midnight, cleansing enema prior to the test

COMMON LABORATORY PROCEDURES Lower GIT study: barium enema Post-test: Laxative is ordered, increase patient fluid intake, instruct that stools will turn white, monitor for obstruction

Lower GIT study: barium enema

Post-test: Laxative is ordered, increase patient fluid intake, instruct that stools will turn white, monitor for obstruction

 

COMMON LABORATORY PROCEDURES Gastric analysis Aspiration of gastric juice to measure pH, appearance, volume and contents Pre-test: NPO 8 hours, avoidance of stimulants, drugs and smoking Post-test: resume normal activities

Gastric analysis

Aspiration of gastric juice to measure pH, appearance, volume and contents

Pre-test: NPO 8 hours, avoidance of stimulants, drugs and smoking

Post-test: resume normal activities

COMMON LABORATORY PROCEDURES EGD (esophagogastroduodenoscopy) Visualization of the upper GIT by endoscope Pre-test : ensure consent, NPO 8 hours, pre-medications like atropine and anxiolytics

EGD

(esophagogastroduodenoscopy)

Visualization of the upper GIT by endoscope

Pre-test : ensure consent, NPO 8 hours, pre-medications like atropine and anxiolytics

 

COMMON LABORATORY PROCEDURES EGD esophagogastroduodenoscopy Intra-test: position : LEFT lateral to facilitate salivary drainage and easy access

EGD

esophagogastroduodenoscopy

Intra-test: position : LEFT lateral to facilitate salivary drainage and easy access

COMMON LABORATORY PROCEDURES EGD (esophagogastroduodenoscopy) Post-test : NPO until gag reflex returns, place patient in SIMS position until he awakens , monitor for complications, saline gargles for mild oral discomfort

EGD (esophagogastroduodenoscopy)

Post-test : NPO until gag reflex returns, place patient in SIMS position until he awakens , monitor for complications, saline gargles for mild oral discomfort

COMMON LABORATORY PROCEDURES Lower GI- scopy Use of endoscope to visualize the anus, rectum, sigmoid and colon Pre-test: consent, NPO 8 hours, cleansing enema until return is clear

Lower GI- scopy

Use of endoscope to visualize the anus, rectum, sigmoid and colon

Pre-test: consent, NPO 8 hours, cleansing enema until return is clear

 

COMMON LABORATORY PROCEDURES Lower GI- scopy Intra-test: position is LEFT lateral, right leg is bent and placed anteriorly Post-test: bed rest, monitor for complications like bleeding and perforation

Lower GI- scopy

Intra-test: position is LEFT lateral, right leg is bent and placed anteriorly

Post-test: bed rest, monitor for complications like bleeding and perforation

 

COMMON LABORATORY PROCEDURES Cholecystography Examination of the gallbladder to detect stones, its ability to concentrate, store and release the bile Pre-test: ensure consent, ask allergies to iodine, seafood and dyes; contrast medium is administered the night prior , NPO after contrast administration

Cholecystography

Examination of the gallbladder to detect stones, its ability to concentrate, store and release the bile

Pre-test: ensure consent, ask allergies to iodine, seafood and dyes; contrast medium is administered the night prior , NPO after contrast administration

COMMON LABORATORY PROCEDURES Cholecystography Post-test: Advise that dysuria is common as the dye is excreted in the urine, resume normal activities

Cholecystography

Post-test: Advise that dysuria is common as the dye is excreted in the urine, resume normal activities

COMMON LABORATORY PROCEDURES Paracentesis Removal of peritoneal fluid for analysis

Paracentesis

Removal of peritoneal fluid for analysis

COMMON LABORATORY PROCEDURES Paracentesis Pre-test: ensure consent, instruct to VOID and empty bladder, measure abdominal girth

Paracentesis

Pre-test: ensure consent, instruct to VOID and empty bladder, measure abdominal girth

COMMON LABORATORY PROCEDURES Paracentesis Intra-test: Upright on the edge of the bed, back supported and feet resting on a foot stool

Paracentesis

Intra-test: Upright on the edge of the bed, back supported and feet resting on a foot stool

COMMON LABORATORY PROCEDURES Liver biopsy Pretest Consent NPO Check for the bleeding parameters

Liver biopsy

Pretest

Consent

NPO

Check for the bleeding parameters

COMMON LABORATORY PROCEDURES Liver biopsy Intratest Position: Semi fowler’s LEFT lateral to expose right side of abdomen

Liver biopsy

Intratest

Position: Semi fowler’s LEFT lateral to expose right side of abdomen

COMMON LABORATORY PROCEDURES Liver biopsy Post-test : position on RIGHT lateral with pillow underneath, monitor VS and complications like bleeding, perforation. Instruct to avoid lifting objects for 1 week

Liver biopsy

Post-test : position on RIGHT lateral with pillow underneath, monitor VS and complications like bleeding, perforation. Instruct to avoid lifting objects for 1 week

The NURSING PROCESS in GIT Disorders Assessment Health history Nursing History PE Laboratory procedures

Assessment

Health history Nursing History

PE

Laboratory procedures

The ABDOMINAL examination The sequence to follow is: Inspection Auscultation Percussion Palpation

The sequence to follow is:

Inspection

Auscultation

Percussion

Palpation

 

CONSTIPATION DIARRHEA DUMPING SYNDROME COMMON GIT SYMPTOMS AND MANAGEMENT

CONSTIPATION

DIARRHEA

DUMPING SYNDROME

CONSTIPATION An abnormal infrequency and irregularity of defecation Multiple causations COMMON GIT SYMPTOMS AND MANAGEMENT

CONSTIPATION

An abnormal infrequency and irregularity of defecation

Multiple causations

CONSTIPATION: Pathophysiology Interference with three functions of the colon 1. Mucosal transport 2. Myoelectric activity 3. Process of defecation COMMON GIT SYMPTOMS AND MANAGEMENT

CONSTIPATION: Pathophysiology

Interference with three functions of the colon

1. Mucosal transport

2. Myoelectric activity

3. Process of defecation

COMMON GIT SYMPTOMS AND MANAGEMENT NURSING INTERVENTIONS 1. Assist physician in treating the underlying cause of constipation 2. Encourage to eat HIGH fiber diet to increase the bulk 3. Increase fluid intake 4. Administer prescribed laxatives, stool softeners 5. Assist in relieving stress

NURSING INTERVENTIONS

1. Assist physician in treating the underlying cause of constipation

2. Encourage to eat HIGH fiber diet to increase the bulk

3. Increase fluid intake

4. Administer prescribed laxatives, stool softeners

5. Assist in relieving stress

COMMON GIT SYMPTOMS AND MANAGEMENT Diarrhea Abnormal fluidity of the stool Multiple causes Gastrointestinal Diseases Hyperthyroidism Food poisoning

Diarrhea

Abnormal fluidity of the stool

Multiple causes

Gastrointestinal Diseases

Hyperthyroidism

Food poisoning

COMMON GIT SYMPTOMS AND MANAGEMENT Diarrhea Nursing Interventions 1. Increase fluid intake- ORESOL is the most important treatment! 2. Determine and manage the cause 3. Anti-diarrheal drugs

Diarrhea

Nursing Interventions

1. Increase fluid intake- ORESOL is the most important treatment!

2. Determine and manage the cause

3. Anti-diarrheal drugs

COMMON GIT SYMPTOMS AND MANAGEMENT DUMPING SYNDROME A condition of rapid emptying of the gastric contents into the small intestine usually after a gastric surgery Symptoms occur 30 minutes after eating

DUMPING SYNDROME

A condition of rapid emptying of the gastric contents into the small intestine usually after a gastric surgery

Symptoms occur 30 minutes after eating

COMMON GIT SYMPTOMS AND MANAGEMENT PATHOPHYSIOLOGY Foods high in CHO and electrolytes must be diluted in the jejunum before absorption takes place.

PATHOPHYSIOLOGY

Foods high in CHO and electrolytes must be diluted in the jejunum before absorption takes place.

COMMON GIT SYMPTOMS AND MANAGEMENT PATHOPHYSIOLOGY The rapid influx of stomach contents will cause distention of the jejunum early symptoms

PATHOPHYSIOLOGY

The rapid influx of stomach contents will cause distention of the jejunum

early symptoms

COMMON GIT SYMPTOMS AND MANAGEMENT PATHOPHYSIOLOGY The hypertonic food bolus will draw fluid from the blood vessels to dilute the high concentrations of CHO and electrolytes in the food bolus

PATHOPHYSIOLOGY

The hypertonic food bolus

will draw fluid from the blood vessels to dilute the high concentrations of CHO and electrolytes in the food bolus

COMMON GIT SYMPTOMS AND MANAGEMENT Later, there is increased blood glucose stimulating the increased secretion of insulin

Later, there is increased blood glucose

stimulating the increased secretion of insulin

COMMON GIT SYMPTOMS AND MANAGEMENT Then, blood glucose will fall causing reactive hypoglycemia

Then, blood glucose will fall

causing reactive hypoglycemia

COMMON GIT SYMPTOMS AND MANAGEMENT DUMPING SYNDROME ASSESSMENT FINDINGS: early symptoms 1. Nausea and Vomiting 2. Abdominal fullness 3. Abdominal cramping 4. Palpitation 5. Diaphoresis

DUMPING SYNDROME

ASSESSMENT FINDINGS: early symptoms

1. Nausea and Vomiting

2. Abdominal fullness

3. Abdominal cramping

4. Palpitation

5. Diaphoresis

COMMON GIT SYMPTOMS AND MANAGEMENT DUMPING SYNDROME ASSESSMENT FINDINGS: LATE symptoms: 6. Drowsiness 7. Weakness and Dizziness 8. Hypoglycemia

DUMPING SYNDROME

ASSESSMENT FINDINGS: LATE symptoms:

6. Drowsiness

7. Weakness and Dizziness

8. Hypoglycemia

COMMON GIT SYMPTOMS AND MANAGEMENT DS NURSING INTERVENTIONS 1. Advise patient to eat LOW-carbohydrate HIGH-fat and HIGH-protein diet 2. Instruct to eat SMALL frequent meals, include MORE dry items . 3. Instruct to AVOID consuming FLUIDS with meals

DS NURSING INTERVENTIONS

1. Advise patient to eat LOW-carbohydrate HIGH-fat and HIGH-protein diet

2. Instruct to eat SMALL frequent meals, include MORE dry items .

3. Instruct to AVOID consuming FLUIDS with meals

COMMON GIT SYMPTOMS AND MANAGEMENT DS NURSING INTERVENTIONS 4. Instruct to LIE DOWN after meals 5. Administer anti-spasmodic medications to delay gastric emptying

DS NURSING INTERVENTIONS

4. Instruct to LIE DOWN after meals

5. Administer anti-spasmodic medications to delay gastric emptying

GIT SYMPTOMS AND MANAGEMENT PERNICIOUS ANEMIA Results from Deficiency of vitamin B12 due to autoimmune destruction of the parietal cells , lack of INTRINSIC FACTOR or total removal of the stomach

PERNICIOUS ANEMIA

Results from Deficiency of vitamin B12 due to autoimmune destruction of the parietal cells , lack of INTRINSIC FACTOR or total removal of the stomach

GIT SYMPTOMS AND MANAGEMENT PERNICIOUS ANEMIA ASSESSMENT Severe pallor Fatigue Weight loss SMOOTH BEEFY-RED TONGUE Mild jaundice Paresthesia of extremities Balance disturbance

PERNICIOUS ANEMIA ASSESSMENT

Severe pallor

Fatigue

Weight loss

SMOOTH BEEFY-RED TONGUE

Mild jaundice

Paresthesia of extremities

Balance disturbance

GIT SYMPTOMS AND MANAGEMENT NURSING INTERVENTION for Pernicious Anemia Lifetime injection of Vitamin B 12 weekly initially, then MONTHLY

NURSING INTERVENTION for Pernicious Anemia

Lifetime injection of Vitamin B 12 weekly initially, then MONTHLY

Conditions of the GIT UPPER GI system

CONDITION OF THE ESOPHAGUS HIATAL HERNIA Protrusion of the esophagus into the diaphragm thru an opening Two types- Sliding hiatal hernia ( most common) and Axial hiatal hernia

HIATAL HERNIA

Protrusion of the esophagus into the diaphragm thru an opening

Two types- Sliding hiatal hernia

( most common) and Axial hiatal hernia

CONDITION OF THE ESOPHAGUS ASSESSMENT Findings in Hiatal hernia 1. Heartburn 2. Regurgitation 3. Dysphagia 4. 50%- without symptoms

ASSESSMENT Findings in Hiatal hernia

1. Heartburn

2. Regurgitation

3. Dysphagia

4. 50%- without symptoms

CONDITION OF THE ESOPHAGUS DIAGNOSTIC TEST Barium swallow and fluoroscopy

DIAGNOSTIC TEST

Barium swallow and fluoroscopy

CONDITION OF THE ESOPHAGUS NURSING INTERVENTIONS 1. Provide small frequent feedings 2. AVOID supine position for 1 hour after eating 3. Elevate the head of the bed on 8-inch block 4. Provide pre-op and post-op care

NURSING INTERVENTIONS

1. Provide small frequent feedings

2. AVOID supine position for 1 hour after eating

3. Elevate the head of the bed on 8-inch block

4. Provide pre-op and post-op care

CONDITION OF THE ESOPHAGUS Esophageal Varices Dilation and tortuosity of the submucosal veins in the distal esophagus ETIOLOGY: commonly caused by PORTAL hypertension secondary to liver cirrhosis This is an Emergency condition!

Esophageal Varices

Dilation and tortuosity of the submucosal veins in the distal esophagus

ETIOLOGY: commonly caused by PORTAL hypertension secondary to liver cirrhosis

This is an Emergency condition!

CONDITION OF THE ESOPHAGUS ASSESSMENT findings for EV 1. Hematemesis 2. Melena 3. Ascites 4. jaundice 5. hepatomegaly/splenomegaly

ASSESSMENT findings for EV

1. Hematemesis

2. Melena

3. Ascites

4. jaundice

5. hepatomegaly/splenomegaly

CONDITION OF THE ESOPHAGUS ASSESSMENT findings for EV Signs of Shock- tachycardia, hypotension, tachypnea, cold clammy skin, narrowed pulse pressure

ASSESSMENT findings for EV

Signs of Shock- tachycardia, hypotension, tachypnea, cold clammy skin, narrowed pulse pressure

CONDITION OF THE ESOPHAGUS DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURE Esophagoscopy

DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURE

Esophagoscopy

CONDITION OF THE ESOPHAGUS NURSING INTERVENTIONS FOR EV 1. Monitor VS strictly. Note for signs of shock 2. Monitor for LOC 3. Maintain NPO

NURSING INTERVENTIONS FOR EV

1. Monitor VS strictly. Note for signs of shock

2. Monitor for LOC

3. Maintain NPO

CONDITION OF THE ESOPHAGUS NURSING INTERVENTIONS FOR EV 4. Monitor blood studies 5. Administer O2 6. prepare for blood transfusion

NURSING INTERVENTIONS FOR EV

4. Monitor blood studies

5. Administer O2

6. prepare for blood transfusion

CONDITION OF THE ESOPHAGUS INTERVENTIONS FOR EV 7. prepare to administer Vasopressin and Nitroglycerin 8. Assist in NGT and Sengstaken-Blakemore tube insertion for balloon tamponade

INTERVENTIONS FOR EV

7. prepare to administer Vasopressin and Nitroglycerin

8. Assist in NGT and Sengstaken-Blakemore tube insertion for balloon tamponade

CONDITION OF THE ESOPHAGUS NURSING INTERVENTIONS FOR EV 9. Prepare to assist in surgical management: Endoscopic sclerotherapy Variceal ligation Shunt procedures

NURSING INTERVENTIONS FOR EV

9. Prepare to assist in surgical management:

Endoscopic sclerotherapy

Variceal ligation

Shunt procedures

Conditions of the Stomach Gastro-esophageal reflux Backflow of gastric contents into the esophagus Usually due to incompetent lower esophageal sphincter , pyloric stenosis or motility disorder Symptoms may mimic ANGINA or MI

Gastro-esophageal reflux

Backflow of gastric contents into the esophagus

Usually due to incompetent lower esophageal sphincter , pyloric stenosis or motility disorder

Symptoms may mimic ANGINA or MI

Conditions of the Stomach ASSESSMENT ( for GERD) Heartburn Dyspepsia Regurgitation Epigastric pain Difficulty swallowing Ptyalism

ASSESSMENT ( for GERD)

Heartburn

Dyspepsia

Regurgitation

Epigastric pain

Difficulty swallowing

Ptyalism

Conditions of the Stomach Diagnostic test Endoscopy or barium swallow Gastric ambulatory pH analysis Note for the pH of the esophagus, usually done for 24 hours The pH probe is located 5 inches above the lower esophageal sphincter The machine registers the different pH of the refluxed material into the esophagus

Diagnostic test

Endoscopy or barium swallow

Gastric ambulatory pH analysis

Note for the pH of the esophagus, usually done for 24 hours

The pH probe is located 5 inches above the lower esophageal sphincter

The machine registers the different pH of the refluxed material into the esophagus

Conditions of the Stomach NURSING INTERVENTIONS 1. Instruct the patient to AVOID stimulus that increases stomach pressure and decreases GES pressure 2. Instruct to avoid spices, coffee, tobacco and carbonated drinks 3. Instruct to eat LOW-FAT, HIGH-FIBER diet

NURSING INTERVENTIONS

1. Instruct the patient to AVOID stimulus that increases stomach pressure and decreases GES pressure

2. Instruct to avoid spices, coffee, tobacco and carbonated drinks

3. Instruct to eat LOW-FAT, HIGH-FIBER diet

Conditions of the Stomach NURSING INTERVENTIONS 4. Avoid foods and drinks TWO hours before bedtime 5. Elevate the head of the bed with an approximately 8-inch block

NURSING INTERVENTIONS

4. Avoid foods and drinks TWO hours before bedtime

5. Elevate the head of the bed with an approximately 8-inch block

Conditions of the Stomach NURSING INTERVENTIONS 6. Administer prescribed H2-blockers, PPI and prokinetic meds like cisapride, metochlopromide 7. Advise proper weight reduction

NURSING INTERVENTIONS

6. Administer prescribed H2-blockers, PPI and prokinetic meds like cisapride, metochlopromide

7. Advise proper weight reduction

Conditions of the Stomach GASTRITIS Inflammation of the gastric mucosa May be Acute or Chronic Etiology: Acute- bacteria, irritating foods, NSAIDS, alcohol, bile and radiation Etiology: Chronic- Ulceration, bacteria, Autoimmune disease, diet, alcohol, smoking

GASTRITIS

Inflammation of the gastric mucosa

May be Acute or Chronic

Etiology: Acute- bacteria, irritating foods, NSAIDS, alcohol, bile and radiation

Etiology: Chronic- Ulceration, bacteria, Autoimmune disease, diet, alcohol, smoking

Conditions of the Stomach PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF Gastritis Insults  cause gastric mucosal damage  inflammation, hyperemia and edema  superficial erosions  decreased gastric secretions, ulcerations and bleeding

PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF Gastritis

Insults  cause gastric mucosal damage  inflammation, hyperemia and edema  superficial erosions  decreased gastric secretions, ulcerations and bleeding

Conditions of the Stomach ASSESSMENT (Acute) Dyspepsia Headache Anorexia Nausea/Vomiting ASSESSMENT (Chronic) Pyrosis Singultus Sour taste in the mouth Dyspepsia N/V/anorexia Pernicious anemia

ASSESSMENT

(Acute)

Dyspepsia

Headache

Anorexia

Nausea/Vomiting

ASSESSMENT (Chronic)

Pyrosis

Singultus

Sour taste in the mouth

Dyspepsia

N/V/anorexia

Pernicious anemia

Conditions of the Stomach DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURE EGD- to visualize the gastric mucosa for inflammation Low levels of HCl Biopsy to establish correct diagnosis whether acute or chronic

DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURE

EGD- to visualize the gastric mucosa for inflammation

Low levels of HCl

Biopsy to establish correct diagnosis whether acute or chronic

Conditions of the Stomach NURSING INTERVENTIONS 1. Give BLAND diet 2. Monitor for signs of complications like bleeding, obstruction and pernicious anemia 3. Instruct to avoid spicy foods, irritating foods, alcohol and caffeine

NURSING INTERVENTIONS

1. Give BLAND diet

2. Monitor for signs of complications like bleeding, obstruction and pernicious anemia

3. Instruct to avoid spicy foods, irritating foods, alcohol and caffeine

Conditions of the Stomach NURSING INTERVENTIONS 4. Administer prescribed medications- H2 blockers, antibiotics, mucosal protectants 5. Inform the need for Vitamin B12 injection if deficiency is present

NURSING INTERVENTIONS

4. Administer prescribed medications- H2 blockers, antibiotics, mucosal protectants

5. Inform the need for Vitamin B12 injection if deficiency is present

Conditions of the Stomach PEPTIC ULCER DISEASE An ulceration of the gastric and duodenal lining May be referred as to location as Gastric ulcer in the stomach, or Duodenal ulcer in the duodenum Most common Peptic ulceration: anterior part of the upper duodenum

PEPTIC ULCER DISEASE

An ulceration of the gastric and duodenal lining

May be referred as to location as Gastric ulcer in the stomach, or Duodenal ulcer in the duodenum

Most common Peptic ulceration: anterior part of the upper duodenum

Conditions of the Stomach PATHOPHYSIOLOGY of PUD Disturbance in acid secretion and mucosal protection Increased acidity or decreased mucosal resistance  erosion and ulceration

PATHOPHYSIOLOGY of PUD

Disturbance in acid secretion and mucosal protection

Increased acidity or decreased mucosal resistance  erosion and ulceration

Conditions of the Stomach GASTRIC ULCER Ulceration of the gastric mucosa, submucosa and rarely the muscularis

GASTRIC ULCER

Ulceration of the gastric mucosa, submucosa and rarely the muscularis

Conditions of the Stomach GASTRIC ULCER Risk factors: Stress, smoking, NSAIDS abuse, Alcohol, Helicobacter pylori infection, type A personality and History of gastritis Incidence is high in older adults Acid secretion is NORMAL

GASTRIC ULCER

Risk factors: Stress, smoking, NSAIDS abuse, Alcohol, Helicobacter pylori infection, type A personality and History of gastritis

Incidence is high in older adults

Acid secretion is NORMAL

Conditions of the Stomach ASSESSMENT (Gastric Ulcer) Epigastric pain Characteristic: Gnawing, sharp pain in the mid-epigastrium 1-2 hours AFTER eating, often NOT RELIEVED by food intake, sometimes AGGRAVATING the pain!

ASSESSMENT (Gastric Ulcer)

Epigastric pain

Characteristic: Gnawing, sharp pain in the mid-epigastrium 1-2 hours AFTER eating, often NOT RELIEVED by food intake, sometimes AGGRAVATING the pain!

Conditions of the Stomach ASSESSMENT (Gastric Ulcer) Nausea Vomiting is more common Hematemesis Weight loss

ASSESSMENT (Gastric Ulcer)

Nausea

Vomiting is more common

Hematemesis

Weight loss

Conditions of the Stomach DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURES 1. EGD to visualize the ulceration 2. Urea breath test for H. pylori infection 3. Biopsy- to rule out gastric cancer

DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURES

1. EGD to visualize the ulceration

2. Urea breath test for H. pylori infection

3. Biopsy- to rule out gastric cancer

Conditions of the Stomach NURSING INTERVENTIONS 1. Give BLAND diet, small frequent meals during the active phase of the disease 2. Administer prescribed medications- H2 blockers, PPI, mucosal barrier protectants and antacids

NURSING INTERVENTIONS

1. Give BLAND diet, small frequent meals during the active phase of the disease

2. Administer prescribed medications- H2 blockers, PPI, mucosal barrier protectants and antacids

Conditions of the Stomach NURSING INTERVENTIONS 3. Monitor for complications of bleeding, perforation and intractable pain 4. provide teaching about stress reduction and relaxation techniques

NURSING INTERVENTIONS

3. Monitor for complications of bleeding, perforation and intractable pain

4. provide teaching about stress reduction and relaxation techniques

Conditions of the Stomach NURSING INTERVENTIONS FOR BLEEDING 1. Maintain on NPO 2. Administer IVF and medications 3. Monitor hydration status, hematocrit and hemoglobin

NURSING INTERVENTIONS FOR BLEEDING

1. Maintain on NPO

2. Administer IVF and medications

3. Monitor hydration status, hematocrit and hemoglobin

Conditions of the Stomach NURSING INTERVENTIONS FOR BLEEDING 4. Assist with SALINE lavage 5. Insert NGT for decompression and lavage

NURSING INTERVENTIONS FOR BLEEDING

4. Assist with SALINE lavage

5. Insert NGT for decompression and lavage

Conditions of the Stomach NURSING INTERVENTIONS FOR BLEEDING 6. Prepare to administer blood transfusion 7. Prepare to give VASOPRESSIN to induce vasoconstriction to reduce bleeding 8. Prepare patient for SURGERY if warranted

NURSING INTERVENTIONS FOR BLEEDING

6. Prepare to administer blood transfusion

7. Prepare to give VASOPRESSIN to induce vasoconstriction to reduce bleeding

8. Prepare patient for SURGERY if warranted

Conditions of the Stomach SURGICAL PROCEDURES FOR PUD Total gastrectomy, vagotomy, gastric resection, Billroth I and II, pyloroplasty

SURGICAL PROCEDURES FOR PUD

Total gastrectomy, vagotomy, gastric resection, Billroth I and II, pyloroplasty

 

Conditions of the Stomach SURGICAL PROCEDURES FOR PUD Post-operative Nursing management 1. Monitor VS 2. Post-op position: FOWLER’S 3. NPO until peristalsis returns 4. Monitor for bowel sounds 5. Monitor for complications of surgery

SURGICAL PROCEDURES FOR PUD

Post-operative Nursing management

1. Monitor VS

2. Post-op position: FOWLER’S

3. NPO until peristalsis returns

4. Monitor for bowel sounds

5. Monitor for complications of surgery

Conditions of the Stomach Post-operative Nursing management 6. Monitor I and O, IVF 7. Maintain NGT 8. Diet progress: clear liquid  full liquid  six bland meals 9. Manage DUMPING SYNDROME

Post-operative Nursing management

6. Monitor I and O, IVF

7. Maintain NGT

8. Diet progress: clear liquid  full liquid  six bland meals

9. Manage DUMPING SYNDROME

Condition of the Duodenum DUODENAL ULCER Ulceration of duodenal mucosa and submucosa Usually due to increased gastric acidity

DUODENAL ULCER

Ulceration of duodenal mucosa and submucosa

Usually due to increased gastric acidity

Condition of the Duodenum DUODENAL ULCER ASSESSMENT PAIN characteristic: Burning pain in the mid-epigastrium 2-4 HOURS after eating or during the night, RELIEVED by food intake

DUODENAL ULCER ASSESSMENT

PAIN characteristic:

Burning pain in the mid-epigastrium 2-4 HOURS after eating or during the night, RELIEVED by food intake

 

Condition of the Duodenum DIAGNOSTIC TESTS EGD and Biopsy

DIAGNOSTIC TESTS

EGD and Biopsy

 

 

Condition of the Duodenum NURSING INTERVENTIONS 1. Same as for gastric ulceration 2. Patient teaching-avoid alcohol, smoking, caffeine and carbonated drinks Take NSAIDS with meals Adhere to medication regimen

NURSING INTERVENTIONS

1. Same as for gastric ulceration

2. Patient teaching-avoid alcohol, smoking, caffeine and carbonated drinks

Take NSAIDS with meals

Adhere to medication regimen

Ulcers (-) cancer (+) cancer Less likely bleeding and vomiting Bleeding, weight loss and vomiting RELIEVES by food WORSENS by food, RELIEVED by VOMITING Pain late after eating (2-4 hours) Pain early after eating INCREASED acidity Normal Acidity Younger Older DUODENAL GASTRIC

Conditions of the Lower Tract Small and Large Intestine

CONDITIONS OF THE SMALL INTESTINE CROHN’S DISEASE Also called Regional Enteritis An inflammatory disease of the GIT affecting usually the small intestine

CROHN’S DISEASE

Also called Regional Enteritis

An inflammatory disease of the GIT affecting usually the small intestine

CONDITIONS OF THE SMALL INTESTINE CROHN’S DISEASE ETIOLOGY: unknown The terminal ileum thickens, with scarring, ulcerations, abscess formation and narrowing of the lumen

CROHN’S DISEASE

ETIOLOGY: unknown

The terminal ileum thickens, with scarring, ulcerations, abscess formation and narrowing of the lumen

CONDITIONS OF THE SMALL INTESTINE ASSESSMENT findings for CD 1. Fever 2. Abdominal distention 3. Diarrhea 4. Colicky abdominal pain 5. Anorexia/N/V 6. Weight loss 7. Anemia

ASSESSMENT findings for CD

1. Fever

2. Abdominal distention

3. Diarrhea

4. Colicky abdominal pain

5. Anorexia/N/V

6. Weight loss

7. Anemia

CONDITIONS OF THE LARGE INTESTINE ULCERATIVE COLITIS Ulcerative and inflammatory condition of the GIT usually affecting the large intestine The colon becomes edematous and develops bleeding ulcerations Scarring develops overtime with impaired water absorption and loss of elasticity

ULCERATIVE COLITIS

Ulcerative and inflammatory condition of the GIT usually affecting the large intestine

The colon becomes edematous and develops bleeding ulcerations

Scarring develops overtime with impaired water absorption and loss of elasticity

CONDITIONS OF THE LARGE INTESTINE ASSESSMENT findings for UC 1. Anorexia 2. Weight loss 3. Fever 4. SEVERE diarrhea with Rectal bleeding 5. Anemia 6. Dehydration 7. Abdominal pain and cramping

ASSESSMENT findings for UC

1. Anorexia

2. Weight loss

3. Fever

4. SEVERE diarrhea with Rectal bleeding

5. Anemia

6. Dehydration

7. Abdominal pain and cramping

NURSING INTERVENTIONS for CD and UC 1. Maintain NPO during the active phase 2. Monitor for complications like severe bleeding, dehydration, electrolyte imbalance 3. Monitor bowel sounds, stool and blood studies 4. Restrict activities 5. Administer IVF, electrolytes and TPN if prescribed

1. Maintain NPO during the active phase

2. Monitor for complications like severe bleeding, dehydration, electrolyte imbalance

3. Monitor bowel sounds, stool and blood studies

4. Restrict activities

5. Administer IVF, electrolytes and TPN if prescribed

NURSING INTERVENTIONS for CD and UC 6. Instruct the patient to AVOID gas-forming foods, MILK products and foods such as whole grains, nuts, RAW fruits and vegetables especially SPINACH, pepper, alcohol and caffeine 7. Diet progression- clear liquid  LOW residue, high protein diet 8. Administer drugs- anti-inflammatory, antibiotics, steroids, bulk-forming agents and vitamin/iron supplements

6. Instruct the patient to AVOID gas-forming foods, MILK products and foods such as whole grains, nuts, RAW fruits and vegetables especially SPINACH, pepper, alcohol and caffeine

7. Diet progression- clear liquid  LOW residue, high protein diet

8. Administer drugs- anti-inflammatory, antibiotics, steroids, bulk-forming agents and vitamin/iron supplements

CONDITIONS OF THE LARGE INTESTINE APPENDICITIS Inflammation of the vermiform appendix

APPENDICITIS

Inflammation of the vermiform appendix

 

CONDITIONS OF THE LARGE INTESTINE APPENDICITIS ETIOLOGY: usually fecalith, lymphoid hyperplasia, foreign body and helminthic obstruction

APPENDICITIS

ETIOLOGY: usually fecalith, lymphoid hyperplasia, foreign body and helminthic obstruction

CONDITIONS OF THE LARGE INTESTINE APPENDICITIS PATHOPHYSIOLOGY Obstruction of lumen  increased pressure  decreased blood supply  bacterial proliferation and mucosal inflammation  ischemia  necrosis  rupture

APPENDICITIS

PATHOPHYSIOLOGY

Obstruction of lumen  increased pressure  decreased blood supply  bacterial proliferation and mucosal inflammation  ischemia  necrosis  rupture

CONDITIONS OF THE LARGE INTESTINE ASSESSMENT FINDINGS for Appendicitis 1. Abdominal pain: begins in the umbilicus then localizes in the RLQ (Mc Burney’s point) 2. Anorexia 3. Nausea and Vomiting

ASSESSMENT FINDINGS for Appendicitis

1. Abdominal pain: begins in the umbilicus then localizes in the RLQ (Mc Burney’s point)

2. Anorexia

3. Nausea and Vomiting

CONDITIONS OF THE LARGE INTESTINE ASSESSMENT FINDINGS for Appendicitis 4. Fever 5. Rebound tenderness and abdominal rigidity (if perforated) 6. Constipation or diarrhea

ASSESSMENT FINDINGS for Appendicitis

4. Fever

5. Rebound tenderness and abdominal rigidity (if perforated)

6. Constipation or diarrhea

CONDITIONS OF THE LARGE INTESTINE DIAGNOSTIC TESTS 1. CBC- reveals increased WBC count 2. Ultrasound 3. Abdominal X-ray

DIAGNOSTIC TESTS

1. CBC- reveals increased WBC count

2. Ultrasound

3. Abdominal X-ray

CONDITIONS OF THE LARGE INTESTINE NURSING INTERVENTIONS 1. Preoperative care NPO Consent Monitor for perforation and signs of shock

NURSING INTERVENTIONS

1. Preoperative care

NPO

Consent

Monitor for perforation and signs of shock

CONDITIONS OF THE LARGE INTESTINE NURSING INTERVENTIONS 1. Preoperative care Monitor bowel sounds, fever and hydration status POSITION of Comfort: RIGHT SIDELYING in a low FOWLER’S Avoid Laxatives, enemas & HEAT APPLICATION

NURSING INTERVENTIONS

1. Preoperative care

Monitor bowel sounds, fever and hydration status

POSITION of Comfort: RIGHT SIDELYING in a low FOWLER’S

Avoid Laxatives, enemas & HEAT APPLICATION

CONDITIONS OF THE LARGE INTESTINE 2. Post-operative care Monitor VS and signs of surgical complications Maintain NPO until bowel function returns If rupture occurred, expect drains and IV antibiotics

2. Post-operative care

Monitor VS and signs of surgical complications

Maintain NPO until bowel function returns

If rupture occurred, expect drains and IV antibiotics

CONDITIONS OF THE LARGE INTESTINE 2. Post-operative care POSITION post-op: RIGHT side-lying, semi- fowler’s to decrease tension on incision, and legs flexed to promote drainage Administer prescribed pain medications

2. Post-operative care

POSITION post-op: RIGHT side-lying, semi- fowler’s to decrease tension on incision, and legs flexed to promote drainage

Administer prescribed pain medications

CONDITIONS OF THE LARGE INTESTINE Hemorrhoids Abnormal dilation and weakness of the veins of the anal canal Variously classified as Internal or External, Prolapsed, Thrombosed and Reducible

Hemorrhoids

Abnormal dilation and weakness of the veins of the anal canal

Variously classified as Internal or External, Prolapsed, Thrombosed and Reducible

CONDITIONS OF THE LARGE INTESTINE Hemorrhoids PATHOPHYSIOLOGY Increased pressure in the hemorrhoidal tissue due to straining, pregnancy, etc  dilatation of veins

Hemorrhoids

PATHOPHYSIOLOGY

Increased pressure in the hemorrhoidal tissue due to straining, pregnancy, etc  dilatation of veins

CONDITIONS OF THE LARGE INTESTINE Internal hemorrhoids These dilated veins lie above the internal anal sphincter Usually, the condition is PAINLESS

Internal hemorrhoids

These dilated veins lie above the internal anal sphincter

Usually, the condition is PAINLESS

CONDITIONS OF THE LARGE INTESTINE External hemorrhoids These dilated veins lie below the internal anal sphincter Usually, the condition is PAINFUL

External hemorrhoids

These dilated veins lie below the internal anal sphincter

Usually, the condition is PAINFUL

CONDITIONS OF THE LARGE INTESTINE ASSESSMENT findings for Hemorrhoids 1. Internal hemorrhoids- cannot be seen on the peri-anal area 2. External hemorrhoids- can be seen 3. Bright red bleeding with each defecation

ASSESSMENT findings for Hemorrhoids

1. Internal hemorrhoids- cannot be seen on the peri-anal area

2. External hemorrhoids- can be seen

3. Bright red bleeding with each defecation

CONDITIONS OF THE LARGE INTESTINE ASSESSMENT findings for Hemorrhoids 4. Rectal/ perianal pain 5. Rectal itching 6. Skin tags

ASSESSMENT findings for Hemorrhoids

4. Rectal/ perianal pain

5. Rectal itching

6. Skin tags

CONDITIONS OF THE LARGE INTESTINE DIAGNOSTIC TEST 1. Anoscopy 2. Digital rectal examination

DIAGNOSTIC TEST

1. Anoscopy

2. Digital rectal examination

CONDITIONS OF THE LARGE INTESTINE NURSING INTERVENTIONS 1. Advise patient to apply cold packs to the anal/rectal area followed by a SITZ bath 2. Apply astringent like witch hazel soaks

NURSING INTERVENTIONS

1. Advise patient to apply cold packs to the anal/rectal area followed by a SITZ bath

2. Apply astringent like witch hazel soaks

CONDITIONS OF THE LARGE INTESTINE NURSING INTERVENTIONS 3. Encourage HIGH-fiber diet and fluids 4. Administer stool softener as prescribed

NURSING INTERVENTIONS

3. Encourage HIGH-fiber diet and fluids

4. Administer stool softener as prescribed

CONDITIONS OF THE LARGE INTESTINE Post-operative care for hemorrhoidectomy 1. Position: Prone or Side-lying 2. Maintain dressing over the surgical site

Post-operative care for hemorrhoidectomy

1. Position: Prone or Side-lying

2. Maintain dressing over the surgical site

CONDITIONS OF THE LARGE INTESTINE Post-operative care for hemorrhoidectomy 3. Monitor for bleeding 4. Administer analgesics and stool softeners 5. Advise the use of SITZ bath 3-4 times a day

Post-operative care for hemorrhoidectomy

3. Monitor for bleeding

4. Administer analgesics and stool softeners

5. Advise the use of SITZ bath 3-4 times a day

CONDITIONS OF THE LARGE INTESTINE DIVERTICULOSIS AND DIVERTICULITIS Diverticulosis Abnormal out-pouching of the intestinal mucosa occurring in any part of the LI most commonly in the sigmoid Diverticulitis Inflammation of the diverticulosis

DIVERTICULOSIS AND DIVERTICULITIS

Diverticulosis

Abnormal out-pouching of the intestinal mucosa occurring in any part of the LI most commonly in the sigmoid

Diverticulitis

Inflammation of the diverticulosis

CONDITIONS OF THE LARGE INTESTINE PATHOPHYSIOLOGY Increased intraluminal pressure, LOW volume in the lumen and Decreased muscle strength in the colon wall  herniation of the colonic mucosa

PATHOPHYSIOLOGY

Increased intraluminal pressure, LOW volume in the lumen and Decreased muscle strength in the colon wall  herniation of the colonic mucosa

CONDITIONS OF THE LARGE INTESTINE ASSESSMENT findings for D/D 1. Left lower Quadrant pain 2. Flatulence 3. Bleeding per rectum 4. nausea and vomiting 5. Fever 6. Palpable, tender rectal mass

ASSESSMENT findings for D/D

1. Left lower Quadrant pain

2. Flatulence

3. Bleeding per rectum

4. nausea and vomiting

5. Fever

6. Palpable, tender rectal mass

CONDITIONS OF THE LARGE INTESTINE DIAGNOSTIC STUDIES 1. If no active inflammation, COLONOSCOPY and Barium Enema 2. CT scan is the procedure of choice! 3. Abdominal X-ray

DIAGNOSTIC STUDIES

1. If no active inflammation, COLONOSCOPY and Barium Enema

2. CT scan is the procedure of choice!

3. Abdominal X-ray

CONDITIONS OF THE LARGE INTESTINE NURSING INTERVENTIONS 1. Maintain NPO during acute phase 2. Provide bed rest 3. Administer antibiotics, analgesics like meperidine (morphine is not used) and anti-spasmodics 4. Monitor for potential complications like perforation, hemorrhage and fistula 5. Increase fluid intake

NURSING INTERVENTIONS

1. Maintain NPO during acute phase

2. Provide bed rest

3. Administer antibiotics, analgesics like meperidine (morphine is not used) and anti-spasmodics

4. Monitor for potential complications like perforation, hemorrhage and fistula

5. Increase fluid intake

CONDITIONS OF THE LARGE INTESTINE NURSING INTERVENTIONS 6. Avoid gas-forming foods or HIGH-roughage foods containing seeds, nuts to avoid trapping 7. introduce soft, high fiber foods ONLY after the inflammation subsides 8. Instruct to avoid activities that increase intra-abdominal pressure

NURSING INTERVENTIONS

6. Avoid gas-forming foods or HIGH-roughage foods containing seeds, nuts to avoid trapping

7. introduce soft, high fiber foods ONLY after the inflammation subsides

8. Instruct to avoid activities that increase intra-abdominal pressure

Conditions of the GIT accessory organs The liver

CONDITION OF THE LIVER Liver Cirrhosis A chronic, progressive disease characterized by a diffuse damage to the hepatic cells The liver heals with scarring, fibrosis and nodular regeneration

Liver Cirrhosis

A chronic, progressive disease characterized by a diffuse damage to the hepatic cells

The liver heals with scarring, fibrosis and nodular regeneration

CONDITION OF THE LIVER Liver Cirrhosis ETIOLOGY: Post-infection, Alcohol, Cardiac diseases, Schisostoma, Biliary obstruction

Liver Cirrhosis

ETIOLOGY:

Post-infection, Alcohol, Cardiac diseases, Schisostoma, Biliary obstruction

 

Liver physiology and Pathophysiology = Gynecomastia, testes atrophy 8. Metabolizes estrogen = Deficiencies of Vit and min 7. Stores Vit and minerals =Hyperammonemia 6. Converts ammonia to urea = Jaundice and pruritus 5. Secreting bile = Bleeding tendencies 4. Synthesizes Clotting factors = Decreased Antibody formation 3. Synthesizes globulins = Hypoproteinemia 2. Synthesizes proteins = Hypoglycemia 1. Stores glycogen Abnormality in function Normal Function

CONDITION OF THE LIVER ASSESSMENT FINDINGS 1. Anorexia and weight loss 2. Jaundice 3. Fatigue

ASSESSMENT FINDINGS

1. Anorexia and weight loss

2. Jaundice

3. Fatigue

CONDITION OF THE LIVER ASSESSMENT FINDINGS 4. Early morning nausea and vomiting 5. RUQ abdominal pain 6. Ascites 7. Signs of Portal hypertension

ASSESSMENT FINDINGS

4. Early morning nausea and vomiting

5. RUQ abdominal pain

6. Ascites

7. Signs of Portal hypertension

 

CONDITION OF THE LIVER NURSING INTERVENTIONS 1. Monitor VS, I and O, Abdominal girth, weight, LOC and Bleeding 2. Promote rest. Elevated the head of the bed to minimize dyspnea

NURSING INTERVENTIONS

1. Monitor VS, I and O, Abdominal girth, weight, LOC and Bleeding

2. Promote rest. Elevated the head of the bed to minimize dyspnea

CONDITION OF THE LIVER NURSING INTERVENTIONS 3. Provide Moderate to LOW-protein (1 g/kg/day) and LOW-sodium diet 4. Provide supplemental vitamins (especially K) and minerals

NURSING INTERVENTIONS

3. Provide Moderate to LOW-protein (1 g/kg/day) and LOW-sodium diet

4. Provide supplemental vitamins (especially K) and minerals

CONDITION OF THE LIVER NURSING INTERVENTIONS 5. Administer prescribed Diuretics= to reduce ascites and edema Lactulose= to reduce NH4 in the bowel Antacids and Neomycin = to kill bacterial flora that cause NH production

NURSING INTERVENTIONS

5. Administer prescribed

Diuretics= to reduce ascites and edema

Lactulose= to reduce NH4 in the bowel

Antacids and Neomycin = to kill bacterial flora that cause NH production

CONDITION OF THE LIVER NURSING INTERVENTIONS 6. Avoid hepatotoxic drugs Paracetamol Anti-tubercular drugs

NURSING INTERVENTIONS

6. Avoid hepatotoxic drugs

Paracetamol

Anti-tubercular drugs

CONDITION OF THE LIVER NURSING INTERVENTIONS 7. Reduce the risk of injury Side rails reorientation Assistance in ambulation Use of electric razor and soft-bristled toothbrush

NURSING INTERVENTIONS

7. Reduce the risk of injury

Side rails reorientation

Assistance in ambulation

Use of electric razor and soft-bristled toothbrush

CONDITION OF THE LIVER NURSING INTERVENTIONS 8. Keep equipments ready including Sengstaken-Blakemore tube, IV fluids, Medications to treat hemorrhage

NURSING INTERVENTIONS

8. Keep equipments ready including Sengstaken-Blakemore tube, IV fluids, Medications to treat hemorrhage

CONDITION OF THE LIVER Albumin, Amino acid Vitamin K (menadione) Diuretics, Neomycin, Lactulose 6. Administer Medications: Done to relieve abdominal pressure 5. Assist in paracentesis To prevent bleeding 4. Pressure onto injection site To relieve pruritus 3. Benadryl and mild soap To reduce NH production 2. Low protein diet To reduce edema 1. Low sodium Diet Rationale Nursing Interventions

Albumin, Amino acid

Vitamin K (menadione)

Diuretics, Neomycin, Lactulose

Conditions of the Accessory organs The Gallbladder

CONDITION OF THE GALLBLADDER Cholecystitis Inflammation of the gallbladder Can be acute or chronic

Cholecystitis

Inflammation of the gallbladder

Can be acute or chronic

CONDITION OF THE GALLBLADDER Cholecystitis Acute cholecystitis usually is due to gallbladder stones

Cholecystitis

Acute cholecystitis usually is due to gallbladder stones

CONDITION OF THE GALLBLADDER Cholecystitis Chronic cholecystitis is usually due to long standing gall bladder inflammation

Cholecystitis

Chronic cholecystitis is usually due to long standing gall bladder inflammation

 

Cholelithiasis Formation of GALLSTONES in the biliary apparatus

Formation of GALLSTONES in the biliary apparatus

Predisposing FACTORS “ F” Female Fat Forty Fertile Fair

“ F”

Female

Fat

Forty

Fertile

Fair

 

Pathophysiology Supersaturated bile, Biliary stasis Stone formation Blockage of Gallbladder Inflammation, Mucosal Damage and WBC infiltration

Supersaturated bile, Biliary stasis

Stone formation

Blockage of Gallbladder

Inflammation, Mucosal Damage and WBC infiltration

Pathophysiology Less bile in the duodenum Impaired fat digestion and absorption Vitamin ADEK mal-absorption, STEATORHEA with increased gas formation Jaundice ACHOLIC stools

Less bile in the duodenum

Impaired fat digestion and absorption

Vitamin ADEK mal-absorption, STEATORHEA with increased gas formation

Jaundice

ACHOLIC stools

CONDITION OF THE GALLBLADDER ASSESSMENT findings for cholecystitis 1. Indigestion, belching and flatulence 2. Fatty food intolerance, steatorrhea

ASSESSMENT findings for cholecystitis

1. Indigestion, belching and flatulence

2. Fatty food intolerance, steatorrhea

CONDITION OF THE GALLBLADDER ASSESSMENT findings for cholecystitis 3. Epigastric pain that radiates to the scapula or localized at the RUQ 4. Mass at the RUQ

ASSESSMENT findings for cholecystitis

3. Epigastric pain that radiates to the scapula or localized at the RUQ

4. Mass at the RUQ

CONDITION OF THE GALLBLADDER ASSESSMENT findings for cholecystitis 5. Murphy’s sign 6. Jaundice 7. dark orange and foamy urine

ASSESSMENT findings for cholecystitis

5. Murphy’s sign

6. Jaundice

7. dark orange and foamy urine

CONDITION OF THE GALLBLADDER DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURES 1. Ultrasonography- can detect the stones 2. Abdominal X-ray 3. Cholecystography

DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURES

1. Ultrasonography- can detect the stones

2. Abdominal X-ray

3. Cholecystography

CONDITION OF THE GALLBLADDER DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURES 4. WBC count increased 5. Oral cholecystography cannot visualize the gallbladder 6. ERCP: revels inflamed gallbladder with gallstone

DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURES

4. WBC count increased

5. Oral cholecystography cannot visualize the gallbladder

6. ERCP: revels inflamed gallbladder with gallstone

CONDITION OF THE GALLBLADDER NURSING INTERVENTIONS 1. Maintain NPO in the active phase 2. Maintain NGT decompression

NURSING INTERVENTIONS

1. Maintain NPO in the active phase

2. Maintain NGT decompression

CONDITION OF THE GALLBLADDER NURSING INTERVENTIONS 3. Administer prescribed medications to relieve pain. Usually Demerol (MEPERIDINE) Codeine and Morphine may cause spasm of the Sphincter  increased pain. Morphine cause MOREPAIN

NURSING INTERVENTIONS

3. Administer prescribed medications to relieve pain. Usually Demerol (MEPERIDINE)

Codeine and Morphine may cause spasm of the Sphincter  increased pain. Morphine cause MOREPAIN

CONDITION OF THE GALLBLADDER 4. Instruct patient to AVOID HIGH- fat diet and GAS-forming foods 5. Assist in surgical and non-surgical measures 6. Surgical procedures- Cholecystectomy, Choledochotomy, laparoscopy

4. Instruct patient to AVOID HIGH- fat diet and GAS-forming foods

5. Assist in surgical and non-surgical measures

6. Surgical procedures- Cholecystectomy, Choledochotomy, laparoscopy

CONDITION OF THE GALLBLADDER PHARMACOLOGIC THERAPY Analgesic- Meperidine Chenodeoxycholic acid= to dissolve the gallstones Antacids Anti-emetics

PHARMACOLOGIC THERAPY

Analgesic- Meperidine

Chenodeoxycholic acid= to dissolve the gallstones

Antacids

Anti-emetics

 

 

CONDITION OF THE GALLBLADDER Post-operative nursing interventions 1. Monitor for surgical complications 2. Post-operative position after recovery from anesthesia- LOW FOWLER’s

Post-operative nursing interventions

1. Monitor for surgical complications

2. Post-operative position after recovery from anesthesia- LOW FOWLER’s

CONDITION OF THE GALLBLADDER Post-operative nursing interventions 3. Encourage early ambulation 4. Administer medication before coughing and deep breathing exercises 5. Advise client to splint the abdomen to prevent discomfort during coughing

Post-operative nursing interventions

3. Encourage early ambulation

4. Administer medication before coughing and deep breathing exercises

5. Advise client to splint the abdomen to prevent discomfort during coughing

CONDITION OF THE GALLBLADDER Post-operative nursing interventions 6. Administer analgesics, antiemetics, antacids 7. Care of the biliary drainageor T-tube drainage 8. Fat restriction is only limited to 4-6 weeks. Normal diet is resumed

Post-operative nursing interventions

6. Administer analgesics, antiemetics, antacids

7. Care of the biliary drainageor T-tube drainage

8. Fat restriction is only limited to 4-6 weeks. Normal diet is resumed

Conditions of the accessory organs The pancreas: Exocrine function

CONDITION OF THE PANCREAS Pancreatitis Inflammation of the pancreas Can be acute or chronic

Pancreatitis

Inflammation of the pancreas

Can be acute or chronic

CONDITION OF THE PANCREAS Pancreatitis Etiology and predisposing factors Alcoholism Hypercalcemia Trauma Hyperlipidemia

Pancreatitis

Etiology and predisposing factors

Alcoholism

Hypercalcemia

Trauma

Hyperlipidemia

CONDITION OF THE PANCREAS Pancreatitis Etiology and predisposing factors Biliary tract disease - cholelithiasis Bacterial disease PUD Mumps

Pancreatitis

Etiology and predisposing factors

Biliary tract disease - cholelithiasis

Bacterial disease

PUD

Mumps

CONDITION OF THE PANCREAS PATHOPHYSIOLOGY of acute pancreatitis Self-digestion of the pancreas by its own digestive enzymes principally TRYPSIN

PATHOPHYSIOLOGY of acute pancreatitis

Self-digestion of the pancreas by its own digestive enzymes principally TRYPSIN

CONDITION OF THE PANCREAS PATHOPHYSIOLOGY of acute pancreatitis Spasm, edema or block in the Ampulla of Vater  reflux of proteolytic enzymes  auto digestion of the pancreas  inflammation

PATHOPHYSIOLOGY of acute pancreatitis

Spasm, edema or block in the Ampulla of Vater  reflux of proteolytic enzymes  auto digestion of the pancreas  inflammation

CONDITION OF THE PANCREAS PATHOPHYSIOLOGY of acute pancreatitis Autodigestion of pancreatic tissue Hemorrhage, Necrosis and Inflammation KININ ACTIVATION will result to increased permeability Loss of Protein-rich fluid into the peritoneum HYPOVOLEMIA

PATHOPHYSIOLOGY of acute pancreatitis

Autodigestion of pancreatic tissue

Hemorrhage, Necrosis and Inflammation

KININ ACTIVATION will result to increased permeability

Loss of Protein-rich fluid into the peritoneum

HYPOVOLEMIA

CONDITION OF THE PANCREAS ASSESSMENT findings 1. Abdominal pain- acute onset, occurring after a heavy meal or alcohol intake 2. Abdominal guarding

ASSESSMENT findings

1. Abdominal pain- acute onset, occurring after a heavy meal or alcohol intake

2. Abdominal guarding

CONDITION OF THE PANCREAS ASSESSMENT findings 3. Bruising on the flanks and umbilicus 4. N/V, jaundice 5. Hypotension and hypovolemia 6. HYPERGLYCEMIA, HYPOCALCEMIA 7. Signs of shock

ASSESSMENT findings

3. Bruising on the flanks and umbilicus

4. N/V, jaundice

5. Hypotension and hypovolemia

6. HYPERGLYCEMIA, HYPOCALCEMIA

7. Signs of shock

CONDITION OF THE PANCREAS DIAGNOSTIC TESTS 1. Serum amylase and serum lipase 2. Ultrasound 3. WBC 4. Serum calcium 5. CT scan 6. Hemoglobin and hematocrit

DIAGNOSTIC TESTS

1. Serum amylase and serum lipase

2. Ultrasound

3. WBC

4. Serum calcium

5. CT scan

6. Hemoglobin and hematocrit

CONDITION OF THE PANCREAS NURSING INTERVENTIONS 1. Assist in pain management. Usually, Demerol is given . Morphine is AVOIDED 2. Assist in correction of Fluid and Blood loss

NURSING INTERVENTIONS

1. Assist in pain management. Usually, Demerol is given . Morphine is AVOIDED

2. Assist in correction of Fluid and Blood loss

CONDITION OF THE PANCREAS NURSING INTERVENTIONS 3. Place patient on NPO to inhibit pancreatic stimulation 4. NGT insertion to decompress distention and remove gastric secretions 5. Maintain on bed rest

NURSING INTERVENTIONS

3. Place patient on NPO to inhibit pancreatic stimulation

4. NGT insertion to decompress distention and remove gastric secretions

5. Maintain on bed rest

CONDITION OF THE PANCREAS NURSING INTERVENTIONS 7. Position patient in SEMI-FOWLER’s to decrease pressure on the diaphragm 8. Deep breathing and coughing exercises 9. Provide parenteral nutrition

NURSING INTERVENTIONS

7. Position patient in SEMI-FOWLER’s to decrease pressure on the diaphragm

8. Deep breathing and coughing exercises

9. Provide parenteral nutrition

CONDITION OF THE PANCREAS NURSING INTERVENTIONS 10. Introduce oral feedings gradually- HIGH carbo, LOW FAT 11. Maintain skin integrity 12. Manage shock and other complications

NURSING INTERVENTIONS

10. Introduce oral feedings gradually- HIGH carbo, LOW FAT

11. Maintain skin integrity

12. Manag

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