Gastro intestinal, Reproductive, Urinary

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Information about Gastro intestinal, Reproductive, Urinary

Published on April 28, 2008

Author: pinoynurze

Source: slideshare.net

Description

nursing licensure exam review lectures

The digestive system

The digestive system

The DIGESTIVE SYSTEM Alimentary tract composed of organs, the primary function of which is the ingestion, digestion and absorption of nutrients

Alimentary tract composed of organs, the primary function of which is the ingestion, digestion and absorption of nutrients

The DIGESTIVE SYSTEM Consists of the tube extending from the mouth to the anus together with the associated organs- salivary glands, liver, pancreas, gallbladder

Consists of the tube extending from the mouth to the anus together with the associated organs- salivary glands, liver, pancreas, gallbladder

 

The GIT The tract is long, fibromuscular tube lined internally by specialized epithelium for secretion and absorption

The tract is long, fibromuscular tube lined internally by specialized epithelium for secretion and absorption

The GIT The wall is divided into Mucosa Submucosa Muscularis layer (inner circular and outer longitudinal) and Serosa/adventitia

The wall is divided into

Mucosa

Submucosa

Muscularis layer (inner circular and outer longitudinal)

and Serosa/adventitia

Fig. 16.2

GENERAL FUNCTIONS Ingestion of food into the mouth Moves food along the digestive tract Mechanically digests the food into small particles

Ingestion of food into the mouth

Moves food along the digestive tract

Mechanically digests the food into small particles

GENERAL FUNCTIONS Chemically digests the food into simple molecules Absorbs nutrients into the portal and lymphatic circulation

Chemically digests the food into simple molecules

Absorbs nutrients into the portal and lymphatic circulation

The MOUTH Extends from the lips to the orophaynx Initial digestion of carbohydrates occurs here Contains the teeth, tongue, palate, salivary glands and tonsils

Extends from the lips to the orophaynx

Initial digestion of carbohydrates occurs here

Contains the teeth, tongue, palate, salivary glands and tonsils

Salivary glands 1. Parotid= secretes purely serous, Stensen’s duct 2.Submandibular/submaxillay= secretes mixed saliva, with Wharton’s duct 3. Sublingual= secretes mixed saliva, with two ducts- duct of Rivinus and duct of Bartholin

1. Parotid= secretes purely serous, Stensen’s duct

2.Submandibular/submaxillay= secretes mixed saliva, with Wharton’s duct

3. Sublingual= secretes mixed saliva, with two ducts- duct of Rivinus and duct of Bartholin

 

The Pharynx Oropharynx is a passageway of both food and air

Oropharynx is a passageway of both food and air

The Esophagus Muscular tube extending from the pharynx to the stomach With upper esophageal sphincter and lower esophageal sphincter

Muscular tube extending from the pharynx to the stomach

With upper esophageal sphincter and lower esophageal sphincter

The Esophagus Function: to propel food to the stomach

Function: to propel food to the stomach

The Stomach J-shaped dilatable part of the GIT Located on the epigastric area and right upper quadrant With 3 parts: 1. Fundus 2. Body 3. Pylorus

J-shaped dilatable part of the GIT

Located on the epigastric area and right upper quadrant

With 3 parts:

1. Fundus

2. Body

3. Pylorus

Cells in the stomach 1. Mucus cells 2. Chief cells/principal cells/Zymogenic cells 3. Parietal Cells 4. Argentaffin cells

1. Mucus cells

2. Chief cells/principal cells/Zymogenic cells

3. Parietal Cells

4. Argentaffin cells

Cells in the stomach 1. Mucus cells- secrete mucus for protection of the mucosa

1. Mucus cells- secrete mucus for protection of the mucosa

Cells in the stomach 2. Chief cells/principal cells/Zymogenic cells secrete Pepsinogen needed for protein digestion

2. Chief cells/principal cells/Zymogenic cells

secrete Pepsinogen needed for protein digestion

Cells in the stomach 3. Parietal cells/Oxyntic cells- secrete Hydrochloric acid to activate pepsinogen and Intrinsic factor needed to absorb Vitamin B12

3. Parietal cells/Oxyntic cells- secrete Hydrochloric acid to activate pepsinogen and Intrinsic factor needed to absorb Vitamin B12

Cells in the stomach 4. Argentaffin cells- secrete Serotonin

4. Argentaffin cells- secrete Serotonin

Small intestine Characteristics: Provided with mesentery Presence of villi Presence of plicae circularis Lined by simple columnar

Characteristics:

Provided with mesentery

Presence of villi

Presence of plicae circularis

Lined by simple columnar

Fig. 16.14

Parts of Small Intestine 1. DUODENUM- shortest part 2. Jejunum 3. Ileum- longest part

1. DUODENUM- shortest part

2. Jejunum

3. Ileum- longest part

Parts of Small Intestine

Large intestine Characteristics Presence of haustra Presence of taenia coli Presence of appendices epiploicae

Characteristics

Presence of haustra

Presence of taenia coli

Presence of appendices epiploicae

Large intestine Characteristics No villi With mesocolon on the appendix, transverse colon and sigmoid colon

Characteristics

No villi

With mesocolon on the appendix, transverse colon and sigmoid colon

Parts of the large intestine Cecum Appendix Ascending colon Transverse colon Descending colon Sigmoid colon rectum

Cecum

Appendix

Ascending colon

Transverse colon

Descending colon

Sigmoid colon

rectum

 

Anus The anal canal is the last portion of the tract, surrounded by an internal and external anal sphincter

The anal canal is the last portion of the tract, surrounded by an internal and external anal sphincter

The Peritoneum Serous membrane lining the abdominal cavity Parietal peritoneum- abdominal wall Visceral peritoneum- visceral organs

Serous membrane lining the abdominal cavity

Parietal peritoneum- abdominal wall

Visceral peritoneum- visceral organs

Fig. 16.3

The Peritoneum Retroperitoneal organs are found posterior to the peritoneum- kidney, pancreas, duodenum, ascending and descending colon, rectum

Retroperitoneal organs are found posterior to the peritoneum- kidney, pancreas, duodenum, ascending and descending colon, rectum

Mesentery This is a peritoneum folded upon itself extending from the organ to the abdominal wall

This is a peritoneum folded upon itself extending from the organ to the abdominal wall

Blood supply of the GIT Branches of the celiac trunk Left gastric artery Hepatic artery Superior mesenteric artery

Branches of the celiac trunk

Left gastric artery

Hepatic artery

Superior mesenteric artery

Accessory organs Pancreas A pistol-shaped organ both an endocrine and exocrine gland Parts: head, body and tail Ducts: major is Wirsung, minor is Santorini

Pancreas

A pistol-shaped organ both an endocrine and exocrine gland

Parts: head, body and tail

Ducts: major is Wirsung, minor is Santorini

 

Accessory organ Liver Largest internal organ Located on the right upper quadrant With right and left lobes Functions to secrete bile

Liver

Largest internal organ

Located on the right upper quadrant

With right and left lobes

Functions to secrete bile

Liver physiology and Pathophysiology = Gynecomastia, testes atrophy 8. Metabolizes estrogen =Deficiencies of Vit and min 7. Stores Vitamims and minerals =Hyper-ammonemia 6. Converts ammonia to urea = Jaundice and pruritus 5. Secreting bile = Bleeding tendencies 4. Synthesizes Clotting factors =Decreased Antibody formation  risk for INFECTION 3. Synthesizes globulins = Hypo-proteinemia 2. Synthesizes proteins = Hypoglycemia 1. Stores glycogen Abnormality in function Normal Function

 

Accessory organ Gallbladder Pear-shaped organ on the right upper quadrant below the liver Parts: fundus, body and neck Functions to store and concentrate bile

Gallbladder

Pear-shaped organ on the right upper quadrant below the liver

Parts: fundus, body and neck

Functions to store and concentrate bile

 

PHYSIOLOGY OF THE GIT

PHYSIOLOGY OF THE GIT

Movement Mouth Chewing or mastication

Mouth

Chewing or mastication

Secretions Mouth Salivary secretions- salivary amylase or ptyalin begins the digestion of carbohydrates

Mouth

Salivary secretions- salivary amylase or ptyalin begins the digestion of carbohydrates

Movements Mouth and esophagus: Deglutition 1. Voluntary phase- food bolus is pushed by tongue to the pharynx 2. Pharyngeal phase- reflex action 3. Esophageal phase- peristaltic waves moves the food towards the stomach

Mouth and esophagus: Deglutition

1. Voluntary phase- food bolus is pushed by tongue to the pharynx

2. Pharyngeal phase- reflex action

3. Esophageal phase- peristaltic waves moves the food towards the stomach

Stomach movement Mixing waves Peristaltic movements

Mixing waves

Peristaltic movements

Fig. 16.12

Secretions Stomach 1. Mucus- by the mucus cells for mucosal protection 2. HCL from parietal cells 3. Pepsinogen from chief cells 4. Intrinsic factor from parietal cells 5. Gastrin =a hormone from the antral G cells

Stomach

1. Mucus- by the mucus cells for mucosal protection

2. HCL from parietal cells

3. Pepsinogen from chief cells

4. Intrinsic factor from parietal cells

5. Gastrin =a hormone from the antral G cells

Secretions Stomach Digestion for lipids: Gastric lipase Digestion for proteins: Pepsin No enyme for carbohydrates

Stomach

Digestion for lipids:

Gastric lipase

Digestion for proteins:

Pepsin

No enyme for carbohydrates

Regulation of stomach secretions 1. Cephalic phase- stomach secretions are initiated by the sight, smell, thought and taste of food

1. Cephalic phase- stomach secretions are initiated by the sight, smell, thought and taste of food

Regulation of stomach secretions 2. Gastric phase- secretions are produced upon stomach distention

2. Gastric phase- secretions are produced upon stomach distention

Regulation of stomach secretions 3. Intestinal phase- acidic chyme from the stomach passes into the duodenum causing inhibition of gastric secretions

3. Intestinal phase- acidic chyme from the stomach passes into the duodenum causing inhibition of gastric secretions

Small intestine: movement 1. Segmental contraction mixes food occurring over short distance 2. Peristalsis propels food all throughout the entire intestine

1. Segmental contraction mixes food occurring over short distance

2. Peristalsis propels food all throughout the entire intestine

Fig. 16.9

Small intestine: secretions 1. Intestinal lipase for lipids 2. Dissacharidases from the intestinal cells that complete the digestion of carbohydrates 3. Peptidases from the intestinal cells complete the digestion of proteins

1. Intestinal lipase for lipids

2. Dissacharidases from the intestinal cells that complete the digestion of carbohydrates

3. Peptidases from the intestinal cells complete the digestion of proteins

Fig. 16.22

 

Large Intestine: secretion and movement Mucus for mucosal protection Mass movement- short peristaltic movement

Mucus for mucosal protection

Mass movement- short peristaltic movement

Large Intestine: secretion and movement Defecation reflex- moves the feces to the internal anal sphincter, mediated by the parasympathetic nerves Distention causes the reflex

Defecation reflex- moves the feces to the internal anal sphincter, mediated by the parasympathetic nerves

Distention causes the reflex

Liver secretion Bile- aids in emulsifying the fats

Bile- aids in emulsifying the fats

Pancreatic secretions 1. Bicarbonate- to neutralize the acidic chyme from the stomach 2. Pancreatic amylase- for carbohydrate digestion

1. Bicarbonate- to neutralize the acidic chyme from the stomach

2. Pancreatic amylase- for carbohydrate digestion

Pancreatic secretions 3. Pancreatic lipase- for fat digestion 4. Trypsin and chymotrypsin- for protein digestion

3. Pancreatic lipase- for fat digestion

4. Trypsin and chymotrypsin- for protein digestion

End of GIT

End of GIT

THE URINARY SYTEM The excretory system consisting of the kidney, ureters, urinary bladder and urethra

The excretory system consisting of the kidney, ureters, urinary bladder and urethra

 

Major functions Eliminates wastes Controls blood and fluid volume Regulates acid-base balance Regulates RBC production by erythropoietin

Eliminates wastes

Controls blood and fluid volume

Regulates acid-base balance

Regulates RBC production by erythropoietin

The Kidney Retroperitoneal organ surrounded by capsule and fats Right is lower than the left The substance is composed of renal cortex ( where nephrons are located) and renal medulla ( where collecting ducts are found)

Retroperitoneal organ surrounded by capsule and fats

Right is lower than the left

The substance is composed of renal cortex ( where nephrons are located) and renal medulla ( where collecting ducts are found)

 

The Nephron Functional unit of the kidney that produces urine by filtration Composed of Efferent arteriole Glomerulus Afferent arteriole Bowman’s capsule Convoluted tubules- proximal, loop of Henle and distal

Functional unit of the kidney that produces urine by filtration

Composed of

Efferent arteriole

Glomerulus

Afferent arteriole

Bowman’s capsule

Convoluted tubules- proximal, loop of Henle and distal

 

Special cells in the nephron Juxtaglomerular cells- secrete renin and erythropoietin Podocytes

Juxtaglomerular cells- secrete renin and erythropoietin

Podocytes

Blood supply of the kidney Renal artery- branch of the abdominal aorta Renal vein- drains into the inferior venal cava

Renal artery- branch of the abdominal aorta

Renal vein- drains into the inferior venal cava

Renal pelvis Funnel-shaped expanded portion of the ureter Formed by the calyces Collects urine from the kidney

Funnel-shaped expanded portion of the ureter

Formed by the calyces

Collects urine from the kidney

The Ureter Left and right A long slender tube that propels urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder With smooth muscles and transitional epithelium With innervations from the sympathetic and parasympathetic

Left and right

A long slender tube that propels urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder

With smooth muscles and transitional epithelium

With innervations from the sympathetic and parasympathetic

 

The urinary bladder Hollow pyramid shaped organ located in the pelvis Lined with transitional epithelium With thick detrusor muscles Micturition reflex resulting from the distension of the organ Impulses are transmitted to the sacral parasympathetic segments to initiate urination

Hollow pyramid shaped organ located in the pelvis

Lined with transitional epithelium

With thick detrusor muscles

Micturition reflex resulting from the distension of the organ

Impulses are transmitted to the sacral parasympathetic segments to initiate urination

Fig. 18.17

Urethra Tube extending from the urinary bladder to the external urethral orifice 1 ½ inches in females 3 parts in Males 1. Prostatic urethra- most dilatable 2. Membranous urethra- least dilatable and shortest 3. Penile urethra- longest

Tube extending from the urinary bladder to the external urethral orifice

1 ½ inches in females

3 parts in Males

1. Prostatic urethra- most dilatable

2. Membranous urethra- least dilatable and shortest

3. Penile urethra- longest

 

Renal Physiology Urine formation 1. Urinary blood flow 2. Glomerular filtration 3. Tubular reabsorption 4. tubular secretion

Urine formation

1. Urinary blood flow

2. Glomerular filtration

3. Tubular reabsorption

4. tubular secretion

 

 

 

Fig. 18.12

Fig. 18.13

Fig. 18.14

End of renal

End of renal

The MALE Reproductive system Made up of organs, ducts and glands whose function is to produce spermatozoa and androgens

Made up of organs, ducts and glands whose function is to produce spermatozoa and androgens

Internal Male reproductive organs 1. Testes 2. Ducts- epididymis, vas deferens and ejacularoty duct 3. Glands- prostate and Cowper’s 4. Seminal vesicle

1. Testes

2. Ducts- epididymis, vas deferens and ejacularoty duct

3. Glands- prostate and Cowper’s

4. Seminal vesicle

The testes Male gonad housed in the scrotum Divided into lobules containing tubules and cells Sperm cells are produced in the seminiferous tubules Leydig cells secrete testosterone

Male gonad housed in the scrotum

Divided into lobules containing tubules and cells

Sperm cells are produced in the seminiferous tubules

Leydig cells secrete testosterone

Spermatogenesis Begins during puberty Occurs in the seminiferous tubules Spermatogonia divides by MITOSIS into primary spermatocytes Primary spermatocytes divide by MEOSIS to produce secondary spermatocytes

Begins during puberty

Occurs in the seminiferous tubules

Spermatogonia divides by MITOSIS into primary spermatocytes

Primary spermatocytes divide by MEOSIS to produce secondary spermatocytes

 

Spermiogenesis Maturation of sperm cells Secondary spermatocytes become spermatids and go to the epididymis for maturation into spermatozoa

Maturation of sperm cells

Secondary spermatocytes become spermatids and go to the epididymis for maturation into spermatozoa

Ducts 1. Epididymis- coiled tube 2. Vas deferens- long tube from the epididymis to the seminal vesicle 3. Ejaculatory duct- formed by the union of the vas deferens and the duct of the seminal vesicle

1. Epididymis- coiled tube

2. Vas deferens- long tube from the epididymis to the seminal vesicle

3. Ejaculatory duct- formed by the union of the vas deferens and the duct of the seminal vesicle

Glands 1. Prostate gland- glandular and muscular tissue produces likely, slightly acidic fluid and contributes 20% of the semen 2. Seminal Vesicle- convoluted pouch, secretes alkaline fluid and fructose contributing to the bulk of the semen 3. Cowper’s glands- secrete mucus for lubrication

1. Prostate gland- glandular and muscular tissue produces likely, slightly acidic fluid and contributes 20% of the semen

2. Seminal Vesicle- convoluted pouch, secretes alkaline fluid and fructose contributing to the bulk of the semen

3. Cowper’s glands- secrete mucus for lubrication

Fig. 19.5a

External genitalia 1. Scrotum- two chambered sac contains the testes 2. Penis- erectile tissue consists of two corpora cavernosa and one corpora spongiosa With 3 parts- bulb, shaft and glans

1. Scrotum- two chambered sac contains the testes

2. Penis- erectile tissue consists of two corpora cavernosa and one corpora spongiosa

With 3 parts- bulb, shaft and glans

The semen Mixture of glandular secretions from the prostate and seminal vesicle and spermatozoa from the testes Volume: 2.5-5 ml Sperm count- 50-150 million per ml

Mixture of glandular secretions from the prostate and seminal vesicle and spermatozoa from the testes

Volume: 2.5-5 ml

Sperm count- 50-150 million per ml

SEMEN: Is a thick whitish fluid ejaculated by the male during orgasm, contains spermatozoa and fructose-rich nutrients. During ejaculation, semen receives contributions of fluid from Prostate gland Seminal vesicle Epididymis Bulbourethral gland Average pH = 7.5 The average amount of semen released during ejaculation is 2.5 -5 ml. It can live with in the female genital tract for about 24 to 72 hours. (60-200 million/ml of ejaculation ave. of 400 million/ ejaculation ) 90 seconds- cervix 5 minutes.- end of fallopian tube

SEMEN:

Is a thick whitish fluid ejaculated by the male during orgasm, contains spermatozoa and fructose-rich nutrients.

During ejaculation, semen receives contributions of fluid from

Prostate gland

Seminal vesicle

Epididymis

Bulbourethral gland

Average pH = 7.5

The average amount of semen released during ejaculation is 2.5 -5 ml. It can live with in the female genital tract for about 24 to 72 hours.

(60-200 million/ml of ejaculation ave. of 400 million/ ejaculation )

90 seconds- cervix

5 minutes.- end of fallopian tube

THE FEMALE reproductive system Group of organs with the function of production of ovum and sex hormones

Group of organs with the function of production of ovum and sex hormones

Parts of the reproductive system EXTERNAL (vulva) 1. Mons pubis 2. Labia majora 3. Labia majora 4. Clitoris 5. Hymen 6. Vestibule 7. Pudendal cleft INTERNAL 1. Ovary 2. Fallopian tubes 3. Uterus 4. Vaginal canal

EXTERNAL (vulva)

1. Mons pubis

2. Labia majora

3. Labia majora

4. Clitoris

5. Hymen

6. Vestibule

7. Pudendal cleft

INTERNAL

1. Ovary

2. Fallopian tubes

3. Uterus

4. Vaginal canal

The Internal organs OVARY Firm almond shaped organ covered by the peritoneum Two parts: cortex and medulla CORTEX- follicles are found Medulla- connective tissue

OVARY

Firm almond shaped organ covered by the peritoneum

Two parts: cortex and medulla

CORTEX- follicles are found

Medulla- connective tissue

The internal organs Fallopian tubes Bilateral ducts extends laterally from the uterus 4 parts 1. Infundibulum- funnel shape, with fimbriae 2. Ampulla- widest part; usual site of FERTILIZATION 3. Isthmus- narrowest part 4. Interstitial or Intramural- embedded in the uterine wall FUNCTION: Transport of ovum

Fallopian tubes

Bilateral ducts extends laterally from the uterus

4 parts

1. Infundibulum- funnel shape, with fimbriae

2. Ampulla- widest part; usual site of FERTILIZATION

3. Isthmus- narrowest part

4. Interstitial or Intramural- embedded in the uterine wall

FUNCTION: Transport of ovum

Fig. 20.2

 

The Uterus Pear-shaped organ with a cavity 3 main parts 1. Fundus- upper dome-shape part 2. Corpus or Body- broad part 3. Cervix- narrow lower part Isthmus- junction between the body and the cervix POSITION: Anteverted and Anteflexed

Pear-shaped organ with a cavity

3 main parts

1. Fundus- upper dome-shape part

2. Corpus or Body- broad part

3. Cervix- narrow lower part

Isthmus- junction between the body and the cervix

POSITION: Anteverted and Anteflexed

 

The Uterus The uterine wall is made up of three layers 1. Epimetrium- superficial part surrounded by the perimetrium 2. Myometrium- thickest muscular part 3. Endometrium- inner layer FUNCTION: Fetal development in pregnancy

The uterine wall is made up of three layers

1. Epimetrium- superficial part surrounded by the perimetrium

2. Myometrium- thickest muscular part

3. Endometrium- inner layer

FUNCTION: Fetal development in pregnancy

The endometrium 3 layers of the endometrium 1. Stratum Functionale Stratum compactum Stratum spongiosum 2. Stratum basale or germinativum

3 layers of the endometrium

1. Stratum Functionale

Stratum compactum

Stratum spongiosum

2. Stratum basale or germinativum

Uterine ligaments Broad ligament Round ligament Cardinal ligament Utero-sacral ligament

Broad ligament

Round ligament

Cardinal ligament

Utero-sacral ligament

Fig. 19.8

Vaginal canal Connects the cervix to the vestibule Fibromuscular canal lined with mucus and covered with hymen The remnant of hymen is called CARUNCULAE MYRTIFORMIS Function: organ of copulation and passageway of baby

Connects the cervix to the vestibule

Fibromuscular canal lined with mucus and covered with hymen

The remnant of hymen is called CARUNCULAE MYRTIFORMIS

Function: organ of copulation and passageway of baby

 

External genitalia 1. Vestibule- space between the labia minora 2. Pudendal cleft- space between the labia majora 3. Clitoris- erectile tissue, homologue of penis

1. Vestibule- space between the labia minora

2. Pudendal cleft- space between the labia majora

3. Clitoris- erectile tissue, homologue of penis

External genitalia 4. Labia majora- thick fold of skin, homologue of scrotum 5. Labia Minora- thin fold of skin devoid of hairs 6. Mons pubis/veneris- elevated area above the labia

4. Labia majora- thick fold of skin, homologue of scrotum

5. Labia Minora- thin fold of skin devoid of hairs

6. Mons pubis/veneris- elevated area above the labia

Mammary gland Modified sweat gland Consists of glandular and adipose tissue Estrogen  for breast development Progesterone  for lobular development Prolactin  for milk production Oxytocin  for milk “let down”

Modified sweat gland

Consists of glandular and adipose tissue

Estrogen  for breast development

Progesterone  for lobular development

Prolactin  for milk production

Oxytocin  for milk “let down”

 

PHYSIOLOGY of female reproduction 1. Puberty 2. Menstruation 3. Menopause

1. Puberty

2. Menstruation

3. Menopause

Puberty Begins with the onset of the first menstruation= MENARCHE GnRH (from hypothalamus) Gonadotrophins (LH and FSH from the ant pit) levels are increased Tanner- states that the initial sign of puberty in girls is breast development

Begins with the onset of the first menstruation= MENARCHE

GnRH (from hypothalamus) Gonadotrophins (LH and FSH from the ant pit) levels are increased

Tanner- states that the initial sign of puberty in girls is breast development

Fig. 19.11

Menstrual cycle Cyclical changes in the uterus controlled by hormones Duration: 24-35 days Changes in the 3 systems/organs: 1. Uterus  uterine cycle 2. Ovary  ovarian cycle 3. Hormone  hormonal cycle

Cyclical changes in the uterus controlled by hormones

Duration: 24-35 days

Changes in the 3 systems/organs:

1. Uterus  uterine cycle

2. Ovary  ovarian cycle

3. Hormone  hormonal cycle

MENSTRUATION: Menstrual cycle/ female reproductive cycle- monthly discharge of blood from the uterus occurring form puberty to menopause wherein about 30-80 cc (60 cc ave.) of blood, epithelial cells and mucus are being discharged

MENSTRUATION:

Menstrual cycle/ female reproductive cycle- monthly discharge of blood from the uterus occurring form puberty to menopause wherein about 30-80 cc (60 cc ave.) of blood, epithelial cells and mucus are being discharged

Maturation of Oocytes: first formed in utero - 5 to7 million; first 5 months in utero - 2 million immature oocytes per ovary at birth - 2 million in BOTH ovaries 7 yrs of age only - 500,000/ovary 22y/o only - 300,000/ovary Reproductive age only - 300–400 oocytes Menopause - none

Maturation of Oocytes:

first formed in utero - 5 to7 million;

first 5 months in utero - 2 million immature oocytes per ovary

at birth - 2 million in BOTH ovaries

7 yrs of age only - 500,000/ovary

22y/o only - 300,000/ovary

Reproductive age only - 300–400 oocytes

Menopause - none

 

Fig. 19.14

The uterine cycle Consists of 3 phases Menstrual phase Proliferative phase Secretory phase

Consists of 3 phases

Menstrual phase

Proliferative phase

Secretory phase

OVARIAN cycle Consists of three phases 1. Pre-ovulatory : follicular phase 2. Ovulatory phase 3. Post-ovulatory : Luteal phase

 

Uterine Cycle: Menstrual phase Day 1- day 5 First day of bleeding is the first day of cycle Stratum functionale (compactum and spongiosum) is shed Around 60 ml average!

Day 1- day 5

First day of bleeding is the first day of cycle

Stratum functionale (compactum and spongiosum) is shed

Around 60 ml average!

Uterine cycle: proliferative Phase Day 5- day 14 Epithelial cells of functionale multiply and form glands Due to the influence of estrogen

Day 5- day 14

Epithelial cells of functionale multiply and form glands

Due to the influence of estrogen

Uterine cycle: Secretory phase Day 15- day 28 Endometrium becomes thicker and glands secrete nutrients Uterus is prepared for implantation Due to progesterone If no fertilization  constriction vessels  menstruation

Day 15- day 28

Endometrium becomes thicker and glands secrete nutrients

Uterus is prepared for implantation

Due to progesterone

If no fertilization  constriction vessels  menstruation

OVARIAN cycle Consists of three phases 1. Pre-ovulatory : follicular phase 2. Ovulatory phase 3. Post-ovulatory : Luteal phase

Consists of three phases

1. Pre-ovulatory : follicular phase

2. Ovulatory phase

3. Post-ovulatory : Luteal phase

Ovarian Cycle; preovulatory/follicular Variable in length: day 6- day 13 Dominant follicle matures and becomes graafian follicle with primary oocyte FSH increases initially then decreases because of estrogen increase

Variable in length: day 6- day 13

Dominant follicle matures and becomes graafian follicle with primary oocyte

FSH increases initially then decreases because of estrogen increase

Ovarian cycle: Ovulatory phase Day 14 Rupture of the graafian follicle releasing the secondary oocyte Due to the LH surge MITTELSCHMERZ- pain during rupture of follicle

Day 14

Rupture of the graafian follicle releasing the secondary oocyte

Due to the LH surge

MITTELSCHMERZ- pain during rupture of follicle

OVARIAN cycle: Post-ovulatory: luteal phase Day 15- day 28 MOST CONSTANT 14 days after ovulation Corpus luteum secretes Progesterone If no fertilization, corpus luteum will become corpus albicans then degenerate Decreased estrogen and progesterone

Day 15- day 28

MOST CONSTANT 14 days after ovulation

Corpus luteum secretes Progesterone

If no fertilization, corpus luteum will become corpus albicans then degenerate

Decreased estrogen and progesterone

Hormonal cycle 1. Menstrual phase Decreased Estrogen, decreased progesterone, decreased FSH and decreased LH 2. Proliferative/ Pre-ovulatory phase Increased FSH and Estrogen in small amounts

1. Menstrual phase

Decreased Estrogen, decreased progesterone, decreased FSH and decreased LH

2. Proliferative/ Pre-ovulatory phase

Increased FSH and Estrogen in small amounts

Hormonal cycle 3. Ovulatory phase Increased FSH, Increased LH (surge) Increased Estrogen 4. Post ovulatory/luteal Phase Increased Estrogen, increased progesterone, decreased FSH and LH

3. Ovulatory phase

Increased FSH, Increased LH (surge) Increased Estrogen

4. Post ovulatory/luteal Phase

Increased Estrogen, increased progesterone, decreased FSH and LH

 

MENOPAUSE Cessation of menstruation for at least one year occurring at the age of 45-52 Decreased estrogen and progesterone Increased FSH

Cessation of menstruation for at least one year occurring at the age of 45-52

Decreased estrogen and progesterone

Increased FSH

End of reproductive

End of reproductive

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Royal Canin Veterinary Diet Katze Diätfutter

Royal Canin Gastro Intestinal Katze. ab 1,20 € * 12,00 €/1 kg ... Royal Canin Urinary S/O High Dilution Katze. ab 6,30 € * 15,75 €/1 kg
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Problems of differential diagnosis in diseases of the ...

Problems of Differential Diagnosis in Diseases of the Gastro-lntestinal and ... teristic of those of both the gastro-intestinal and genito- urinary systems.
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Royal Canin Veterinary Diet I Katzen-Spezialfutter I ...

Royal Canin Gastro Intestinal Katze. Bei Magen-Darm-Erkrankungen. € 6,50. ... Royal Canin Urinary S/O High Dilution Katze. Harnsteinerkrankungen. € 18,50.
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Kidney, Urinary and Gastro Intestinal -Community ...

Kidney, Urinary and Gastro Intestinal. Join community. Chronic Kidney Condition, Incontinence and other Urinary conditions coming soon. Gastro Intestinal ...
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Anatomy and Physiology of Gastrointestinal System Tutorial

Return to The Virtual Autopsy menu screen · Return to Anatomy & Physiology front page · Anatomy & Physiology of Heart and Coronary Vessels · Anatomy ...
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