Published on March 6, 2014
Installation Guidance : LPG (Autogas) Refueling Stations Gas Technology Institute March 2014
Objectives A. LPG Fuel B. Fueling Basics C. Codes and Standards D. Station Basics E. Equipment Location F. Electrical Hazardous Area Classification G. Station Installation H. Fire Protection 2
LPG Fuel o LPG or Propane has the chemical formula C3H8 o Propane is produced when natural gas is processed and crude oil is refined. o It is nontoxic, colorless, and odorless (odorant is typically added for detection) o At atmospheric pressure and ambient temperatures Propane exists in a vapor form o Like gasoline or diesel, Propane gas is heavier than air o Propane is a NFPA Class IA flammable liquid 3
Fueling Basics oThe service pressure of a propane fuel system is at least 240 psig. At this pressure the LPG will stay a liquid at temperatures of 120° F or less o By code, LPG fuel tanks are only allowed to be filled to roughly 80% of volume o Fueling is either stopped by a auto stop fill valve installed in the fuel system or manually stopped by operator by observing level gauge and bleed valve vent 4
Codes and Standards Accepted Codes: oNFPA 58: Liquefied Petroleum Gas Code 2011 oNFPA 70: National Electric Code (NEC) 2011: Article 500: Hazardous (Classified) Locations, Article 501: Class 1 Div.1 & 2 Hazardous Locations oNFPA 30A: Code for Motor Fuel Dispensing Facilities and Repair Garages 2012 (Addresses additional requirements when LPG fueling is added to an existing liquid petroleum fuel station) oInternational Fire Code (IFC): Chap 22 is not recognized in Wisconsin 5
Station Basics o ASME Storage Tank: Rated Design Pressures per NFPA 58: 220.127.116.11 o Pump, Metering Devices, and Dispensers (Listed): Rated for Hazardous Locations o Card Reader System or Fuel Management System to authorize transactions 6
Station Basics 7
Station Basics 8
Equipment Location NFPA 58 Chapter 6 & NFPA 30A Chapter 12 address equipment placement and set backs o Pumps, Storage, and Dispensing Equipment are addressed o Location, either indoors (NFPA 58 Chap10 applies) and outdoors, of the equipment matters o In some instances a combination of both codes will give guides on final equipment placement e.g. tank separation (from other aboveground fuel tanks & dispenser) 9
Equipment Location 10
Electrical Hazardous Area Location NFPA 58 & NFPA 30A establish electrical area classification for outdoor stationary Propane fueling stations o Pressure Relief Points, aboveground storage tanks, remote mounted pumps, dispensers, and points of transfer are discussed in Chapter 6 of NFPA 58 Electrical Conduits and Wiring must be installed per approved methods indicated in NEC for classified areas 11
Electrical Hazardous Area Location 12
Station Installation - Aboveground Tanks o Aboveground horizontal ASME tanks are supported by structural steel saddles and slotted and designed to allow for expansion and contraction o Horizontal ASME tanks are required to be installed on masonry or other noncombustible supports located on concrete or masonry foundations o For containers 2000 gal. or less the pump can be mounted on a common base assuming bottom of container meets dimensions o Tanks are to be physically protected 13
Station Installation - Piping o Piping sizes range from ¾” to 2” depending on dispenser design o Metallic piping and fittings are to be fabricated, installed, and tested per ASME B31.3, Process Piping Code o Pressure Ratings defined in NFPA 58: 18.104.22.168 oMetallic pipe joints are permitted to be threaded, flanged, welded, or brazed 14
Station Installation - Piping oPiping systems should be routed in a practical manner from point to point oMinimum cover depth is 12”, this is increased to 18” if there is potential for external damage oBuried metal pipe must be protected against corrosion 15
Station Installation - Dispenser oThe dispenser should be a listed device NFPA 30A: 6.3.2 oDispenser installed under a canopy, the area shall be ventilated and have at least 50% of perimeter open to outdoors oProtection against trespassing and tampering should be installed oDispenser should be installed on a concrete foundation or apart of a complete storage and dispensing unit mounted on the same base 16
Station Installation- Dispenser Cont. o Hose length is not to exceed 18 ft., listed, and protected from damage if not used o Listed breakaway device per ANSI/UL 567 o Identified and accessible switch or circuit breaker should be installed within 20 -100 ft. of dispenser. Markings for the switch should be made visible at point of transfer 17
Station Installation- Misc. o An excess flow valve or differential back pressure valve should be installed where LPG hose is connected to liquid piping o Hydrostatic relief valves installed between isolating shutoff valves o The LPG tank opening should be equipped with either 1) internal valve fitted for remote closure and automatic shutoff using thermal actuation or 2) a positive shutoff valve located as close to the tank as possible in conjunction with an excess flow valve and a remotely actuated emergency shutoff valve 18
Station Installation- Misc. o An emergency shutoff device (switch, button, lever, etc.) shall be required within 3 -100 ft. from the liquid transfer point o Actuated emergency shutoff and internal valves should be tested annually o Manual shutoff valve and excess flow valve shall be located in liquid line between pump and dispenser when dispenser is remote to pump/storage location o Typically safety devices/features are included in the equipment and/or station design 19
Station Installation- Shutdown and Safety Device Schematic 20
Fire Protection o Fire Protection is required for installations with an aggregate water capacity greater than 4000 gal. o If required, a Fire Safety Analysis shall be submitted to the AHJ by owner operator of the station. o NFPA publishes the “Fire Safety Analysis Manual for LPGas Storage Facilities” providing guidance in completing an analysis in conjunction with NFPA 58 requirements. 21
References o AFDC’s Propane Fuels and Vehicles sections (www.afdc. energy.gov) o Local Clean Cities coordinator (www.cleancities.energy. gov) o Propane Education & Research Council (www.autogasusa.org ; www.propanecouncil.org) o National Propane Gas Association (www.npga.org) 22
Acknowledgement of Support 23
Questions? Thank you for your time. 24
Autogas 101 J. Sells – Director Autogas – 904-545-9743 firstname.lastname@example.org David Rigney – National Account Manager (West-South) – 386-299-9442 email@example.com Chris Ransom – National Account Manager (East-Central) – 231-638-3184 firstname.lastname@example.org
Propane Autogas • Clean burning • Readily available • Most widely used alternative motor fuel in the world • 3rd most commonly used motor fuel • Powers approx 270,000 vehicles in the US • Only alternative fuel with existing fueling stations in every state
DOMESTICALLY PRODUCED Around 97% of propane autogas is produced here in the U.S., reducing our dependence on foreign oil and increasing American energy security.
Propane Autogas Pricing • Relative to Gasoline/Diesel • 9/24/2013 – LPG $1.89, Gasoline Reg. unleaded $3.59, Diesel $4.10 • Relative to Propane for home, commercial, cylinder gas applications • –Priced differently • –Awareness of retailer pricing propane as autogas vs. cylinder gas • Winter Spike – supply and demand • Limited # of distributors in market • Propane Autogas priced with excise taxes • Currently $.50 per gallon tax credit
Propane Autogas Refueling Infrastructure
Fleet Users •Autogas station installed on-site at fleet base •Spill-free dispenser with familiar design •Fully scalable to serve fleets of all sizes •Works well with fuel management systems •All necessary training for fleet personnel •Installation time –as fast as 1-2 days Example: 1,000 gallon tank/pump/meter/hose/nozzle/cabinet 30,000 gallon tank, pump, dispenser, systems integration Infrastructure installation requires fuel consumption (difficult to consider installing infrastructure for a fleet with only a few vehicles)
Electronic Autogas Refueling Station
Infrastructure Cost Factors • • • • • • • • • Tank and support costs Lines and installation Pump Dispensing mechanism o Basic electronic to full service including software integration, card readers, fuel management, printers, etc. Electrical Supply –single phase or three phase current Impact Protection Cost of autogas refueling infrastructure is significantly lower than other alternatives Mobile – easily relocated Refueling stations may be installed at no cost in exchange for a fuel contract
Support/ Maintenance • Provide regular interval training and system inspections • Minimal Response Time • • Alternative Fueling Options –Mobile Refueling –Retailers –Dual Fuel Systems Minimal to zero lost time
Vehicle Conversions • Bi-Fuel Conversions systems –EPA Emissions Certifications – time/cost –Cost effective – rapid ROI for certain vehicles ($5500-$7200) –Operating Range significantly increased –Transferable to other certified engines –Warranty –Technology advancements vs. consumer beliefs
Vehicle Conversions OEM/Dedicated –EPA Emissions Certifications –Cost difference – ($10,000-$12,000) –Factory Warranty –Limited Manufacturers in the market currently – number is growing –Dedicated Fuel – requires home base fueling in many circumstances
Vehicle Maintenance • Increased time between maintenance intervals • No modification required to shops • Efficient training/certification process for maintenance and refueling
Safety Myths regarding propane vehicles vs. other fueled vehicles –Storage tanks –Emergency valves –Risk of ignition compared to gasoline
Public Refueling • AFDC website is an excellent source for propane motor fuel stations • Public Stations with appropriate pricing is limited but growing • Reminder – awareness of how retailer is pricing propane autogas • Current Code Limitations
Consumer Education and Awareness • Need Increased vehicles on the road • Inform consumers regarding safety • Educate consumers on the economics • Educate consumers on the benefits to US
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