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Published on January 18, 2008

Author: Candelora


Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat and the CALIPSO Project Material by Barry Voight and Glen Mattioli Presented by M. Garces:  NSF Infrasound Workshop, July 24-25, 2003, Waikoloa, Hawaii Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat and the CALIPSO Project Material by Barry Voight and Glen Mattioli Presented by M. Garces Montserrat:  Montserrat Soufriere Hills, Montserrat, West Indies , Lesser Antilles volcanic arc Location: 16.7N, 62.2W, Elevation: 3,002 feet (915 m) Dome collapse on July 12-13, 2003:  Dome collapse on July 12-13, 2003 In the early hours of Sunday morning (July 12/13th) there was a major dome collapse at the Soufrière Hills Volcano Montserrat. This was the largest event to date in the 8 year volcano crisis and was 1.5 times larger than the previous collapse of July 29th 2001. Mattioli: “the dome collapsed on july 12th culminating in a sub-plinian to plinian eruption, which dumped 12 cm of ash @ 6.5 km from the dome (where i was staying). the next morning we had a vulcanian explosion that dumped 6.5 cm pumice at the same location” The seismograph network recorded 58 rockfall signals, 3 long-period rockfalls, 24 long-period earthquakes, 84 hybrid earthquakes, 1 volcano-tectonic earthquake and 3 explosions signals. A complex mixture of signals was captured during the collapse event. The Soufrière Hills Volcano on the Caribbean island of Montserrat began erupting in 1995.The activity of the volcano is monitored by the Montserrat Volcano Observatory, which has been managed by the BGS under contract to the UK Department for International Development (DFID). Montserrat PF’s:  Montserrat PF’s February 2003 View towards west Montserrat Risk Map:  Montserrat Risk Map Small island, forested on the tips away from the dome The CALIPSO Project: Caribbean Andesite Lava Island Precision-Geodetic Seismic Observatory:  The CALIPSO Project: Caribbean Andesite Lava Island Precision-Geodetic Seismic Observatory Principal Investigators: Penn StateUniv.: Barry Voight and Derek Elsworth Univ. of Arkansas: Glen Mattioli Carnegie Inst.: Alan Linde and Selwyn Sacks Duke Univ.: Peter Malin and Eylon Shalev Non-US partners: Bristol Univ.: Steve Sparks Montserrat Volcano Observatory $1.8 M in funding from NSF-EAR Continental Dynamics and Instrumentation and Facilities Programs plus $190 K from U.K. NERC CALIPSO Sites:  CALIPSO Sites AIR Studios[AIR], Olveston [OLVS], Geralds [GRLD], Trants [TRNT] have borehole strainmeters, 3 component seismometers, tiltmeter, and GPS. AIR also has a 3-comp surface broadband (Guralp) and Bruel & Kjaer 4193 microphone (12 mV/Pa, 70 mHz to 20 kHz). A similar system was installed at TRANTS but it was near the shore and too noisy with breaking waves, so it was reinstalled at HARRIS. AIR and HARRIS were operational during the recent lava dome collapse and explosions on 12-14 July, but the data have not been retrieved CALIPSO Sites:  CALIPSO Sites Microphones and broadband seismometers at AIRS and HARR 2 extra channels at AIRS and HARR Need sensors, cables, and wind filters! Slide9:  CALIPSO Borehole Observatory Sacks-Evertson single component dilatometer (10-9 strain) Nearly broadband 3 component seismometer (~2 Hz to 1 kHz) Pinnacle Systems short-baseline electronic tiltmeter Ashtech µ-Z code-phase CGPS w/ choke ring antenna Slide10:  Grouting in strainmeter at Air Studios - Jan. 03 Slide11:  Temporary data acquisition started at each site upon BH completion using IRIS-PASSCAL Refteks with on-site download every month Slide12:  CALIPSO Instrument Package Schematic CALIPSO: Wind Speed at St Georges Hill :  CALIPSO: Wind Speed at St Georges Hill CALIPSO: Wind Direction at St Georges Hill :  CALIPSO: Wind Direction at St Georges Hill CALIPSO Architecture:  CALIPSO Architecture CALIPSO: Summary of activity :  CALIPSO: Summary of activity Besides the info previously sent there is a seismic net operated by MVO, with 5 3-comp BBs and 3 other short period V-comp stations. The seismic events (Miller et al GRL 1998 v 25) include VT (rock fracture) earthquakes, not now so common, long period events (dominantly1-2 Hz), rockfalls/pyroclastic flows with several subclasses (>2-8Hz; 2-8 Hz plus component1-2Hz; and with precursory 1-2Hz energy starting before rockfall). The LPs are sometimes subdivided into so-called 'hybrid' events, and low-frequency events (shallower), although there appears to be a continuum between events so classified. The LP seismicity has ben interpreted to result from resonance of interface waves at the walls of a fluid-filled conduit, with the trigger poorly understood. Preliminary acoustic data suggest that acoustics could help to understand some aspects of the process. For example a Setra 276 pressure transducer was in operation for limited times. The next figure shows a delay between start of rockfall seismic signal and pressure pulse is >10 sec, and with the dome and sensor ~2km apart, the acoustic wave could arrive in <6sec. So although the two are linked, the seismic signal is not gas-venting at the surface. Up to now no pressure sensor has been employed when long-period rockfalls were being recorded, so the relative timing of the LP phase and gas release is unknown, and it is not known whether the seismic disturbance or gas release starts the rockfall. Further acoustic work could shed light on rockfall triggering dynamics. Similar work could be performed on explosion seismic signals, related to Vulcanian explosions (as occurred a few weeks ago). Likewise, the path of pyroclastic flows could theoretically be tracked by acoustics, which is a useful potential method for hazards mitigation particularly when the volcano is in clouds, or at night. CALIPSO:  CALIPSO Seismic and acoustic records Slide18:  Photo of dome in Dec. 02 on a rare clear day. By July 2003 the dome had grown to >230 M m3 and had not collapsed significantly for 2 years!! July 2003 Dome Collapse:  July 12th, 2003 - Dome collapse begins at 9 AM AST By sunset, pyroclastic flows are getting more energetic and now routinely reach the sea at the Tar River delta. NB white is steam while gray is co-ignimbrite ash cloud. July 2003 Dome Collapse Slide20:  Trants Borehole Seismic and Strain Records for July 12th Sub-plinian to Plinian event at ~11 PM AST Although Trants site was impacted by ash during the culminating event of the July12th dome collapse, the CALIPSO BH instruments functioned throughout the eruption. Seismometer 200 Hz (8:03 PM to 12:13AM AST) Strainmeter 50 Hz (8:42 PM to 12:42AM AST) Slide21:  The morning after at Sea Dreams in Olveston, 12 cm of ash and 6.5 cm pumice fragments! Slide22:  First visit to Air Studios on July 14th - 12.5 cm of ash and 6 cm mud in crypt; NB infrasound microphone under ash, but CALIPSO was still up! Slide23:  CALIPSO Air Studios site after cleanup on July 14th

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