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Published on November 6, 2009

Author: CIWF

Source: slideshare.net

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ANIMAL WELFARE ASPECTS OF GOOD AGRICULTURAL PRACTICE PIG PRODUCTION

ANIMAL WELFARE ASPECTS OF GOOD AGRICULTURAL PRACTICE (GAP) pig production This presentation has been adapted for use on shareview Full version available free from ciwf.org/gap on DVD-ROM Full version includes embedded video clips and interactive animation DVD-ROM also includes film, book and lecturers’ notes GAP Pigs DVD-ROM

GOOD AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES: produce safe, healthy, high-quality food for consumers provide jobs with fair incomes for rural communities are socially and environmentally sustainable provide high standards of animal welfare This presentation will concentrate on animal welfare aspects

produce safe, healthy, high-quality food for consumers

provide jobs with fair incomes for rural communities

are socially and environmentally sustainable

provide high standards of animal welfare

ANIMAL WELFARE ASPECTS OF GOOD AGRICULTURAL PRACTICE PIG PRODUCTION Contents: Chapter 1 Natural behaviour and production systems - 4 Chapter 2 Space and foraging needs for dry sows - 19 Chapter 3 Avoiding aggression in dry sows - 35 Chapter 4 Space and nesting needs of farrowing sows - 50 Chapter 5 Avoiding teeth clipping in piglets - 70 Chapter 6 Avoiding castration in male piglets - 82 Chapter 7 Avoiding early weaning - 94 Chapter 8 Avoiding tail docking and tail biting - 106 Chapter 9 Good stockmanship - 122 Chapter 10 Summary - 144 To return to the contents list at any time, type 3 and press ENTER To jump to any slide in this presentation, type the number of the slide and press ENTER

Contents:

Chapter 1 Natural behaviour and production systems - 4

Chapter 2 Space and foraging needs for dry sows - 19

Chapter 3 Avoiding aggression in dry sows - 35

Chapter 4 Space and nesting needs of farrowing sows - 50

Chapter 5 Avoiding teeth clipping in piglets - 70

Chapter 6 Avoiding castration in male piglets - 82

Chapter 7 Avoiding early weaning - 94

Chapter 8 Avoiding tail docking and tail biting - 106

Chapter 9 Good stockmanship - 122

Chapter 10 Summary - 144

Worldwide, 1.1 billion pigs are raised for meat each year CHAPTER 1 natural behaviour & production systems

Pigs are descended from the wild boar ANCESTRY  Dale Arey/CIWF

ANCESTRY Some breeds have been developed for hot climates like these small black Iberian pigs Some breeds have been developed for cold climates like these hairy Mangalicas

ANCESTRY Some traditional breeds still closely resemble their wild boar ancestors like these Tamworth crosses Most pigs used in production are based on these Large White x Landrace crosses Pigs of all breeds have inherited most of the behaviours of the wild boar

SOCIAL BEHAVIOUR Pigs naturally live in social groups of 2-4 sows, often sisters or otherwise related, along with their offspring

MATERNAL CYCLE Nest away from group Return with piglets to group Suckle young Gradually wean  Dale Arey/CIWF  Marek Spinka  Fiona Chambers of Fernleigh Free-Range

ADAPTATION TO ENVIRONMENT Pigs have evolved to live in a complex environment

browsing grazing rooting  Marek Spinka  Marek Spinka FEEDING BEHAVIOUR Pigs have evolved a range of foraging strategies to live in that environment

DIURNAL BEHAVIOUR The day is divided between periods of foraging (for up to nine hours a day) and resting

 MAEP/CIWF THERMOREGULATORY BEHAVIOUR Huddling for warmth Wallowing for skin care and cooling Pigs mainly control their temperature through behaviour Shade Film of wallowing behaviour follows 

PLAY BEHAVIOUR Young pigs also use their environment for recreation

INTENSIVE PRODUCTION some intensive systems fail to satisfy behavioural needs of pigs Dry sows Farrowing sows Weaners Growing pigs Could these systems be modified to meet behavioural needs?

MODERN PRODUCTION SYSTEMS methods of providing behavioural needs of pigs Foraging Secluded nesting Comfortable rest Separation of dunging and lying areas

EXTENSIVE PRODUCTION SYSTEMS methods of providing behavioural needs of pigs Shelter Protection from predators Temperature control Posts for rubbing Film of post-rubbing behaviour follows 

NATURAL BEHAVIOUR AND PRODUCTION summary Pigs are descended from wild boar and have inherited most of their behavioural patterns Pigs live in social groups consisting of mothers and their young Pigs are adapted to complex environments that contain woodland and water Pig behaviour has developed to utilise the environment for food, water, shelter, resting, temperature control, skincare, dunging and recreation Intensive environments do not provide for these complex behaviours and give rise to many welfare problems Modern systems can be designed to meet the behavioural needs of pigs

Pigs are descended from wild boar and have inherited most of their behavioural patterns

Pigs live in social groups consisting of mothers and their young

Pigs are adapted to complex environments that contain woodland and water

Pig behaviour has developed to utilise the environment for food, water, shelter, resting, temperature control, skincare, dunging and recreation

Intensive environments do not provide for these complex behaviours and give rise to many welfare problems

Modern systems can be designed to meet the behavioural needs of pigs

CHAPTER 2 space and foraging needs for dry sows Diane Halverson / Animal Welfare Institute

Diane Halverson /

Animal Welfare Institute

PREGNANT (DRY) SOWS sow stall (gestation crate) – a confinement system Why are most sows kept in stalls? To reduce space and thereby costs To prevent aggression To simplify management and observation

To reduce space and thereby costs

To prevent aggression

To simplify management and observation

PREGNANT (DRY) SOWS tether stall – another confinement system Film of bar-biting behaviour by tethered sow follows 

SOWS IN STALLS health issues Possible explanations for health problems suffered by sows in stalls Health problem Weak bones Leg problems Urinary disorders Possible explanation Lack of exercise Lack of exercise Unable to excrete away from lying area

Sows cannot: exercise forage socialise properly dung away from their lying area regulate their body temperature through behaviour SOWS IN STALLS Welfare issues What important behaviours are sows in stalls unable to carry out?

Sows cannot:

exercise

forage

socialise properly

dung away from their lying area

regulate their body temperature through behaviour

SOWS IN STALLS welfare issues What abnormal behaviours are observed as a result of this close confinement and hunger? In addition, dry sows are fed once a day on a maintenance ration which leaves them feeling hungry See next slide

STEREOTYPIES bar-biting This sow may be hungry, but is unable to forage. This may be a displaced feeding behaviour. Unlike normal feeding, this is very repetitive and cannot fill her stomach. Film of bar-biting behaviour follows 

What are the key features of stereotypic behaviour? What kind of stereotypy is this? What other kinds are there? What causes stereotypies? Bar-biting Sham chewing, excess drinking etc Frustration of natural behaviours Repetitive and apparently devoid of function STEREOTYPIES

STEREOTYPIES sham-chewing Sham-chewing is also thought to be caused by frustration, boredom and hunger Film of sham-chewing behaviour follows 

STEREOTYPIES excessive drinking How could you find out whether this drinking was excessive? Compare water intake of this sow with one that was completely satiated and not frustrated This is another form of stereotypy Film of excessive drinking behaviour follows 

STEREOTYPIES IN BARREN PENS bar-biting sham-chewing tongue rolling Stereotypies can also occur in pens where there is no bedding to occupy the sows and provide gut fill Film of these three behaviours follows 

APATHY Another response to confinement and frustration This sow might be resting. How would one distinguish apathetic behaviour from natural resting behaviour? Test how responsive she is to different stimuli like cold water or novel food Film of possibly apathetic behaviour follows 

GOOD PRACTICE providing resources for natural behaviour Providing sufficient space Keeping sows in natural social groups Providing an enriched environment with foraging material Outdoor systems Indoor systems How can stereotypic and apathetic behaviours be reduced?

Providing sufficient space

Keeping sows in natural social groups

Providing an enriched environment with foraging material

The same is true for boars which in many countries are not provided with bedding GOOD PRACTICE providing resources for natural behaviour

“ (7) To satisfy their hunger and given the need to chew, all dry pregnant sows must be given a sufficient quantity of bulky or high-fibre food as well as high-energy food.” Council Directive 2001/88/EC 23 rd October 2001 EU REGULATIONS requirement for high fibre food

The tether stall is banned in: European Union The sow stall is banned in: Sweden Switzerland United Kingdom Florida Sow stall use is restricted in: Philippines Sow stall is due to be banned in: European Union (2013, except for first four weeks of pregnancy) New Zealand (2015, except for first four weeks of pregnancy) Australia (2017, except for first six weeks of pregnancy) LEGISLATION TO RESTRICT THE SOW STALL current and future bans

The tether stall is banned in:

European Union

The sow stall is banned in:

Sweden

Switzerland

United Kingdom

Florida

Sow stall use is restricted in:

Philippines

Sow stall is due to be banned in:

European Union (2013, except for first four weeks of pregnancy)

New Zealand (2015, except for first four weeks of pregnancy)

Australia (2017, except for first six weeks of pregnancy)

SPACE AND FORAGING NEEDS FOR DRY SOWS summary Most sows spend their entire pregnancies in confinement systems such as the sow stall These severely restrict natural behaviour and cause a range of health and welfare problems Restrictions on natural behaviour can lead to apathy and stereotypies such as bar-biting, sham-chewing, tongue rolling and excessive drinking A key problem is hunger due to restricted diets – EU regulations require dry sows to be provided with high-fibre food to satisfy this hunger and the need to chew Stereotypies can be avoided by satisfying the need of sows for space, company and foraging material

Most sows spend their entire pregnancies in confinement systems such as the sow stall

These severely restrict natural behaviour and cause a range of health and welfare problems

Restrictions on natural behaviour can lead to apathy and stereotypies such as bar-biting, sham-chewing, tongue rolling and excessive drinking

A key problem is hunger due to restricted diets – EU regulations require dry sows to be provided with high-fibre food to satisfy this hunger and the need to chew

Stereotypies can be avoided by satisfying the need of sows for space, company and foraging material

CHAPTER 3 avoiding aggression in dry sows  Dale Arey / CIWF

Competition for food and other resources Mixing sows that are unfamiliar with each other  Marek Spinka AGGRESSION BETWEEN DRY SOWS What are the main causes of aggression in dry sows?

Competition for food and other resources

Mixing sows that are unfamiliar with each other

AGGRESSION DURING FEEDING sow pens Why is aggression at feeding a particular problem with dry sows? food restricted to a maintenance diet so sows remain hungry only fed once a day diet is low in fibre food not widely spread out Film of aggression over food follows 

food restricted to a maintenance diet so sows remain hungry

only fed once a day

diet is low in fibre

food not widely spread out

AGGRESSION DURING FEEDING free-range sows feeding with less aggression Film of mild dominance behaviour follows  Why is aggression over food milder in the following film ?

AGGRESSION DURING FEEDING free-range sows feeding with less aggression Why was aggression milder here ? lower motivation for less concentrated feed sows in stable groups have clear dominance order access to high fibre food reduces hunger spacious environment reduces stress

lower motivation for less concentrated feed

sows in stable groups have clear dominance order

access to high fibre food reduces hunger

spacious environment reduces stress

AVOIDING AGGRESSION - INDIVIDUAL FEEDING SYSTEMS electronic sow feeders photos and video  ASAB Each sow wears a transponder. In the feeding stall, a computer provides each sow with an individual ration Film of use of electronic sow feeder follows 

AVOIDING AGGRESSION - INDIVIDUAL FEEDING SYSTEMS electronic sow feeders photos and video  ASAB What are the advantages and disadvantages of this system? Advantages Sows free from harassment in stall Individual sows can be given extra food if needed Can be run automatically Disadvantages Sows cannot feed simultaneously as they would normally Aggression can occur outside the stall Sows not occupied searching for main food supply

Feeding Release AVOIDING AGGRESSION - INDIVIDUAL FEEDING SYSTEMS feeding stalls In this system, the sows have access to a straw area and are locked in the stalls just at feeding time Film of use of feeding stalls and subsequent release follows 

AVOIDING AGGRESSION - INDIVIDUAL FEEDING SYSTEMS feeding stalls What are the advantages and disadvantages of this system? Advantages Sows free from harassment in stalls Individual sows can be given extra food if needed Sows can be fed simultaneously Disadvantages Expensive to set up Sows don’t have to search for their food

Top view Front view Food is delivered slowly over longer periods. Sows that bully others out of their place lose out because food builds up in their own feed space AVOIDING AGGRESSION - DISPERSED FEEDING trickle feed systems

AVOIDING AGGRESSION - DISPERSED FEEDING trickle feed systems What are the advantages and disadvantages of this system? Disadvantages Aggression might still be a problem Individual sows cannot be given extra food Sows don’t have to search for their food Advantages Sows feed simultaneously Aggression minimal since sows occupied in own stations Feeding process can occupy sows for longer

AVOIDING AGGRESSION - DISPERSED FEEDING scatter-feeding systems What are the advantages and disadvantages of this system?  Dale Arey/CIWF Film of scatter feeding follows  Advantages Sows feed simultaneously Aggression minimal since food dispersed Feeding process naturally occupies sows for a long time Extra fibre consumed at same time Disadvantages Aggression might still be a problem Individual sows cannot be given extra food

 Colin Seddon / CIWF What are the advantages and disadvantages of this system? Food is automatically dumped from the feeders at the top of the picture AVOIDING AGGRESSION - DISPERSED FEEDING dump-feeding systems Similar to previous system, though food less well dispersed

AGGRESSION AT MIXING Another major cause of aggression is mixing sows that are unfamiliar with each other

CASE STUDY - STRESS AT MIXING College farm experiences infertililty problems  Colin Seddon / CIWF System worked well for Meishan cross sows mixed in large enriched pen%. However the meat was too high in fat content for the UK market so they switched to Large White x Landrace crosses. Unfortunately sow fertility suffered as a result of stress, perhaps caused by aggression. They switched to housing sows in small groups and try to keep sows together in original groups to minimise stress

AVOIDING AGGRESSION IN SOWS summary Sows should be fed separately and simultaneously where possible Alternatively, feed should be spread out over as wide an area as possible or released slowly Sows should be kept in small stable groups The sow system should not be overcrowded and should allow sows to escape from each other

Sows should be fed separately and simultaneously where possible

Alternatively, feed should be spread out over as wide an area as possible or released slowly

Sows should be kept in small stable groups

The sow system should not be overcrowded and should allow sows to escape from each other

CHAPTER 4 space and nesting needs of farrowing sows Diane Halverson Animal Welfare Institute

Diane Halverson

Animal Welfare Institute

MATERNAL BEHAVIOUR nesting in wild boar  BBC Motion Gallery Film of nesting behaviour in wild boar sow follows 

MATERNAL BEHAVIOUR nesting in domestic sows  Diane Halverson / Animal Welfare Institute Domestic sows have inherited the same nest building instincts as seen in wild boar What is the function of the nest? The nest provides protection from weather and predators It helps protect the piglets from being accidentally crushed by the sow Film of nesting behaviour in domestic sow follows 

The nest provides protection from weather and predators

It helps protect the piglets from being accidentally crushed by the sow

 Marek Spinka FARROWING SOWS AND THE RISK OF CRUSHING Why is the risk of crushing high with modern breeds? Sows are larger; litters larger, so piglets smaller

FARROWING SOWS AND THE RISK OF CRUSHING 1. Sows respond naturally to a piglet’s squeal How does the sow’s behaviour reduce the risk of crushing? Film of Hungarian sow’s response to a piglet’s squeal follows 

FARROWING SOWS AND THE RISK OF CRUSHING 2. Sows check through the bedding and remove piglets before lying down. The sow needs plenty of space to be able to lie down carefully. How does the sow’s behaviour reduce the risk of crushing?  Film of Hungarian sows checking through the bedding before lying down follows

FARROWING CRATES Most sows are housed in farrowing crates prior to giving birth Farrowing crates are designed to reduce piglet crushing by slowing down the movements of the sow Film of sow in farrowing crate trying to lie down follows 

Sows in farrowing crates cannot: walk or turn round lie down comfortably perform important behaviours such as nest building interact naturally with her piglets How is the behaviour of the sow affected in the farrowing crate? FARROWING CRATES AND SOW BEHAVIOUR Her ability to move is very restricted Film of sow in farrowing crate trying to get up follows 

Sows in farrowing crates cannot:

walk or turn round

lie down comfortably

perform important behaviours such as nest building

interact naturally with her piglets

FRUSTRATED MATERNAL BEHAVIOUR nesting  BBC Motion Gallery What effects can be caused by this frustration? high blood levels of cortisol, a stress hormone delayed birth, leading to increased piglet mortality The farrowing crate causes particular stress to a sow trying to build a nest before farrowing Film of frustrated nesting behaviour in sow follows 

high blood levels of cortisol, a stress hormone

delayed birth, leading to increased piglet mortality

What are the risks of frustrating normal interactions between the sow and her piglets? Sows in farrowing crates are more likely to savage their young. The risk of this may be increased if the sow cannot make normal contact FRUSTRATED MATERNAL BEHAVIOUR interaction with young Shortly after giving birth, sows naturally sniff their newborn piglets. This helps to create a bond between them Film of sow trying to make contact with newborn piglet follows 

STRESS HORMONE LEVELS in sows in farrowing crates Possible reasons include: The sow cannot escape from her piglets In the barren environment piglets may begin to bite and chew at the sow The sow is likely to have lost condition in the process of feeding a large litter These rise at two times: Just before birth (Due to frustration of the nesting instinct) 3-4 weeks after farrowing Why do they rise again 3-4 weeks after farrowing?

Possible reasons include:

The sow cannot escape from her piglets

In the barren environment piglets may begin to bite and chew at the sow

The sow is likely to have lost condition in the process of feeding a large litter

These rise at two times:

Just before birth

(Due to frustration of the nesting instinct)

3-4 weeks after farrowing

Family group system, Brazil. Sows are released into groups after 3 days in farrowing crate. What are the advantages and disadvantages of doing this? RELEASING SOWS EARLY Disadvantages: Sow still confined for at least a week Nesting instinct still frustrated Early interactions between sow and piglets still impeded Advantages: Sow only confined during period of highest crushing risk Piglets can mix before weaning

Disadvantages:

Sow still confined for at least a week

Nesting instinct still frustrated

Early interactions between sow and piglets still impeded

Advantages:

Sow only confined during period of highest crushing risk

Piglets can mix before weaning

photos  Marek Spinka ALTERNATIVES TO THE FARROWING CRATE Swedish group farrowing system The sows have a communal straw area with individual boxes to farrow in

photo  Marek Spinka ALTERNATIVES TO THE FARROWING CRATE How far does this system tie in with natural behaviour? Differences Sows cannot find an entirely isolated spot to nest Risk of two sows nesting in same box Similarities Nesting material readily available Sows can nest separately Piglets can mix once large enough to escape nest-box

ALTERNATIVES TO THE FARROWING CRATE individual farrowing pens Advantages: Isolated nesting spot Nesting material available Protection for piglets with safety bars and heated safety area What are the advantages and disadvantages of this system? Disadvantages: Piglets cannot mix with other litters

Advantages:

Isolated nesting spot

Nesting material available

Protection for piglets with safety bars and heated safety area

Disadvantages:

Piglets cannot mix with other litters

ALTERNATIVES TO THE FARROWING CRATE outdoor free-range farrowing huts Each sow has a separate hut to farrow in The barriers contain very young piglets in the huts. In the UK, 35% of piglets are produced outdoors

ALTERNATIVES TO THE FARROWING CRATE outdoor free-range farrowing huts Individual paddocks Some outdoor units have individual paddocks for each sow and litter What are the advantages and disadvantage of this? An advantage is that the sows are not disturbed by other sows A disadvantage is that it obviously costs more in time and effort Once the piglets are four weeks old, the electric fences separating the paddocks are removed to allow the families to mix

An advantage is that the sows are not disturbed by other sows

A disadvantage is that it obviously costs more in time and effort

Breeds which make good mothers Sufficient space for sow to be able to manoeuvre to avoid crushing piglets Excellent stockmanship Plenty of bedding material for nesting and warmth Safety areas for piglets Good shelter from all types of weather ALTERNATIVES TO THE FARROWING CRATE What features are required to make non-confinement systems work effectively?

Breeds which make good mothers

Sufficient space for sow to be able to manoeuvre to avoid crushing piglets

Excellent stockmanship

Plenty of bedding material for nesting and warmth

Safety areas for piglets

Good shelter from all types of weather

SOW AND PIGLET MORTALITIES UK figures comparing outdoor & indoor herds UK averages for 2000-2004 (calculated from Meat and Livestock Commission Pig Yearbooks 2001-5) Can these results be explained? Year ending September Outdoor herds Indoor herds Sow mortality annually (%) 2.84 5.92 Piglets: Pigs born dead per litter 0.79 0.96 Mortality of pigs born alive (%) 9.46 11.60 Pigs reared per litter 9.74 9.64 Pigs reared per sow per year 21.14 21.49

UK SOW AND PIGLET MORTALITIES possible explanations for figures Feature Lower free-range sow mortality Fewer free-range pigs born dead Lower mortality for free-range piglets More outdoor pigs reared per litter More indoor pigs reared per sow per year Possible explanation/s Use of farrowing crate can lead to higher sow death-rate Stress of farrowing crate can delay birth, increasing mortality Savaging rates may be higher with farrowing crates. Free-range sows bred for good mothering abilities Lower mortality for free-range pigs Indoor sows had slightly higher frequency of litters

SPACE AND NESTING NEEDS OF FARROWING SOWS summary The large litters and small piglets of most modern breeds means that they are prone to being crushed Farrowing crates were designed to reduce this risk Confinement at farrowing causes stress particularly at the time when the sow wants to build a nest Systems which give the sow more freedom are better for welfare and can give good production figures Free farrowing systems require good management and breeds with good maternal abilities

The large litters and small piglets of most modern breeds means that they are prone to being crushed

Farrowing crates were designed to reduce this risk

Confinement at farrowing causes stress particularly at the time when the sow wants to build a nest

Systems which give the sow more freedom are better for welfare and can give good production figures

Free farrowing systems require good management and breeds with good maternal abilities

CHAPTER 5 avoiding teeth clipping in piglets

TEETH CLIPPING why it is carried out As soon as they are born, piglets compete to select a teat on the sow’s udder to which they remain attached until weaning Piglets suckle own teat Why do piglets compete for teats? The older and stronger piglets try to select the anterior (front) teats that tend to produce more milk Why do the front teats produce more milk? It is probably an evolutionary strategy to ensure some piglets survive when food is short. When food is plentiful, the sow can produce enough milk for all her piglets.

TEETH CLIPPING why it is carried out Piglets are born with sharp incisor teeth which they use to fight for the best teat and then to defend their teat This defence can cause injuries to other piglets and also to the sows udder How do the piglets compete for teats? Vigorous teat defence © Dale Arey

TEETH CLIPPING the problems that it causes Teeth-clipping is likely to cause severe pain during the procedure Damage to the teeth leaves them prone to infection Infection can lead to abscesses and long-term pain Farmer clipping teeth What are the likely health and welfare consequences of this procedure? Soon after they are born, the piglets’ incisors are cut with sharp clippers or side-cutters The pig industry’s solution to problems with injuries is to teeth clip

Teeth-clipping is likely to cause severe pain during the procedure

Damage to the teeth leaves them prone to infection

Infection can lead to abscesses and long-term pain

TEETH CLIPPING how it can be reduced or prevented Larger litters increase the amount of competition Fostering piglets from large litters onto smaller litters also increases competition Reduction in milk supply through poor condition, sow illness e.g. mastitis or sow discomfort due to confinement or lack of bedding Piglet with facial injuries What factors might increase the risk of this occurring? Piglets are more likely to fight for a better teat if they are not getting enough milk

Larger litters increase the amount of competition

Fostering piglets from large litters onto smaller litters also increases competition

Reduction in milk supply through poor condition, sow illness e.g. mastitis or sow discomfort due to confinement or lack of bedding

TEETH CLIPPING how it can be reduced or prevented Use breeds that have slightly smaller litters Minimise cross-fostering Ensure good hygiene and sow health to reduce the risk of infections Keep sows in free-farrowing systems with plenty of bedding Piglets more settled with reduced competition How can good management practice reduce the risk of injuries?

Use breeds that have slightly smaller litters

Minimise cross-fostering

Ensure good hygiene and sow health to reduce the risk of infections

Keep sows in free-farrowing systems with plenty of bedding

TEETH CLIPPING how it can be reduced or prevented If injuries do become a problem a less invasive technique is to use teeth grinders Grinders have a small abrasive wheel designed to blunt the sharp tip of the incisors This procedure is likely to cause less pain and is less likely to leave the teeth open to infection Tooth clipping is banned in several countries including Denmark and Germany which only allow tooth grinding Tooth grinding is still a painful mutilation. Routine tooth clipping and grinding are both banned throughout the EU Farmer clipping teeth

CASE STUDY enriched indoor production, Schleithal, France If injuries occur, the farmer uses a teeth grinder This farm does not clip teeth

CASE STUDY organic production, Eastbrook farm, UK This farm uses traditional breeds like Saddlebacks that have slightly smaller litters and the sows maintain condition. The farm does not tooth clip

“ Neither tail docking nor reduction of corner teeth must be carried out routinely but only where there is evidence that injuries to sows' teats or to other pigs' ears or tails have occurred. Before carrying out these procedures, other measures shall be taken to prevent tail biting and other vices taking into account environment and stocking densities (our emphasis). For this reason inadequate environmental conditions or management systems must be changed.” Annex to Council Directive 91/630/EEC EU REGULATIONS REQUIRE:

TEETH CLIPPING summary Injuries caused by teat defence are reduced by teeth-clipping Teeth-clipping causes pain and can lead to infection Tooth-grinding is a less invasive method that can be used to blunt teeth Injuries are mainly a problem if sows do not produce enough milk for all their piglets Breeding sows with smaller litters and which can produce plenty of milk is part of the solution Avoiding udder infections and keeping the sow in a comfortable high welfare environment can also help improve milk supply Avoiding cross fostering can also reduce the risk of injuries Routine tooth clipping and grinding are not permitted in the EU and should be avoided by good breeding, environment and management

Injuries caused by teat defence are reduced by teeth-clipping

Teeth-clipping causes pain and can lead to infection

Tooth-grinding is a less invasive method that can be used to blunt teeth

Injuries are mainly a problem if sows do not produce enough milk for all their piglets

Breeding sows with smaller litters and which can produce plenty of milk is part of the solution

Avoiding udder infections and keeping the sow in a comfortable high welfare environment can also help improve milk supply

Avoiding cross fostering can also reduce the risk of injuries

Routine tooth clipping and grinding are not permitted in the EU and should be avoided by good breeding, environment and management

CHAPTER 6 avoiding castration in male piglets

CASTRATION Why it is carried out Shortly after birth, male piglets testes are removed This is because when they become sexually mature, they can leave an odour in the meat known as ‘boar taint’ which some people find unpleasant Some meat buyers insist that farmers castrate male pigs

CASTRATION How it is carried out The testes are removed through slits in the scrotum made with a scalpel Piglet about to be castrated Anaesthetics are rarely used even though the procedure causes severe pain Some people argue that it is the handling of pigs which is stressful, not the castration itself. How do we know the procedure causes pain? see next slides

After Weary et al 1998 IS CASTRATION MORE STRESSFUL THAN HANDLING? Vocal responses of castrated piglets were compared with those of piglets which were similarly handled but without castration. What do the results show?

(after Wemelsfelder & van Putten 1985) IS CASTRATION MORE STRESSFUL THAN HANDLING? The frequency (Hz) of vocal responses of piglets was measured at various stages of castration. What do these results show?

CASTRATION is there further distress after castration? Following castration, a study showed that piglets: were less active showed more trembling, leg shaking, sliding and tail jerking took longer to lie down lied down in a way protective of the hindquarters (after Wemelsfelder & van Putten 1985)

were less active

showed more trembling, leg shaking, sliding and tail jerking

took longer to lie down

lied down in a way protective of the hindquarters

CASE STUDY enriched indoor production, Schleithal, France The farmer therefore uses a local anaesthetic before castration The buyers of these pigs insist on castration because of the risk of boar taint in the meat Anaesthetics provide short-term pain relief Analgesics are also needed to provide long-term pain relief

CASE STUDY Sparsholt College, UK In the UK, pigs are very rarely castrated because they are slaughtered at an earlier age. How does this avoid the need for castration? The pigs are just over 6 months at slaughter and are sexually immature so boar taint is less of a problem Avoiding castration means that male pigs grow faster and produce a leaner meat.

Avoiding castration means that male pigs grow faster and produce a leaner meat.

WHICH IS THE BEST SOLUTION? It could be a combination of more than one of these Surgical castration without pain relief Surgical castration with short and long term pain relief Immunocastration No castration, but one or more of the following: Risk boar taint Kill male pigs younger Selectively breed pigs for less boar taint Use herbal additives in the diet to reduce boar taint Use sexed semen to increase the percentage of females born Test carcases for boar taint in the slaughterhouse

Surgical castration without pain relief

Surgical castration with short and long term pain relief

Immunocastration

No castration, but one or more of the following:

Risk boar taint

Kill male pigs younger

Selectively breed pigs for less boar taint

Use herbal additives in the diet to reduce boar taint

Use sexed semen to increase the percentage of females born

Test carcases for boar taint in the slaughterhouse

WHICH IS THE BEST SOLUTION? Compassion in World Farming believes that: surgical castration without pain relief is unacceptable In the medium term, surgical castration should be avoided altogether In the long run, farmers should move towards keeping all pigs entire

Compassion in World Farming believes that:

surgical castration without pain relief is unacceptable

In the medium term, surgical castration should be avoided altogether

In the long run, farmers should move towards keeping all pigs entire

summary CASTRATION IN MALE PIGLETS Male piglets are castrated to avoid ‘boar taint’ The testes are removed through two slits in the scrotum made with a scalpel The procedure causes acute pain and can affect piglet behaviour for days Pain can be reduced using a local anaesthetic and a longer acting analgesic In the UK pigs are slaughtered before they become sexually mature and so boar taint is less of a problem A number of other alternatives to castration are being considered

Male piglets are castrated to avoid ‘boar taint’

The testes are removed through two slits in the scrotum made with a scalpel

The procedure causes acute pain and can affect piglet behaviour for days

Pain can be reduced using a local anaesthetic and a longer acting analgesic

In the UK pigs are slaughtered before they become sexually mature and so boar taint is less of a problem

A number of other alternatives to castration are being considered

CHAPTER 7 avoiding early weaning

NATURAL WEANING What is the natural weaning age for pigs? Piglets: begin to eat solid food at about three weeks gradually eat more as they get older are completely weaned between 13-17 weeks  MAEP/CIWF Weaning is the process by which the sow gradually reduces the amount milk given to her piglets making them more reliant on solid food

Piglets:

begin to eat solid food at about three weeks

gradually eat more as they get older

are completely weaned between 13-17 weeks

EARLY WEANING in intensive production Early weaned piglets What is the usual weaning age for commercial piglets? Weaning ages: EU – 4 weeks (3 weeks for “all in/all out” systems) US – as low as 2 weeks Intensively reared piglets are weaned by forcibly removing them from their mother

Weaning ages:

EU – 4 weeks (3 weeks for “all in/all out” systems)

US – as low as 2 weeks

EARLY WEANING in intensive production Late weaning can lead to loss of condition in sows because: modern sows produce larger litters they have been bred for low fat content, so have fewer reserves to draw on for milk production Irish sow with her litter Why does the sow lose condition? What are the reasons for early weaning? Early weaning: induces oestrus so sow can become pregnant again reduces loss of condition in the sow

Late weaning can lead to loss of condition in sows because:

modern sows produce larger litters

they have been bred for low fat content, so have fewer reserves to draw on for milk production

Early weaning:

induces oestrus so sow can become pregnant again

reduces loss of condition in the sow

Because of: Removal from their mother Sudden change of diet from milk to solid food Sudden change of environment Being mixed with piglets from other litters Aggression for dominance as a result of mixing EARLY WEANING and effects on welfare Why is early weaning particularly stressful for piglets? These stresses are compounded by the fact that they all happen at the same time

Because of:

Removal from their mother

Sudden change of diet from milk to solid food

Sudden change of environment

Being mixed with piglets from other litters

Aggression for dominance as a result of mixing

EARLY WEANING and effects on welfare This behaviour of early-weaned piglets is called belly nosing  ASAB Film of belly-nosing in early-weaned piglets follows 

EARLY WEANING and effects on welfare Belly nosing.  ASAB Belly-nosing resembles the way in which piglets massage the sow’s udder prior to suckling Film of piglet massaging sow’s udder follows 

Belly-nosing also continues in older pigs. Naturally they wouldn’t be weaned until 13-17 weeks old. It is thought to be a sign of frustration Belly-nosing is less common in enriched environments with plenty of straw. Why might this be? Belly-nosing is a displaced foraging behaviour. Providing plenty of foraging material may help the weaning process. Film of belly-nosing in older pigs follows  EARLY WEANING and effects on welfare

 Marek Spinka EARLY WEANING and effects on welfare What are the likely causes of these problems? Problems with early weaning Belly nosing Digestive problems Weight loss or growth check Increased risk of disease Increased use of antibiotics - desire to suckle - sudden change in diet - diet change and digestive problems - lowered immunity caused by stress - lowered immunity

EARLY WEANING and effects on welfare Stress can be reduced by: Getting piglets used to solid food before weaning Using liquid feeds after weaning Putting piglets into groups before weaning Leaving piglets in a familiar environment after weaning Providing a comfortable and enriched environment throughout Weaning later wherever possible How can stress caused by early weaning be reduced?

Stress can be reduced by:

Getting piglets used to solid food before weaning

Using liquid feeds after weaning

Putting piglets into groups before weaning

Leaving piglets in a familiar environment after weaning

Providing a comfortable and enriched environment throughout

Weaning later wherever possible

CASE STUDY loose-housed farrowing system, Sweden Piglets can escape from the hut when bigger They mix with the other piglets The sow is removed at weaning Sows farrow in groups photos  Marek Spinka

CASE STUDY – LATER WEANING organic production Eastbrook farm, UK Wean at 8 weeks or later (organic rules state minimum 40 days) Use breeds like saddlebacks (left) that have better fat reserves and produce slightly smaller litters so they can wean later

EARLY WEANING summary Piglets naturally wean at 13-17 weeks old Commercial piglets are weaned early at 2-4 weeks old to increase number of pigs produced per sow Early weaning causes stress leading to a range of piglet health and welfare problems Stress can be reduced by good management practice Organic systems wean at 6-8 weeks to reduce health and welfare problems and the need for antibiotics Later weaning requires breeds of sows capable of sustaining a full lactation with good fat reserves and slightly smaller litters

Piglets naturally wean at 13-17 weeks old

Commercial piglets are weaned early at 2-4 weeks old to increase number of pigs produced per sow

Early weaning causes stress leading to a range of piglet health and welfare problems

Stress can be reduced by good management practice

Organic systems wean at 6-8 weeks to reduce health and welfare problems and the need for antibiotics

Later weaning requires breeds of sows capable of sustaining a full lactation with good fat reserves and slightly smaller litters

CHAPTER 8 avoiding tail-docking and tail biting

TAIL-BITING This pig’s tail has been bitten by one or more of her companions

TAIL-BITING what causes it What factors have been linked to the likelihood of tail-biting in intensive production? Barren environments: there are no suitable substrates for the pigs to forage and chew Overcrowding: there is little opportunity for pigs to avoid each other Poor environments: discomfort can increase restlessness and frustration Poor nutrition: lack of feeder space and/or nutrients in the diet

Barren environments: there are no suitable substrates for the pigs to forage and chew

Overcrowding: there is little opportunity for pigs to avoid each other

Poor environments: discomfort can increase restlessness and frustration

Poor nutrition: lack of feeder space and/or nutrients in the diet

TAIL-BITING the problems it causes Seemingly innocent nibbling can rapidly spread through the whole group and take on the resemblance of cannibalism The wounds can cause considerable pain to the tail-bitten pig Infections can get into the central vertebrae causing serious health problems and carcass damage It is a sign of poor environments and/or management It is one of the greatest economic losses to pig production

On this farm, this was the only case of tail-biting observed in over 100 pigs. Why wasn’t it more common? The farm manager attributed a low level of tail-biting to an enriched high-welfare environment with straw. TAIL-BITING the problems it causes

TAIL-BITING the industry’s solution to the problem Shortly after birth, each piglet’s tail is docked with a blade or a hot wire What is the industry’s solution to the problem?

TAIL-BITING the industry’s solution to the problem How is tail-docking likely to reduce tail-biting? Removing most or just part of the tail may work by: making the tail less obvious to a foraging pig making the tail more sensitive to investigation, so pigs are less likely to tolerate tail-nibbling

Removing most or just part of the tail may work by:

making the tail less obvious to a foraging pig

making the tail more sensitive to investigation, so pigs are less likely to tolerate tail-nibbling

TAIL-DOCKING arguments for and against Lesions from tail-biting Arguments for: Tail-docking is a simple way of reducing tail-biting Arguments against: Tail-docking causes pain, distress and risk of infections It can lead to the formation of neuromas (swollen nerves) Tail-docking does not address the causes of the problem What are the arguments for and against tail-docking?

Arguments for:

Tail-docking is a simple way of reducing tail-biting

Arguments against:

Tail-docking causes pain, distress and risk of infections

It can lead to the formation of neuromas (swollen nerves)

Tail-docking does not address the causes of the problem

TAIL-BITING how it can be reduced or prevented Some farms provide chains and toys to try and reduce problems with tail-biting Which of these two methods of enrichment are likely to be most effective in reducing tail-biting? Wood shavings, see next slide

TAIL-BITING methods of enrichment that work best Zonderland et al investigated the effects of different kinds of enrichment on the number of mild and serious injuries caused by tail-biting. What do the results show?

TAIL-BITING methods of enrichment that work best There are three stages to foraging behaviour: Searching Manipulating Eating Which of these stages are provided by: Chains? Ropes? Beds of saw dust or straw? Rough ground, pasture or woodland? An increasing amount of foraging is enabled as you go down the list Film of rooting behaviour follows 

There are three stages to foraging behaviour:

Searching

Manipulating

Eating

Which of these stages are provided by:

Chains?

Ropes?

Beds of saw dust or straw?

Rough ground, pasture or woodland?

“ Neither tail docking nor reduction of corner teeth must be carried out routinely but only where there is evidence that injuries to sows' teats or to other pigs' ears or tails have occurred. Before carrying out these procedures, other measures shall be taken to prevent tail biting and other vices taking into account environment and stocking densities (our emphasis). For this reason inadequate environmental conditions or management systems must be changed. “ Pigs must have permanent access to a sufficient quantity of material to enable proper investigation and manipulation activities, such as straw, hay, wood, sawdust, mushroom compost, peat or a mixture of such …” Annex to Council Directive 91/630/EEC EU REGULATIONS REQUIRE:

Deep-bed of rice hulls CASE STUDY - DEEP BED SYSTEM developed by EMBRAPA, Brazil Suitable for small-scale farming: capital costs 40-60% lower existing buildings can be adapted Better for the environment: reduce ammonia emissions 50% produce less waste and a better fertiliser Good for production and welfare: reduce tail-biting and lameness provide foraging opportunities provide comfort

Suitable for small-scale farming:

capital costs 40-60% lower

existing buildings can be adapted

Better for the environment:

reduce ammonia emissions 50%

produce less waste and a better fertiliser

Good for production and welfare:

reduce tail-biting and lameness

provide foraging opportunities

provide comfort

CASE STUDY – SLATTED vs DEEP BED SYSTEM experiment on Brazilian farm Experimental group on deep-bed Group on part slatted system Weaners on the deep bed system: kept warmer and huddled less suffered less from diarrhoea were more active and less fearful See next slide

Weaners on the deep bed system:

kept warmer and huddled less

suffered less from diarrhoea

were more active and less fearful

Environmental enrichment can: reduce fearfulness of novel situations and human interaction later reduce stress during transit benefit health, welfare and food quality CASE STUDY – SLATTED vs DEEP BED SYSTEM Why do these two groups of pigs respond so differently to photographers? The pigs on the right are used to: a more stimulating environment interaction with people

Environmental enrichment can:

reduce fearfulness of novel situations and human interaction

later reduce stress during transit

benefit health, welfare and food quality

The pigs on the right are used to:

a more stimulating environment

interaction with people

TAIL-BITING IN GROWING PIGS summary Tail-biting is a major problem for welfare and production Tail-biting is a displaced foraging behaviour and a sign of poor welfare Tail-docking is a common method of reducing tail-biting Tail-docking causes pain and risks infection. It deals with the symptoms of the problem, not the causes Environmental enrichment with straw or other fibrous material reduces tail-biting by encouraging normal foraging behaviour Chains and toys are less effective enrichments since they don’t allow the full range of foraging behaviour European Union regulations require environmental enrichment to be tried before resorting to tail-docking

Tail-biting is a major problem for welfare and production

Tail-biting is a displaced foraging behaviour and a sign of poor welfare

Tail-docking is a common method of reducing tail-biting

Tail-docking causes pain and risks infection. It deals with the symptoms of the problem, not the causes

Environmental enrichment with straw or other fibrous material reduces tail-biting by encouraging normal foraging behaviour

Chains and toys are less effective enrichments since they don’t allow the full range of foraging behaviour

European Union regulations require environmental enrichment to be tried before resorting to tail-docking

CHAPTER 9 good stockmanship

STOCKMANSHIP good welfare depends on good stockmanship What makes a good stockperson? Some views of stockpeople: “ Good stockmanship is about understanding your pigs” “ A good stockperson is always checking that everything is alright” “ A good stockperson knows instinctively when something is wrong” “ It is a job you have to need to do” “ It takes a lifetime to learn”

Some views of stockpeople:

“ Good stockmanship is about understanding your pigs”

“ A good stockperson is always checking that everything is alright”

“ A good stockperson knows instinctively when something is wrong”

“ It is a job you have to need to do”

“ It takes a lifetime to learn”

STOCKMANSHIP good welfare depends on good stockmanship A good stockperson needs: Empathy Knowledge and experience Good observation skills Conscientiousness How do these make a difference?

A good stockperson needs:

Empathy

Knowledge and experience

Good observation skills

Conscientiousness

STOCKMANSHIP empathy Empathy is all about how you would feel if in the pigs situation This stockperson is aware that this sow is stressed because she is about to give birth in a farrowing crate. She therefore tries to soothe the sow and cool her down. Do some people naturally make more empathetic stockpersons? This farm deliberately chooses female staff for supervising farrowing sows Film of cooling farrowing sow follows 

STOCKMANSHIP knowledge and experience These pig producers attend regular meetings where they share the latest scientific information

STOCKMANSHIP good observation skills Recognising signs that pigs are thriving and content or not These stockpersons know that ‘bedding down’ is a good time to observe the sows for any sign of illness or poor welfare Film of bedding down of sows follows 

STOCKMANSHIP good observation skills Any sick or injured pigs should be moved immediately to a sick pen Sick pen deep bedded with straw Health problems should be monitored and vets should be consulted regularly

STOCKMANSHIP conscientiousness Paying careful attention to the pigs and the equipment they rely on These farmers check whether there is sufficient bedding in the arcs

STOCKMANSHIP welfare codes The “5 freedoms” form the basis of welfare codes that are recommended for pigs Many different countries produce welfare codes that provide a useful reference for stockpersons Although they are not always legally binding, they can be cited in prosecutions In the UK, the law states that every person caring for animals must have instruction in the codes English Welfare codes  Defra

STOCKMANSHIP welfare codes are based on the five freedoms All stockpersons must be aware of the “5 freedoms”: freedom from hunger and thirst freedom from discomfort freedom from illness freedom to perform natural behaviour freedom from fear and distress Most stockpersons readily recognise the first three freedoms but freedom from fear and distress and freedom to perform natural behaviour can too easily be overlooked

All stockpersons must be aware of the “5 freedoms”:

freedom from hunger and thirst

freedom from discomfort

freedom from illness

freedom to perform natural behaviour

freedom from fear and distress

Most stockpersons readily recognise the first three freedoms but freedom from fear and distress and freedom to perform natural behaviour can too easily be overlooked

STOCKMANSHIP freedom to perform natural behaviour Stockpersons need to be aware of the natural behaviour and ethology of the pig It is common for stockpersons to see bar biting as normal behaviour having never seen pigs in a more natural environment

STOCKMANSHIP freedom to perform natural behaviour Pigs are naturally clean animals and will select a particular part of the pen away from the main lying area for dunging If pigs are overcrowded and become too hot, they will start to use the dunging area as a wallow to try to cool down

STOCKMANSHIP freedom to perform natural behaviour For outdoor sows it is even more important to have the correct provisions so that they can regulate body temperature through their own natural behaviour Wallows Well bedded shelters

STOCKMANSHIP freedom from fear and distress Pigs are naturally fearful of humans The attitude and behaviour of the stockperson is important for reducing this fear Reducing fear not only improves welfare it also improves performance Film of fearfulness in early-weaned piglets follows 

STOCKMANSHIP freedom from fear and distress Several studies have compared the effects of stockperson interaction on performance in pigs (Gonyou et al. , 1986; Hemsworth et al. , 1986; 1987) What do these results suggest? Type of interaction Good None Poor Time to react with person (s) 10 92 160 Corticosteroid (ng/ml) 1.6 1.7 2.5 Pregnancy rate of gilts (%) 88 57 33 Growth rate 8-18 weeks (g/d) 897 881 837

STOCKMANSHIP welfare and production Good interactions with pigs reduce both fear and stress Reducing stress improves performance This is because stress can have a negative effect on: growth reproductive functioning immunity Regular inspection reduces stress Better interactions with pigs can be developed through training What would this training need to include?

Good interactions with pigs reduce both fear and stress

Reducing stress improves performance

This is because stress can have a negative effect on:

growth

reproductive functioning

immunity

STOCKMANSHIP effects of training on both welfare and production A four year study looking at 40 farms showed that the training of stockpeople can have a beneficial effect on both welfare and production The training developed an understanding of the behaviour of pigs and a knowledge of how they should be handled correctly. The training encouraged the stockpeople to develop more empathetic attitudes to pigs (Hemsworth et al., 1987) Effect of training Abnormal behaviours -36% Fear of humans -29% No. of piglets weaned +4.8% Pigs/sow/year +6%

STOCKMANSHIP handling pigs The most common interaction between stockpersons and pigs occurs when they are being moved Good handling can have a beneficial effect on meat quality How? Because stress before slaughter increases the risk of PSE (Pale Soft Exudative) meat, reducing meat quality Film of pig-handling follows 

STOCKMANSHIP handling pigs Make sure the passageway is secure and uncluttered A thin layer of bedding can be used to cover any distractions in the floor surface Always use a pig board to prevent escape back to where they came from Use encouraging tones and gentle slapping to let the pigs know where you are and to achieve a steady flow Electric goads and sticks should be prohibited What are the important things to remember when moving pigs?

Make sure the passageway is secure and uncluttered

A thin layer of bedding can be used to cover any distractions in the floor surface

Always use a pig board to prevent escape back to where they came from

Use encouraging tones and gentle slapping to let the pigs know where you are and to achieve a steady flow

Electric goads and sticks should be prohibited

STOCKMANSHIP welfare potential Pigs can suffer in any system if stockmanship is poor However, systems vary in their potential to provide good welfare In most intensive systems, the stockperson is limited to ensuring that the pigs do not face any additional stressors Most extensive systems have a higher welfare potential but this can be highly dependent on good stockmanship Which of these systems has the higher potential for good welfare?

STOCKMANSHIP summary A good stockperson has empathy, knowledge, good observation and conscientiousness Stockpersons must be aware of the “5 Freedoms” and Welfare Codes and any related laws issued by their particular country Good stockmanship is a main factor for the benefit of both pig welfare and performance Good handling using correct procedures can be beneficial for meat quality Stockmanship can be significantly improved by training

A good stockperson has empathy, knowledge, good observation and conscientiousness

Stockpersons must be aware of the “5 Freedoms” and Welfare Codes and any related laws issued by their particular country

Good stockmanship is a main factor for the benefit of both pig welfare and performance

Good handling using correct procedures can be beneficial for meat quality

Stockmanship can be significantly improved by training

STOCKMANSHIP “ In many situations, the importance of the stockperson as a ‘welfare worker’ is undervalued “

CHAPTER 10 summary

PIG PRODUCTION – SUMMARY good welfare depends on good environments The environment must provide: Shelter and comfort Appropriate space Appropriate company Appropriate facilities for the expression of natural behaviours Material for foraging All can be provided in good indoor and outdoor systems What must a good environment provide?

The environment must provide:

Shelter and comfort

Appropriate space

Appropriate company

Appropriate facilities for the expression of natural behaviours

Material for foraging

PIG PRODUCTION – SUMMARY good welfare depends on good genetics Good breeding should ensure that: Pigs are healthy and are adapted to the local climate and conditions Sows have good mothering skills Sows can sustain a full lactation without unsustainable loss of condition Sows do not produce larger litters than they can rear Pigs display a good temperament to each other and to people when properly treated How can good breeding improve welfare?

Good breeding should ensure that:

Pigs are healthy and are adapted to the local climate and conditions

Sows have good mothering skills

Sows can sustain a full lactation without unsustainable loss of condition

Sows do not produce larger litters than they can rear

Pigs display a good temperament to each other and to people when properly treated

PIG PRODUCTION – SUMMARY good welfare depends on good stockmanship Ensure the needs of pigs are provided for Recognise welfare problems whenever they arise Achieve the welfare and production potential of the farming system Ensure that pigs come to feel appropriately relaxed in the company of humans What are the crucial roles of the stockperson?

Ensure the needs of pigs are provided for

Recognise welfare problems whenever they arise

Achieve the welfare and production potential of the farming system

Ensure that pigs come to feel appropriately relaxed in the company of humans

PIG PRODUCTION – SUMMARY Animal welfare aspects of Good Agricultural Practice Environments Genetics Stockmanship Health care Nutrition All are essential If any of these are missing, welfare is likely to be poor Which of these is the most important? Pig welfare therefore depends on good:

Environments

Genetics

Stockmanship

Health care

Nutrition

Biological systems are more complex than technological ones The most intensive systems are not necessarily the most advanced Farm animals are sentient beings. They have feelings which matter to them For animals to grow well, their needs have to be understood, which are emotional as well as physical Developing good stockmanship is one the best investments that can be made for welfare and production PIG PRODUCTION – SUMMARY Animal welfare aspects of Good Agricultural Practice Finally, it is important to remember:

Biological systems are more complex than technological ones

The most intensive systems are not necessarily the most advanced

Farm animals are sentient beings. They have feelings which matter to them

For animals to grow well, their needs have to be understood, which are emotional as well as physical

Developing good stockmanship is one the best investments that can be made for welfare and production

ANIMAL WELFARE ASPECTS OF GOOD AGRICULTURAL PRACTICE (GAP) pig production This presentation has been adapted for use on shareview Full version available free from ciwf.org/gap on DVD-ROM Full version includes embedded video clips and interactive animation DVD-ROM also includes film, book and lecturers’ notes GAP Pigs DVD-ROM

PIG PRODUCTION – SUMMARY Animal Welfare Aspects of Good Agricultural Practice THE END

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