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Published on October 15, 2007

Author: Nivedi

Source: authorstream.com

Nitrogen Deposition Effects of Ammonia:  Nitrogen Deposition Effects of Ammonia Ammonia Workshop National Atmospheric Deposition Program October 22-24, 2003 Washington, DC USA Contrasting NOx and NH3:  Contrasting NOx and NH3 Historical focus on NOx Growing focus on NH3 Similarities Both have point and mobile sources Both, once emitted can be converted to any other N species Both contribute to all the N-related impacts. Reactive N vs Unreactive N2:  Reactive N vs Unreactive N2 Unreactive N is N2 (78% of earth’s atmosphere) Reactive N (Nr) includes all biologically, chemically and physically active N compounds in the atmosphere and biosphere of the Earth N controls productivity of most natural ecosystems Reactive N vs Unreactive N2:  Reactive N vs Unreactive N2 Unreactive N is N2 (78% of earth’s atmosphere) Reactive N (Nr) includes all biologically, chemically and physically active N compounds in the atmosphere and biosphere of the Earth N controls productivity of most natural ecosystems Nature converts N2 to Nr by biological nitrogen fixation (BNF). Humans convert N2 to Nr by fossil fuel combustion, the Haber Bosch process, and cultivation-induced BNF. Reactive N vs Unreactive N2:  Reactive N vs Unreactive N2 Unreactive N is N2 (78% of earth’s atmosphere) Reactive N (Nr) includes all biologically, chemically and physically active N compounds in the atmosphere and biosphere of the Earth N controls productivity of most natural ecosystems Nature converts N2 to Nr by biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) Humans convert N2 to Nr by fossil fuel combustion, the Haber Bosch process, and cultivation-induced BNF. Primary Conclusions Humans create more Nr than do natural terrestrial processes. Nr is accumulating in the environment. Nr accumulation contributes to most environment issues of the day. NHx and its conversion products are key components. Objectives:  Objectives Contrasting NOx and NH3 Human Alteration of N Cycle An agrarian to an industrializing world The Consequences of Anthropogenic Nitrogen (including NH3). Nitrogen is nutritious Nitrogen cascades Challenges! The History of Nitrogen --N becomes limiting?--:  The History of Nitrogen --N becomes limiting?-- Galloway JN and Cowling EB. 2002; Galloway et al., 2003a N-Nutrient N-Discovered BNF The History of Nitrogen --N becomes limiting?--:  The History of Nitrogen --N becomes limiting?-- Galloway JN and Cowling EB. 2002; Galloway et al., 2003a N-Nutrient N-Discovered BNF World is running out of N* *1898, Sir William Crookes, president of the British Association for the Advancement of Science Slide9:  Carl Bosch (1874-1940) The perfect catalyst, 1910 Large-scale production, 1913 Ammonia to nitrate, 1914 Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1931 -”chemical high pressure methods” Fritz Haber (1868-1934) Began work on NH3, 1904 First patent, 1908 Commercial-scale test, 1909 Developed Cl2 gas production, 1914 Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1918 -”for the synthesis of ammonia from its elements” Smil, 2001 The History of Nitrogen --Nr Creation, Haber Bosch process--:  The History of Nitrogen --Nr Creation, Haber Bosch process-- Galloway JN and Cowling EB. 2002; Galloway et al., 2003a N-Nutrient N-Discovered N2 + 3H2 --> 2NH3 BNF The History of Nitrogen --Nr Creation: Fossil Fuel Combustion--:  The History of Nitrogen --Nr Creation: Fossil Fuel Combustion-- Galloway JN and Cowling EB. 2002; Galloway et al., 2003a N-Nutrient N-Discovered N2 + 3H2 --> 2NH3 BNF The History of Nitrogen --Nr Creation, People and Nature--:  The History of Nitrogen --Nr Creation, People and Nature-- Galloway JN and Cowling EB. 2002; Galloway et al., 2003a N-Nutrient N-Discovered N2 + 3H2 --> 2NH3 BNF Natural Range, terrestrial { * * Nitrogen Drivers in 1860:  Nitrogen Drivers in 1860 Grain Production Meat Production Energy Production Slide14:  6 7 8 0.3 6 9 11 8 15 27 NOy N2 NHx 5 6 The Global Nitrogen Budget in 1860 and mid-1990s, TgN/yr 1860 120 Galloway et al., 2003b Nitrogen Drivers in 1860 & 1995:  Grain Production Meat Production Energy Production Nitrogen Drivers in 1860 & 1995 Slide16:  6 7 8 0.3 6 9 11 8 15 27 NOy N2 NHx 5 6 NOy N2 NHx 21 25 16 25 5 33 23 26 6 39 48 18 100 The Global Nitrogen Budget in 1860 and mid-1990s, TgN/yr 1860 mid-1990s 110 120 Galloway et al., 2003b Nitrogen Deposition Past and Present mg N/m2/yr:  Nitrogen Deposition Past and Present mg N/m2/yr 1860 1993 5000 2000 1000 750 500 250 100 50 25 5 Galloway et al., 2003b Nr and Agricultural Ecosystems:  Haber-Bosch has facilitated agricultural intensification 40% of world’s population is alive because of it An additional 3 billion people by 2050 will be sustained by it Most N that enters agroecosystems is released to the environment. Nr and Agricultural Ecosystems Nr and the Atmosphere:  NOx emissions contribute to OH, which defines the oxidizing capacity of the atmosphere NOx emissions are responsible for tens of thousands of excess-deaths per year in the United States O3 and N2O contribute to atmospheric warming N2O emissions contribute to stratospheric O3 depletion Nr and the Atmosphere Nr and Terrestrial Ecosystems:  N is the limiting nutrient in most temperate and polar ecosystems Nr deposition increases and then decreases forest and grassland productivity Nr additions probably decrease biodiversity across the entire range of deposition Nr and Terrestrial Ecosystems Nr and Freshwater Ecosystems:  Surface water acidification Tens of thousands of lakes and streams Biodiversity losses As reductions in SO2 emissions continue, Nr deposition becomes more important. Nr and Freshwater Ecosystems Nr and Coastal Ecosystems:  Nr and Coastal Ecosystems • Increased algal productivity • Shifts in community structure • Harmful algal blooms • Degradation of seagrass and algal beds • Formation of nuisance algal mats • Coral reef destruction • Increased oxygen demand and hypoxia • Increased nitrous oxide (greenhouse gas) Sybil Seitzinger, 2003 Slide23:  There are significant effects of Nr accumulation within each reservoir These effects are linked temporally and biogeochemically in the Nitrogen Cascade Slide24:  Atmosphere Terrestrial Ecosystems Aquatic Ecosystems Human Activities Agroecosystem Effects NHx Food Production Crop Animal People (Food; Fiber) Soil The Nitrogen Cascade Norg Galloway et al., 2003a Slide25:  Atmosphere Terrestrial Ecosystems Aquatic Ecosystems Human Activities Groundwater Effects Surface water Effects Coastal Effects PM & Visibility Effects Agroecosystem Effects NHx Food Production Crop Animal People (Food; Fiber) Soil The Nitrogen Cascade NH3 Norg Forests & Grassland Soil Ocean Effects Galloway et al., 2003a Slide26:  Atmosphere Terrestrial Ecosystems Aquatic Ecosystems Human Activities Groundwater Effects Surface water Effects Coastal Effects PM & Visibility Effects Agroecosystem Effects NHx Food Production Crop Animal People (Food; Fiber) Soil NO3 The Nitrogen Cascade NH3 Norg Forests & Grassland Soil Ocean Effects Galloway et al., 2003a Slide27:  Atmosphere Terrestrial Ecosystems Aquatic Ecosystems Human Activities Groundwater Effects Surface water Effects Coastal Effects Energy Production PM & Visibility Effects Ozone Effects Agroecosystem Effects NHx Food Production NOx NOx Crop Animal People (Food; Fiber) Soil NO3 The Nitrogen Cascade NH3 Norg Forests & Grassland Soil Ocean Effects Galloway et al., 2003a Slide28:  Atmosphere Terrestrial Ecosystems Aquatic Ecosystems Human Activities Groundwater Effects Surface water Effects Coastal Effects Energy Production PM & Visibility Effects Ozone Effects Agroecosystem Effects NHx Food Production NOx NOx Crop Animal People (Food; Fiber) Soil NO3 The Nitrogen Cascade NH3 --Indicates denitrification potential Norg Forests & Grassland Soil Ocean Effects Slide29:  Atmosphere Terrestrial Ecosystems Aquatic Ecosystems Human Activities Groundwater Effects Surface water Effects Coastal Effects Stratospheric Effects Energy Production PM & Visibility Effects Ozone Effects Agroecosystem Effects NHx Food Production NOx NOx Crop Animal People (Food; Fiber) Soil NO3 The Nitrogen Cascade NH3 --Indicates denitrification potential Norg Forests & Grassland Soil Ocean Effects N2O GH Effects N2O Hog Production in USA (1 dot= 10,000 Hogs and Pigs):  Hog Production in USA (1 dot= 10,000 Hogs and Pigs) Meat Consumption in North America (kg/capita/year):  Meat Consumption in North America (kg/capita/year) Hogs and Pigs Conclusions:  Conclusions NH3 contributes to every N-related issue Directly or indirectly Nr and NHx are accumulating in environmental reservoirs The impacts of N accumulation are significant and inter-related NH3 emissions will increase with time There is need for an integrated approach to manage N! Meat Consumption in North America (kg/capita/year):  Meat Consumption in North America (kg/capita/year) Layers & Pullets (60,000/dot) Nr Creation Rates by Food and Energy Production in 2050:  Nr Creation Rates by Food and Energy Production in 2050 today 2050 Nr Creation Rates 1995 (left) and 2050 (right) TgN/yr:  Nr Creation Rates 1995 (left) and 2050 (right) TgN/yr 2050 rates scaled by: -> population increase relative to 1995 after Galloway and Cowling, 2002 Nr Creation Rates 1995 (left) and 2050 (right) TgN/yr:  Nr Creation Rates 1995 (left) and 2050 (right) TgN/yr 2050 rates scaled by: -> population increase relative to 1995 -> N. Amer. per capita Nr creation in 1995 after Galloway and Cowling, 2002 The Fate of Haber-Bosch Nitrogen:  N Fertilizer Produced 100 The Fate of Haber-Bosch Nitrogen Galloway JN and Cowling EB. 2002 The Fate of Haber-Bosch Nitrogen:  N Fertilizer Produced N Consumed 100 14 The Fate of Haber-Bosch Nitrogen 14% of the N produced in the Haber-Bosch process enters the human mouth………. Galloway JN and Cowling EB. 2002 The Fate of Haber-Bosch Nitrogen:  N Fertilizer Produced N Fertilizer Consumed N in Crop N Harvested N in Food N Consumed -6 -47 -12 100 14 47 94 26 31 -5 The Fate of Haber-Bosch Nitrogen -16 14% of the N produced in the Haber-Bosch process enters the human mouth……….if you are a vegetarian. Galloway JN and Cowling EB. 2002 The Fate of Haber-Bosch Nitrogen:  N Fertilizer Produced N Fertilizer Applied N in Crop N In Feed N in Store N Consumed -6 -47 -3 100 4 47 94 7 31 -24 The Fate of Haber-Bosch Nitrogen -16 4% of the N produced in the Haber-Bosch process and used for animal production enters the human mouth. Galloway JN and Cowling EB. 2002 Nr Riverine Fluxes 1860 (left) and 1990 (right) TgN/yr:  Nr Riverine Fluxes 1860 (left) and 1990 (right) TgN/yr -> all regions increase riverine fluxes -> Asia becomes dominant Galloway et al, 2003b; Boyer et al., in preparation Nr Formation vs. Nr Conversion back to N2:  Nr Formation vs. Nr Conversion back to N2 N2 Nr 160 Tg N/yr Nr Formation vs. Nr Conversion back to N2:  Nr Formation vs. Nr Conversion back to N2 N2 Nr 160 Tg N/yr ?? Is anthropogenic Nr accumulating in environmental systems? If so, where relative to point of introduction? If so, on what time scale? Nr Formation vs. Nr Conversion back to N2:  Nr Formation vs. Nr Conversion back to N2 N2 Nr 160 Tg N/yr < 160 Tg N/yr Is anthropogenic Nr accumulating in environmental systems? If so, where relative to point of introduction? If so, on what time scale? Nr is accumulating in the atmosphere. Nr is accumulating in terrestrial systems. Once Nr enters water (streams, rivers, estuaries) most will eventually denitrify but generally far from point of entry. Accumulation occurs on short- and long-time scales. International Nitrogen Initiative:  International Nitrogen Initiative Formed in December 2002; SCOPE & IGBP sponsors Objective optimize nitrogen’s beneficial role in sustainable food production and minimize nitrogen’s negative effects on human health and the environment resulting from food and energy production. Preliminary assessment in December 2004. Slide47:  establish Regional Centers for North America, Latin America, Asia, Oceania, Europe and Africa use a three-phased approach, designed around the program objectives, to work towards the overall goal of the INI Phase I: Assessment of knowledge on N flows and problems Phase II: Development of region-specific solutions. Phase III: Implementation of scientific, engineering and policy tools to solve problems. activities for a given Center will depend upon the ‘maturity’ of nitrogen science and policy for that region. International Nitrogen Initiative Approach The Components of INI:  The Components of INI acid rain Biodiversity losses eutrophication stratospheric ozone methemoglinemia smog haze human health forest productivity fertilizers agroecosystems fossil fuel combustion food production legumes North America Latin America Europe Asia Africa Oceania nitrogen fixation denitrification nitrification CAFOs policy economics politics manure troposphere forests grasslands freshwaters estuaries ocean wetlands stratosphere cities decomposition assimilation emissions deposition rivers Imports/exports The Components of INI:  The Components of INI acid rain Biodiversity losses eutrophication stratospheric ozone methemoglinemia smog haze human health forest productivity fertilizers agroecosystems fossil fuel combustion food production legumes North America Latin America Europe Asia Africa Oceania nitrogen fixation denitrification nitrification CAFOs policy economics politics manure troposphere forests grasslands freshwaters estuaries ocean wetlands stratosphere cities decomposition assimilation emissions deposition rivers Imports/exports Phase I: Assessment of Science and Identification of Problems:  Phase I: Assessment of Science and Identification of Problems agroecosystems troposphere forests grasslands freshwaters estuaries ocean wetlands stratosphere cities The N Biogeochemical Cycle Systems Phase I: Assessment of Science and Identification of Problems:  Phase I: Assessment of Science and Identification of Problems agroecosystems troposphere forests grasslands freshwaters estuaries ocean wetlands stratosphere cities nitrogen fixation denitrification nitrification decomposition assimilation Processes The N Biogeochemical Cycle Systems Phase I: Assessment of Science and Identification of Problems:  Phase I: Assessment of Science and Identification of Problems agroecosystems troposphere forests grasslands freshwaters estuaries ocean wetlands stratosphere cities nitrogen fixation denitrification nitrification decomposition assimilation emissions deposition rivers imports/exports Exchanges Processes The N Biogeochemical Cycle Systems Phase I: Assessment of Science and Identification of Problems:  Phase I: Assessment of Science and Identification of Problems agroecosystems troposphere forests grasslands freshwaters estuaries ocean wetlands stratosphere cities nitrogen fixation denitrification nitrification decomposition assimilation emissions deposition rivers imports/exports Exchanges Processes The N Biogeochemical Cycle Energy Food People Systems Phase I: Assessment of Science and Identification of Problems:  Phase I: Assessment of Science and Identification of Problems agroecosystems troposphere forests grasslands freshwaters estuaries ocean wetlands stratosphere cities nitrogen fixation denitrification nitrification decomposition assimilation emissions deposition rivers imports/exports acid rain biodiversity losses eutrophication smog haze human health forest productivity stratospheric ozone Exchanges Processes Impacts The N Biogeochemical Cycle Energy Food People Systems Phase II: Development of Solutions Phase III: Implementation of Solutions:  Phase II: Development of Solutions Phase III: Implementation of Solutions Impacts These impacts can be lessened by reducing the amount of reactive N created and by converting reactive N to N2. To achieve these goals, while maintaining food and energy production, requires engineers, policy makers, economists, resource managers,etc. working in a regional context. International Nitrogen Initiative Current Status :  International Nitrogen Initiative Current Status Formed in December 2002 Sponsored by SCOPE and IGBP INI has a 15-person Scientific Advisory Committee members from Brazil, China, France, Netherlands, Japan, South Africa, Sweden, Thailand,Uganda, United Kingdom, United States First SAC meeting is hosted by Dutch Government May 12-14, 2003, The Hague The Challenge to all Parties:  The Challenge to all Parties Maximize food and energy production while maintaining environmental and human health!

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