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Galaxies Big Bang

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Information about Galaxies Big Bang
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Published on August 27, 2007

Author: BeatRoot

Source: authorstream.com

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Galaxies and the Universe:  Galaxies and the Universe What Are Galaxies?:  What Are Galaxies? Greek galax = milk William Herschel, 1783: A disk with the Sun slightly off-center What Are Galaxies?:  What Are Galaxies? 19th Century: 'Spiral Nebulae' Nearby? Maybe Solar Systems in Formation? 1920: Galaxies are Stars 1920’s: Galaxies are like the Milky Way Biggest single increase in our mental picture of the Universe in human history Where Are We in our Galaxy?:  Where Are We in our Galaxy? The visible Milky Way suggests our galaxy is a flat disk Surrounding other galaxies is a spherical halo of Globular Star Clusters Galaxies and Globular Clusters:  Galaxies and Globular Clusters The Milky Way’s Globular Clusters:  The Milky Way’s Globular Clusters The Milky Way As We See It:  The Milky Way As We See It Anatomy of a Galaxy:  Anatomy of a Galaxy Spiral Arms:  Spiral Arms In Microwaves, We Can See the Hub of the Galaxy:  In Microwaves, We Can See the Hub of the Galaxy Mapping the Neighborhood:  Mapping the Neighborhood Mapping the Neighborhood:  Mapping the Neighborhood Mapping the Galaxy: Not There Yet:  Mapping the Galaxy: Not There Yet Mapping the Galaxy: Not There Yet:  Mapping the Galaxy: Not There Yet The Local Group:  The Local Group Downtown: The Virgo Cluster: 50 m.l.y:  Downtown: The Virgo Cluster: 50 m.l.y The Local Super-cluster:  The Local Super-cluster The Coma Cluster350 m.l.y.:  The Coma Cluster 350 m.l.y. Large-Scale Structure of the Universe to 500 m.l.y.:  Large-Scale Structure of the Universe to 500 m.l.y. Travel to the Stars?:  Travel to the Stars? Kinetic Energy = 1/2 Mv2 What does it take to get a 1000-ton spaceship to 10% of the speed of light? (43 years to Alpha Centauri) M=106 kg, v = 3 x 107 m/sec KE = 1/2 x 106 x 9 x 1014 = 4.5 x 1020 joules Equals U.S. Energy Production for 4.5 years Once you get there, you have to stop. Relativity:  Relativity Speed of Light is Independent of Source Michelson and Morley, 1887 - Speed of Light Independent of Observer 'One of the Most Unexpected Results in the History of Science' - Isaac Asimov Conclusion: Speed of Light is the Same for All Observers Implication: Space and Time Must Change to Keep Speed of Light Constant Why the Speed of Light is a Speed Limit:  Why the Speed of Light is a Speed Limit Energy of a Moving Object in Relativity: E = mc2 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------  1 - v2/c2 One consequence: as v approaches c, Energy goes to infinity Also, as we approach c, Energy goes up very fast Slide23:  Fuel Economy of a Starship:  Fuel Economy of a Starship Another Consequence of Relativity- Gravitational Lenses:  Another Consequence of Relativity- Gravitational Lenses “The Big Bang”:  'The Big Bang' Edwin Hubble, Recession of Galaxies, 1929 Red-shift increases with distance Cosmic Microwave Background, 1965 Estimated Age of Universe: 12-15 b.y. 'Big Bang' originally a derisive term, coined by Fred Hoyle As Far Out as We Can See - Ten Days With the Hubble Telescope:  As Far Out as We Can See - Ten Days With the Hubble Telescope A New Name for the “Big Bang?”(Sky and Telescope, 1995):  A New Name for the 'Big Bang?' (Sky and Telescope, 1995) The Big Boot God’s Log-On Fred Withair Day ('Nobody ever named anything else after me, so why not?') What Happens If I Push This Button? You’re Never Going To Get It All Back In There Again 90% of the Universe is “Missing”:  90% of the Universe is 'Missing' Outer Stars in Galaxies revolve faster than expected What holds clusters of galaxies together? Conclusion: There must be a lot of invisible mass in the Universe Not really 'missing', just non-luminous Astronomers Are Not As Upset As One Might Expect:  Astronomers Are Not As Upset As One Might Expect MACHO’s (Massive Compact Halo Objects): faint stars, brown dwarfs, planets Cool non-luminous gas Massive Neutrinos? WIMP’s (Weakly Interacting Massive Particles) Magnetic monopoles Exotic objects: strings, mini-black holes

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