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Published on January 7, 2008

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Bioenergy for Environment and Development :  Bioenergy for Environment and Development John Christensen UNEP Outline of Presentation:  Outline of Presentation Bioenergy – large span of applications 2.4 billion people rely on biomass Intervention possibilities UNEP’s approach – focus and partnership Examples of UNEP activities Studies on bio-energy and environment linkages: Increasing biofuels in Africa - WB Bioenergy perspectives in EU - EEA Bio energy use (1):  Bio energy use (1) 1.   The "traditional domestic" use in developing countries (fuel wood, charcoal and agricultural residues) for household cooking (e.g. the "three stone fire"), lighting and space-heating. In this role the efficiency of conversion of the biomass to useful energy generally lies between 5% and 15%.   2.     The "traditional industrial" use of biomass for the processing of tobacco, tea, pig iron, bricks & tiles, etc, where the biomass feedstock is often regarded as a "free" energy source. There is generally little incentive to use the biomass efficiently so conversion of the feedstock to useful energy commonly occurs at an efficiency of 15% or less.   Bio Energy (2):  Bio Energy (2) 3.   "Modern industrial." Industrial technologically advanced thermal conversion technologies. Expected conversion efficiencies between 30 and 55%.  4.  Newer "chemical conversion" technologies  5.  "Biological conversion" techniques, including anaerobic digestion for biogas production and fermentation for alcohol. Population relying on traditional biomass:  Population relying on traditional biomass Issues for Bio-energy Expansion:  Issues for Bio-energy Expansion Resource Potential and Distribution Technological Development State of the Biomass Conversion Technologies Costs of Technologies and Resources Social and Organisational Structures for Fuel Supply Public Acceptability Land-use and Environmental Aspects Intervention options:  Intervention options Developing and Deploying Cost-effective Conversion Technologies Developing and Implementing Improved Dedicated Bioenergy Crop Production Systems Establishing Bio-energy Markets and Organisational Structures to Transport and Deliver Bio-energy Resources and Products Valuing the Environmental Benefits to Society, Such As on the Carbon Balance UNEP REED bioenergy activity examples:  UNEP REED bioenergy activity examples Slide9:  Example: KPBS KBPS aims to produce Eucalyptus Charcoal from the logging and sawmilling of eucalyptus waste. KBPS projections are that they will produce 12,996 tons of charcoal over the next five years. AREED assistance: enterprise development, including business plan. $78,000 equity investment for additional equipment and working capital required to increase production and distribution Bioenergy Expansion Examples :  Bioenergy Expansion Examples Two examples to illustrate the key issues Biofuels options in Africa (WB) Bioenergy use in the EU (EEA) African experiences:  African experiences Current production level marginal (<1 % of global capacity) Different experiences but many failures South Africa has rich history but most ethanol from synfuels and little use in transport Malawi is blending 15 to 25 % w. gasoline since 1980s and seen as also as dealing with lead problems Kenya started same time but limited success Zambia and Zimbabwe has been in and out but never taken really off Nigeria and Ethiopia starting So issues are known but economic and political circumstances have prevented success, current oil price levels provide strong incentive to revisit these options Case of Bio Fuels in Africa:  Case of Bio Fuels in Africa Key differences - economics:  Key differences - economics Key differences - environment:  Key differences - environment Supply potential:  Supply potential Sorghum on 0.5% of total SSA land area > 60.000 million litres > 170.000 Thousand tons of Co2 abated 3.5 to 7.8 million jobs > 20.000 Million USD Sugar cane on 0.5 % of land area > 45.000 million litres > 130.000 T Tons Jobs similar and costs around 17.000 million Demand side options:  Demand side options Substitute for 10% of projected household woodfuel consumption by 2020 in SSA – 12.000 million litres Ethanol blends in all SSA 10% in gasoline and 5 % in diesel by 2020 – 7.000 million litres Substitute for 10% of household kerosene use by 2020 approx. 1.000 million litres Conclusions of analysis:  Conclusions of analysis Enough quality land could be available and demand targets manageable Ethanol increasingly competitive esp. with current oil prices (Brazil experience < USD 0.30 per litre gasoline) Drivers : Oil prices and import bills Technology development Changes in agricultural prices linked with EU/US reform Carbon finance as “sweetener” Global trading options and local employment Would need strong policy push and external finance Bioenergy in the EU:  Bioenergy in the EU EU target for 2010 is to reach 12 % of energy supply from renewables and more than 2/3 should be from bioenergy By 2010 this would require around 130 Mtoe from Bioenergy Trends promising but too slow Expansion will not conflict with other environmental goals Action – but behind schedule:  Action – but behind schedule                                                                                                                                                                                  “green “petrol Expansion is compatible with environmental goals :  Expansion is compatible with environmental goals Concluding reflections:  Concluding reflections Bioenergy is already a key traditional energy source, but efficiency of utilisation is low Many promising technological options Significant expansion possible with mainly positive environmental implications Economics increasingly attractive Urgent need to policies to secure expansion

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