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G & D Ch. 6

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Information about G & D Ch. 6
Education

Published on February 12, 2009

Author: alxndr01

Source: slideshare.net

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Socioemotional Development in Early Childhood
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CHAPTER 6 Socioemotional Development in Early Childhood

Self-Development Resolving Psychosocial Conflict Initiative v. Guilt Preschool-age children face a conflict between desire to act independently & to do things on their own Guilt comes when efforts fail They see themselves as a unique person & begin to make decisions on their own Parents can help resolve conflict by providing them with opportunities to act self-reliantly while still giving guidance & encourage initiative Self-concept Set of beliefs about what you are like as an individual Their self-descriptions are not necessarily accurate They frequently overestimate their skills & knowledge They have an optimistic view of the future because they haven’t begun comparing their performance against others’

Resolving Psychosocial Conflict

Initiative v. Guilt

Preschool-age children face a conflict between desire to act independently & to do things on their own

Guilt comes when efforts fail

They see themselves as a unique person & begin to make decisions on their own

Parents can help resolve conflict by providing them with opportunities to act self-reliantly while still giving guidance & encourage initiative

Self-concept

Set of beliefs about what you are like as an individual

Their self-descriptions are not necessarily accurate

They frequently overestimate their skills & knowledge

They have an optimistic view of the future because they haven’t begun comparing their performance against others’

Morality Social Learning Theory The environment produces prosocial behavior Not all prosocial behavior needs reinforcement to be learned Abstract modeling paves the way for the development of more general rules & principles Empathy & Moral Behavior Empathy: the understanding of what another feels Preschoolers attempts to avoid negative emotions can lead them to act in a moral manner

Social Learning Theory

The environment produces prosocial behavior

Not all prosocial behavior needs reinforcement to be learned

Abstract modeling paves the way for the development of more general rules & principles

Empathy & Moral Behavior

Empathy: the understanding of what another feels

Preschoolers attempts to avoid negative emotions can lead them to act in a moral manner

Morality Moral Development Changes in one’s sense of justice & what’s right & wrong, & the behavior related to moral issues Piaget’s 3-stages of Moral Development 1. Heteronomous morality (4 – 7 years) Rules are seen as unchanging & unchangeable Immanent justice predominates around this time 2. Incipient cooperation (7 – 10 years) Games become more clearly social with formal rules as to “right” & “wrong” 3. Autonomous cooperation (Around 10 years +) Awareness that rules can be changed & modified if there is agreement

Moral Development

Changes in one’s sense of justice & what’s right & wrong, & the behavior related to moral issues

Piaget’s 3-stages of Moral Development

1. Heteronomous morality (4 – 7 years)

Rules are seen as unchanging & unchangeable

Immanent justice predominates around this time

2. Incipient cooperation (7 – 10 years)

Games become more clearly social with formal rules as to “right” & “wrong”

3. Autonomous cooperation (Around 10 years +)

Awareness that rules can be changed & modified if there is agreement

Gender Identity Established by Preschool Shows up in play Prefers same-sex playmates & games They have strict ideas about how boys & girls are supposed to act Gender-appropriate behavior more stereotyped than many adults Become less rigid by age 7 but never disappears They have expectations about male & female behaviors

Established by Preschool

Shows up in play

Prefers same-sex playmates & games

They have strict ideas about how boys & girls are supposed to act

Gender-appropriate behavior more stereotyped than many adults

Become less rigid by age 7 but never disappears

They have expectations about male & female behaviors

Views of Gender Identity Social Learning View Children learn gender-related behaviors & expectations from others Involved imitation, modeling, reward, & punishment Cognitive View Establishing a gender identity used to form a sense of identity To establish a gender identity gender schema (cognitive framework that organizes information relevant to gender) is developed Gender-specific rigidity is partly a reflection of preschooler’s understanding of gender Influenced by beliefs about sexual differences & these differences are based on appearance, not biology By 4 or 5 a sense of gender constancy (awareness that people are male or female depending on fixed, unchangeable biological factors) Gender stereotyping: assuming certain behaviors are appropriate & others not

Social Learning View

Children learn gender-related behaviors & expectations from others

Involved imitation, modeling, reward, & punishment

Cognitive View

Establishing a gender identity used to form a sense of identity

To establish a gender identity gender schema (cognitive framework that organizes information relevant to gender) is developed

Gender-specific rigidity is partly a reflection of preschooler’s understanding of gender

Influenced by beliefs about sexual differences & these differences are based on appearance, not biology

By 4 or 5 a sense of gender constancy (awareness that people are male or female depending on fixed, unchangeable biological factors)

Gender stereotyping: assuming certain behaviors are appropriate & others not

Gender Roles & Gender Identity Differences in males & females verbal ability Girls have larger vocabularies than boys Girls read, write, & spell better than boys Boys have more reading & other language-related problems Mathematics Boys get higher grades on math achievement tests Girls get better grades in math courses Spatial abilities Males respond more rapidly & accurately on tests of visual manipulation of images Social influence Girls more readily comply with directions of adults Girls more readily influenced by others in a variety of situations under group pressure Girls value group harmony more than boys and give in more readily Aggression Boys more physically aggressive Girls more relationally aggressive Will attempt to hurt others by dam-aging their relationships with peers Emotional sensitivity Girls better able to express emotions & interpret others’ emotions In most other intellectual & social domains, boys & girls are similar

Differences in males & females

verbal ability

Girls have larger vocabularies than boys

Girls read, write, & spell better than boys

Boys have more reading & other language-related problems

Mathematics

Boys get higher grades on math achievement tests

Girls get better grades in math courses

Spatial abilities

Males respond more rapidly & accurately on tests of visual manipulation of images

Social influence

Girls more readily comply with directions of adults

Girls more readily influenced by others in a variety of situations under group pressure

Girls value group harmony more than boys and give in more readily

Aggression

Boys more physically aggressive

Girls more relationally aggressive

Will attempt to hurt others by dam-aging their relationships with peers

Emotional sensitivity

Girls better able to express emotions & interpret others’ emotions

In most other intellectual & social domains, boys & girls are similar

Gender Roles & Gender Identity Gender Typing Learning Gender Roles Children learn gender roles through reinforcement & observational learning Parents shape appropriate gender roles in children Children learn what their culture considers appropriate behavior for males & females by watching adults & peers Parents interact equally w/sons & daughters Exceptions to comparable treatment Parents respond differently to sons & daughters Certain behaviors are encouraged Mothers talk differently to sons & daughters More supportive & more commands to daughters Parents give different chores to sons & daughters

Gender Typing

Learning Gender Roles

Children learn gender roles through reinforcement & observational learning

Parents shape appropriate gender roles in children

Children learn what their culture considers appropriate behavior for males & females by watching adults & peers

Parents interact equally w/sons & daughters

Exceptions to comparable treatment

Parents respond differently to sons & daughters

Certain behaviors are encouraged

Mothers talk differently to sons & daughters

More supportive & more commands to daughters

Parents give different chores to sons & daughters

Gender Roles & Gender Identity Father’s Treatment of Child Treats sons & daughters differently Responds more to gender stereotypes More gender-related play Punish sons more Accept daughter’s dependence more Peer Influences Preschoolers critical of peers engaging in cross-gender play Once child learns rules of cross-gender play tend to punish harshly violators Early segregation of playmates based on child’s sex means boys learn primarily from boys & girls from girls

Father’s Treatment of Child

Treats sons & daughters differently

Responds more to gender stereotypes

More gender-related play

Punish sons more

Accept daughter’s dependence more

Peer Influences

Preschoolers critical of peers engaging in cross-gender play

Once child learns rules of cross-gender play tend to punish harshly violators

Early segregation of playmates based on child’s sex means boys learn primarily from boys & girls from girls

Gender Roles & Gender Identity Gender Identity Sense of the self as a male or female Occurs in 3 steps: Gender labeling By 3 understand that they are either boys or girls and label self accordingly Gender stability During preschool, begins to understand boys will become men & girls will become women Gender constancy Between 4 & 7, most children understand that maleness & femaleness doesn’t change over situations or according to personal wishes

Gender Identity

Sense of the self as a male or female

Occurs in 3 steps:

Gender labeling

By 3 understand that they are either boys or girls and label self accordingly

Gender stability

During preschool, begins to understand boys will become men & girls will become women

Gender constancy

Between 4 & 7, most children understand that maleness & femaleness doesn’t change over situations or according to personal wishes

Gender Roles & Gender Identity Gender-schema Theory Children first decide if an object, activity, or behavior is female or male, then use this information to decide whether they should learn more about the object, activity, or behavior After children understand gender they see the world through gender-typical eyes allowing only specific behaviors, activities, or objects

Gender-schema Theory

Children first decide if an object, activity, or behavior is female or male, then use this information to decide whether they should learn more about the object, activity, or behavior

After children understand gender they see the world through gender-typical eyes allowing only specific behaviors, activities, or objects

Parenting Styles Authoritarian High control w/little warmth Authoritative Fair degree of parental control while being warm & responsiveness Give & take as well as giving reasons for rules, punishment, etc. Permissive-indulgent Warmth & caring but little control Readily agrees to child’s requests Rarely punishes Uninvolved-indifferent Provides neither warmth nor control Authoritative best for children Children tend to be responsible, self-reliant, & friendly Authoritarian seems to work best for children growing up in poverty Strict obedience can protect children from violence

Authoritarian

High control w/little warmth

Authoritative

Fair degree of parental control while being warm & responsiveness

Give & take as well as giving reasons for rules, punishment, etc.

Permissive-indulgent

Warmth & caring but little control

Readily agrees to child’s requests

Rarely punishes

Uninvolved-indifferent

Provides neither warmth nor control

Authoritative best for children

Children tend to be responsible, self-reliant, & friendly

Authoritarian seems to work best for children growing up in poverty

Strict obedience can protect children from violence

Cultural Considerations Collectivistic Orientation Asian societies generally promote the notion of interdependence, blending in, & being interconnected. There is a value on group effort. Individualistic Orientation Western societies emphasize personal identity, uniqueness, and competition. There is a value on individual effort.

Collectivistic Orientation

Asian societies generally promote the notion of interdependence, blending in, & being interconnected.

There is a value on group effort.

Individualistic Orientation

Western societies emphasize personal identity, uniqueness, and competition.

There is a value on individual effort.

Racial & Ethnic Awareness For Many Preschoolers, Racial Awareness Comes Early Infants can distinguish between skin colors Later children begin to attribute meaning to racial characteristics By 3 or 4 they begin to identify their self as a member of a particular racial group Ethnic identity comes later than racial identity Race dissonance: minority children indicating preferences for majority values

For Many Preschoolers, Racial Awareness Comes Early

Infants can distinguish between skin colors

Later children begin to attribute meaning to racial characteristics

By 3 or 4 they begin to identify their self as a member of a particular racial group

Ethnic identity comes later than racial identity

Race dissonance: minority children indicating preferences for majority values

The Edible Complex

Social Lives Developing Friendships Around 3 friendships develop Relationships with peers are based on the desire for companionship, play, & fun With age ideas about friendship evolve Younger preschoolers friendships are based on doing things together Older preschoolers friendships are based on trust, support, & shared interests

Developing Friendships

Around 3 friendships develop

Relationships with peers are based on the desire for companionship, play, & fun

With age ideas about friendship evolve

Younger preschoolers friendships are based on doing things together

Older preschoolers friendships are based on trust, support, & shared interests

Play Two Kinds of Play Functional play Simple repetitive activities typical of 3-year olds Constructive play Manipulation of objects to produce or build something Gives children the chance to test developing physical & constructive skills & practice fine muscle movements They also learn cooperation

Two Kinds of Play

Functional play

Simple repetitive activities typical of 3-year olds

Constructive play

Manipulation of objects to produce or build something

Gives children the chance to test developing physical & constructive skills & practice fine muscle movements

They also learn cooperation

Four Types of Play Parallel Play Children play with similar toys in a similar manner without interaction Onlooker Play Children simply watch others at play Associative Play Two or more children actually interact & share or borrow toys or materials Cooperative Play Children play with one another, taking turns, playing games, or devising contests Associative & cooperative play occur in the latter part of preschool years

Parallel Play

Children play with similar toys in a similar manner without interaction

Onlooker Play

Children simply watch others at play

Associative Play

Two or more children actually interact & share or borrow toys or materials

Cooperative Play

Children play with one another, taking turns, playing games, or devising contests

Associative & cooperative play occur in the latter part of preschool years

Child Abuse Forms of Maltreatment 1. Physical abuse (20%) Assault leading to injuries, etc. 2. Sexual abuse (10%) Fondling, intercourse, other sexual behaviors 3. Psychological abuse (10%) Ridicule, rejection, humiliation 4. Neglect (60%) No adequate food, clothing, medical care 1 million children maltreated or neglected

Forms of Maltreatment

1. Physical abuse (20%)

Assault leading to injuries, etc.

2. Sexual abuse (10%)

Fondling, intercourse, other sexual behaviors

3. Psychological abuse (10%)

Ridicule, rejection, humiliation

4. Neglect (60%)

No adequate food, clothing, medical care

1 million children maltreated or neglected

Child Abuse Abusing Parents Can’t be distinguished from other parents Countries that condone capital punishment have higher child maltreatment than the U.S. Social conditions: 1. Poverty More common because of lack of money creating stress 2. Social isolation When isolated from relatives or neighbors 3. Cultural factors Does not occur in all poverty families or in middle- & upper-class families Increasing odds of abusing children Abusing parents tended to be abused children Sees abuse as a normal part of childhood Ineffective parents e.g. inconsistent discipline Unrealistic expectations for children Parents’ interactions unpredictable, unsupportive, & unsatisfying to each other Children may inadvertently contribute to their own abuse Young children can’t regulate their own behavior Frequently ill children abused more crying, whining, & annoying parents

Abusing Parents

Can’t be distinguished from other parents

Countries that condone capital punishment have higher child maltreatment than the U.S.

Social conditions:

1. Poverty

More common because of lack of money creating stress

2. Social isolation

When isolated from relatives or neighbors

3. Cultural factors

Does not occur in all poverty families or in middle- & upper-class families

Increasing odds of abusing children

Abusing parents tended to be abused children

Sees abuse as a normal part of childhood

Ineffective parents

e.g. inconsistent discipline

Unrealistic expectations for children

Parents’ interactions unpredictable, unsupportive, & unsatisfying to each other

Children may inadvertently contribute to their own abuse

Young children can’t regulate their own behavior

Frequently ill children abused more

crying, whining, & annoying parents

Child Abuse Effects of abuse Cognitive & academic performance disturbed Get lower grades in school, score less on standardized achievement tests, tend to be held back a grade Also disruptive in class & unable to regulate emotions 75% sexually abused had psychiatric disorders or adjustment problems: depression, anxiety, substance abuse Type of peer & father-child relationship can help mitigate long-term consequences of childhood sexual abuse Preventing abuse & maltreatment Poverty-stricken families will continue abuse as long as physical punishment is considered acceptable & effective behavior control Parents need counseling & training skills Several years of intervention programs helps Having parents become more involved in child’s education Leads to more success in school, reduces stress, enhances parents’ confidence in child-rearing skills, & reduces maltreatment

Effects of abuse

Cognitive & academic performance disturbed

Get lower grades in school, score less on standardized achievement tests, tend to be held back a grade

Also disruptive in class & unable to regulate emotions

75% sexually abused had psychiatric disorders or adjustment problems: depression, anxiety, substance abuse

Type of peer & father-child relationship can help mitigate long-term consequences of childhood sexual abuse

Preventing abuse & maltreatment

Poverty-stricken families will continue abuse as long as physical punishment is considered acceptable & effective behavior control

Parents need counseling & training skills

Several years of intervention programs helps

Having parents become more involved in child’s education

Leads to more success in school, reduces stress, enhances parents’ confidence in child-rearing skills, & reduces maltreatment

Understanding Others Theory of Mind Begin to see the world from the perspective of others Understand the concept of “pretend” but not the concept of “belief” Autism Psychological disorder producing significant language & emotional difficulties 4 in 10,000 born autistic, mainly males They lack a connection with others & avoid interpersonal situations

Theory of Mind

Begin to see the world from the perspective of others

Understand the concept of “pretend” but not the concept of “belief”

Autism

Psychological disorder producing significant language & emotional difficulties

4 in 10,000 born autistic, mainly males

They lack a connection with others & avoid interpersonal situations

Aggression & Violence Aggression Intentionally inflicting injury or harm on to another person Usually decreases through preschool years Emotional self-regulation Capability to adjust emotions to a desired state & level of intensity Instrumental aggression Aggression motivated by the desire to obtain a concrete goal Rational aggression Nonphysical aggression Intended to hurt another’s feelings

Aggression

Intentionally inflicting injury or harm on to another person

Usually decreases through preschool years

Emotional self-regulation

Capability to adjust emotions to a desired state & level of intensity

Instrumental aggression

Aggression motivated by the desire to obtain a concrete goal

Rational aggression

Nonphysical aggression Intended to hurt another’s feelings

Television Violence Exposure to Models Aggressive behaviors more likely with exposure TV violence leads to higher levels of aggression Cognitive Approaches Key to understanding moral development is to understand a preschooler’s interpretation of others’ behavior in the environmental context

Exposure to Models

Aggressive behaviors more likely with exposure

TV violence leads to higher levels of aggression

Cognitive Approaches

Key to understanding moral development is to understand a preschooler’s interpretation of others’ behavior in the environmental context

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