G & D Ch. 13

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Information about G & D Ch. 13
Education

Published on February 12, 2009

Author: alxndr01

Source: slideshare.net

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Physical and Cognitive Development in Middle Adulthood

CHAPTER 13 Physical & Cognitive Development in Middle Adulthood

The Nature of Middle Adulthood Defining Middle Adulthood 40 to ~65 Physical Changes & Health Changes in appearance Gray hair, baldness, weight gain Changes in bones & joints Loss of bone mass Makes bones weaker & more brittle Osteoporosis Bones become porous & easy to break More common in women

Defining Middle Adulthood

40 to ~65

Physical Changes & Health

Changes in appearance

Gray hair, baldness, weight gain

Changes in bones & joints

Loss of bone mass

Makes bones weaker & more brittle

Osteoporosis

Bones become porous & easy to break

More common in women

Physical Changes & Health Osteoarthritis Gradual onset & progression of pain & disability, with minor signs of inflammation Becomes noticeable in late middle age or early old age Common in people with joints subjected to routine overuse & abuse (athletes, manual laborers) Hands, spine, hips, & knees Rheumatoid Arthritis Disease of the joints that also develops slowly & typically affects different joints causing different types of pain than osteoarthritis Morning stiffness & aching in fingers, wrists, & ankles, with joints swelling

Osteoarthritis

Gradual onset & progression of pain & disability, with minor signs of inflammation

Becomes noticeable in late middle age or early old age

Common in people with joints subjected to routine overuse & abuse (athletes, manual laborers)

Hands, spine, hips, & knees

Rheumatoid Arthritis

Disease of the joints that also develops slowly & typically affects different joints causing different types of pain than osteoarthritis

Morning stiffness & aching in fingers, wrists, & ankles, with joints swelling

The Changing Senses Vision changes Presbyopia: loss of near vision Glaucoma: fluid pressure in the eye increases because of improper drainage or too much is produced 1-2% over 40 affected African Americans particularly susceptible Untreated can cause blindness

Vision changes

Presbyopia: loss of near vision

Glaucoma: fluid pressure in the eye increases because of improper drainage or too much is produced

1-2% over 40 affected

African Americans particularly susceptible

Untreated can cause blindness

The Changing Senses Hearing declines gradually Presbycusis: Loss of high frequency hearing About 12% between 45 & 65 Men are more prone than women Some loss due to environment Aging brings loss of hair cells Eardrum becomes less elastic

Hearing declines gradually

Presbycusis: Loss of high frequency hearing

About 12% between 45 & 65

Men are more prone than women

Some loss due to environment

Aging brings loss of hair cells

Eardrum becomes less elastic

Physical Changes & Health Climacteric Loss of ability to bear children Usually begins in 40s & complete by late 50s Menopause During climacteric, menstruation becomes irregular & eventually stops Some stop menstruating around 40, others may have regular periods into mid-50s Most have last period in early 50s Ovulation may continue for 1 – 2 years afterward

Climacteric

Loss of ability to bear children

Usually begins in 40s & complete by late 50s

Menopause

During climacteric, menstruation becomes irregular & eventually stops

Some stop menstruating around 40, others may have regular periods into mid-50s

Most have last period in early 50s

Ovulation may continue for 1 – 2 years afterward

Physical Changes & Health Estrogen-related symptoms Hot flashes, night sweats, vaginal dryness, & urine leakage Symptomatic symptoms Difficulty sleeping, headaches, rapid heartbeat, & stiffness or soreness in the joints, neck, or shoulders Ethnic differences in symptoms seem to be related to cultures Treating symptoms of menopause Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT) Taking low doses of estrogen, often combine with progestin HRT reduces estrogen-related symptoms Also reduces risk of osteoporosis May have role in helping prevent Alzheimer’s Drawback is increased risk of endometrial and breast cancer if taken for 10 or more years

Estrogen-related symptoms

Hot flashes, night sweats, vaginal dryness, & urine leakage

Symptomatic symptoms

Difficulty sleeping, headaches, rapid heartbeat, & stiffness or soreness in the joints, neck, or shoulders

Ethnic differences in symptoms seem to be related to cultures

Treating symptoms of menopause

Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT)

Taking low doses of estrogen, often combine with progestin

HRT reduces estrogen-related symptoms

Also reduces risk of osteoporosis

May have role in helping prevent Alzheimer’s

Drawback is increased risk of endometrial and breast cancer if taken for 10 or more years

Changes in Men Sperm production decline 30% between 25 & 60 Enlargement & stiffening of prostate gland May obstruct urinary tract Prostate cancer concern Gradual reduction in testosterone levels after mid-20s Changes in sexual performance Less perceived demand to ejaculate Need longer time & more stimulation to achieve erection & orgasm Much longer resolution phase Frequent failures to achieve orgasm & loss of erection during intercourse With willing partner, sexual activity can be lifelong

Sperm production decline 30% between 25 & 60

Enlargement & stiffening of prostate gland

May obstruct urinary tract

Prostate cancer concern

Gradual reduction in testosterone levels after mid-20s

Changes in sexual performance

Less perceived demand to ejaculate

Need longer time & more stimulation to achieve erection & orgasm

Much longer resolution phase

Frequent failures to achieve orgasm & loss of erection during intercourse

With willing partner, sexual activity can be lifelong

Cognitive Development Practical Intelligence The broad range of skills related to how individuals shape, select, or adapt to their physical & social environment Applications of Practical Intelligence Important approach in assessing adults’ competence in performing everyday tasks

Practical Intelligence

The broad range of skills related to how individuals shape, select, or adapt to their physical & social environment

Applications of Practical Intelligence

Important approach in assessing adults’ competence in performing everyday tasks

Cognitive Development Becoming an Expert Crystallized intelligence tends to improve throughout one’s lifetime Expert’s behavior patterns: Don’t always follow the rules as novices do More flexible, creative, & curious Have superior strategies for accomplishing tasks Spend more time planning Declines in expert performance not nearly as great as they are for the abilities of information processing, memory, & fluid intelligence Lifelong Learning Adult learners differ from younger Have a higher need to know why they should learn something before undertaking it Enter learning situations with more & different experiences on which to build Most willing to learn those things they believe are necessary to deal with real-world problems rather than abstract, hypothetical situations More motivated by internal than external factors

Becoming an Expert

Crystallized intelligence tends to improve throughout one’s lifetime

Expert’s behavior patterns:

Don’t always follow the rules as novices do

More flexible, creative, & curious

Have superior strategies for accomplishing tasks

Spend more time planning

Declines in expert performance not nearly as great as they are for the abilities of information processing, memory, & fluid intelligence

Lifelong Learning

Adult learners differ from younger

Have a higher need to know why they should learn something before undertaking it

Enter learning situations with more & different experiences on which to build

Most willing to learn those things they believe are necessary to deal with real-world problems rather than abstract, hypothetical situations

More motivated by internal than external factors

Intelligence Fluid Intelligence The ability to deal with new problems & situations Inductive reasoning, spatial orientation, perceptual speed, & verbal memory Crystallized Intelligence The store of information, skills, & strategies acquired through education & prior experiences, & through previous use of fluid intelligence

Fluid Intelligence

The ability to deal with new problems & situations

Inductive reasoning, spatial orientation, perceptual speed, & verbal memory

Crystallized Intelligence

The store of information, skills, & strategies acquired through education & prior experiences, & through previous use of fluid intelligence

Religion & Meaning in Life Individual Differences in Religious Interest Religion is linked negatively to health with some and positively with others (e.g. cults) Mainstream religion has a positive or no relationship to health For some, it is important in coping with stress For some, it aids in examining life’s meaning

Individual Differences in Religious Interest

Religion is linked negatively to health with some and positively with others (e.g. cults)

Mainstream religion has a positive or no relationship to health

For some, it is important in coping with stress

For some, it aids in examining life’s meaning

Changing Priorities in Midlife Generativity v. Stagnation Generativity: Being productive by helping others to ensure the continuation of society bye guiding the next generation Generativity is grounded in the successful resolution of the previous 6 phases Many Avenues of Generativity Parenting, mentoring, volunteering, foster grandparenting Personal concerns & priorities of middle-age adults are different from those of younger adults

Generativity v. Stagnation

Generativity: Being productive by helping others to ensure the continuation of society bye guiding the next generation

Generativity is grounded in the successful resolution of the previous 6 phases

Many Avenues of Generativity

Parenting, mentoring, volunteering, foster grandparenting

Personal concerns & priorities of middle-age adults are different from those of younger adults

Changing Priorities in Midlife Stagnation Being unable to deal with the needs of one’s children or to provide mentoring to younger adults

Stagnation

Being unable to deal with the needs of one’s children or to provide mentoring to younger adults

Gender-role Identity Men & women are most different in their gender-role identities in late adolescence & young adulthood but become increasingly similar in midlife & old age

Men & women are most different in their gender-role identities in late adolescence & young adulthood but become increasingly similar in midlife & old age

Midlife Transition & Crisis Most people believe they will have a midlife crisis Evidence fails to support the idea of a crisis Those experiencing a crisis tend to be suffering from general problems of psychopathology People do experience some sort of fundamental change at some point during adulthood Ego resilience: A personality resource that enables one to handle midlife changes Ego resilience may account for the 2 outcomes (Generativity & Stagnation) in Erikson’s view of midlife

Most people believe they will have a midlife crisis

Evidence fails to support the idea of a crisis

Those experiencing a crisis tend to be suffering from general problems of psychopathology

People do experience some sort of fundamental change at some point during adulthood

Ego resilience: A personality resource that enables one to handle midlife changes

Ego resilience may account for the 2 outcomes (Generativity & Stagnation) in Erikson’s view of midlife

Middle Age Family Dynamics Becoming Friends/Empty Nest Parent child relationships tend to improve when children become young adults Key factor to improvement is extent to which parents foster & approve of their children’s attempts at being independence When children leave, parents better able to ascertain how the children turned out

Becoming Friends/Empty Nest

Parent child relationships tend to improve when children become young adults

Key factor to improvement is extent to which parents foster & approve of their children’s attempts at being independence

When children leave, parents better able to ascertain how the children turned out

When Children Return Empty Nest Satisfaction Short-lived ½ of children return after leaving Men more likely than women to move back Children w/low GPAs, low sense of autonomy, or an expectation that their parents would provide a large portion of their income following graduation Adult children whose parents were verbally or physically abusive unlikely to move back, as well as those married

Empty Nest Satisfaction Short-lived

½ of children return after leaving

Men more likely than women to move back

Children w/low GPAs, low sense of autonomy, or an expectation that their parents would provide a large portion of their income following graduation

Adult children whose parents were verbally or physically abusive unlikely to move back, as well as those married

Caring for aged parents Most middle-age adults have parents in pretty good health A growing number need some sort of care Job generally falls on daughter or daughter-in-law Daughters 3 X as likely to care for parent(s) Filial Obligation Sense of responsibility to care for parent if necessary All but a small percentage of care to older adults is provided by adult children & other family members

Most middle-age adults have parents in pretty good health

A growing number need some sort of care

Job generally falls on daughter or daughter-in-law

Daughters 3 X as likely to care for parent(s)

Filial Obligation

Sense of responsibility to care for parent if necessary

All but a small percentage of care to older adults is provided by adult children & other family members

Caregiving Stress 2 Main Sources of Stress Trouble coping with declines in parents’ functioning When caregiving is seen as confining, or seriously infringes on other responsibilities or leads to conflicts Caring for parent entails psychological costs Depression, resentfulness, anger, & guilt Financial pressures especially when parent has chronic condition Stresses for caring difficult for women Coincides with peak employment years Rewards as well Parent(s) loss of independence & autonomy Most move in as last resort 2/3 receiving help with daily activities feel negatively about it

2 Main Sources of Stress

Trouble coping with declines in parents’ functioning

When caregiving is seen as confining, or seriously infringes on other responsibilities or leads to conflicts

Caring for parent entails psychological costs

Depression, resentfulness, anger, & guilt

Financial pressures especially when parent has chronic condition

Stresses for caring difficult for women

Coincides with peak employment years

Rewards as well

Parent(s) loss of independence & autonomy

Most move in as last resort

2/3 receiving help with daily activities feel negatively about it

Grandparenting Interaction with Grandchildren Many functions of grandparents reflect social & personal dimensions Social needs & expectations of what grandparents are supposed to do Personal satisfaction & individual needs fulfilled by grandparent Meaning of Grandparenting Along 5 Dimensions Centrality Grandparenting is most important thing in their lives Valued Elder Seen as being wise Indulgence Spoiling the grandchildren Reinvolvement with personal past Recalling the relationship had with own grandparents Immortality through clan Taking pride in the fact that they will be followed by 2 generations

Interaction with Grandchildren

Many functions of grandparents reflect social & personal dimensions

Social needs & expectations of what grandparents are supposed to do

Personal satisfaction & individual needs fulfilled by grandparent

Meaning of Grandparenting Along 5 Dimensions

Centrality

Grandparenting is most important thing in their lives

Valued Elder

Seen as being wise

Indulgence

Spoiling the grandchildren

Reinvolvement with personal past

Recalling the relationship had with own grandparents

Immortality through clan

Taking pride in the fact that they will be followed by 2 generations

Grandparents Caring for Grandchildren Grandparents more likely to have independent lives from children or grandchildren Biggest change for grandparents are increasing number becoming custodial parents for grandchildren Raising grandchildren not easy Rates of problem behavior, hyperactivity, & learning problems are high & have negative effect on relationship

Grandparents more likely to have independent lives from children or grandchildren

Biggest change for grandparents are increasing number becoming custodial parents for grandchildren

Raising grandchildren not easy

Rates of problem behavior, hyperactivity, & learning problems are high & have negative effect on relationship

Stress & Health A number of specific changes in the body (e.g. increased heart rate, sweaty palms, hormone secretions) brought about by external situations Stress results when you appraise a situation or event as taxing or exceeding your personal, social, or other resources & endangering your well-being Day-to-day hassles that upset & annoy us prove to be most stressful Culture plays an important role in how stress is perceived

A number of specific changes in the body (e.g. increased heart rate, sweaty palms, hormone secretions) brought about by external situations

Stress results when you appraise a situation or event as taxing or exceeding your personal, social, or other resources & endangering your well-being

Day-to-day hassles that upset & annoy us prove to be most stressful

Culture plays an important role in how stress is perceived

Stress & Health Coping Any attempt to deal with stress People appraise different situations as stressful at different times and at different ages Stress, coping, & physical health Chronic stress suppresses the immune system Increases susceptibility to viral infection, increases risk of atherosclerosis & hypertension, & impaired memory & cognition Type A behavior pattern Intensely competitive, angry, hostile, restless, aggressive, & impatient Type B behavior pattern Opposite of type A Type A 2 X more likely to develop cardiovascular disease Some type A characteristics may be motivating for some people Motivated to stick to diet or exercise

Coping

Any attempt to deal with stress

People appraise different situations as stressful at different times and at different ages

Stress, coping, & physical health

Chronic stress suppresses the immune system

Increases susceptibility to viral infection, increases risk of atherosclerosis & hypertension, & impaired memory & cognition

Type A behavior pattern

Intensely competitive, angry, hostile, restless, aggressive, & impatient

Type B behavior pattern

Opposite of type A

Type A 2 X more likely to develop cardiovascular disease

Some type A characteristics may be motivating for some people

Motivated to stick to diet or exercise

Exercise Aerobic Exercise Exercise that places moderate stress on the heart by maintaining a pulse rate between 60% & 90% of one’s maximum heart rate Subtract age from 220 for maximum heart rate Products of aerobic exercise

Aerobic Exercise

Exercise that places moderate stress on the heart by maintaining a pulse rate between 60% & 90% of one’s maximum heart rate

Subtract age from 220 for maximum heart rate

Products of aerobic exercise

Personality The 5-Factor Model of Personality Traits Opposing dimensions Neuroticism v. Stability Anxious, hostile, self-conscious, depressed, impulsive, & vulnerable Extraversion v. Introversion Thriving on social interaction, likes to talk, takes charge easily, readily expresses opinions & feelings, likes to keep busy, much energy, prefers stimulating & challenging environments Openness v. Closed to Experience Vivid imagination & dream life, appreciation of art & strong desire to try anything once Agreeableness v. Antagonism Being accepting, willing to work w/others, & caring Conscientiousness v. Undirectedness Hard-working, ambitious, energetic, scrupulous, & persevering

The 5-Factor Model of Personality Traits

Opposing dimensions

Neuroticism v. Stability

Anxious, hostile, self-conscious, depressed, impulsive, & vulnerable

Extraversion v. Introversion

Thriving on social interaction, likes to talk, takes charge easily, readily expresses opinions & feelings, likes to keep busy, much energy, prefers stimulating & challenging environments

Openness v. Closed to Experience

Vivid imagination & dream life, appreciation of art & strong desire to try anything once

Agreeableness v. Antagonism

Being accepting, willing to work w/others, & caring

Conscientiousness v. Undirectedness

Hard-working, ambitious, energetic, scrupulous, & persevering

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