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G & D Ch. 10

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Information about G & D Ch. 10
Education

Published on February 12, 2009

Author: alxndr01

Source: slideshare.net

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Socioemotional Development in Adolescence
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CHAPTER 10 Socioemotional Development in Adolescence

Social & Personality Development Self-Concept Identity is the important issue Able to distinguish between one’s self and others & take others’ views into account Self-Esteem Knowing one’s self & liking one’s self are two different things Liking one’s self is self-esteem Liking one’s self involves seeing one’s self with all your faults and accepting it

Self-Concept

Identity is the important issue

Able to distinguish between one’s self and others & take others’ views into account

Self-Esteem

Knowing one’s self & liking one’s self are two different things

Liking one’s self is self-esteem

Liking one’s self involves seeing one’s self with all your faults and accepting it

Identity Formation Identity v. Identity Confusion Stage where adolescents seek to find what makes them unique & distinct They adopt different roles Confusion comes by failing to organize around a central, unified core identity A good, stable sense of identity is the foundation for future development & choices, esp. marriage Social Pressures Career or occupation The future us now up to them Reliance on friends & peers for information Psychological Moratorium Period when adolescents take time off from coming adult responsibilities to explore different roles & possibilities

Identity v. Identity Confusion

Stage where adolescents seek to find what makes them unique & distinct

They adopt different roles

Confusion comes by failing to organize around a central, unified core identity

A good, stable sense of identity is the foundation for future development & choices, esp. marriage

Social Pressures

Career or occupation

The future us now up to them

Reliance on friends & peers for information

Psychological Moratorium

Period when adolescents take time off from coming adult responsibilities to explore different roles & possibilities

Marcia’s Identity Development Identity Achievement Gone through a period of crisis & developed relatively firm commitments Identity Foreclosure Never gone through an identity crisis but has become committed to certain goals Identity Moratorium Currently going through an identity crisis Identity Confusion Never had a crisis, is not in one now, & has not formed or established goals

Identity Achievement

Gone through a period of crisis & developed relatively firm commitments

Identity Foreclosure

Never gone through an identity crisis but has become committed to certain goals

Identity Moratorium

Currently going through an identity crisis

Identity Confusion

Never had a crisis, is not in one now, & has not formed or established goals

Identity, Race, & Ethnicity Cultural Assimilation Model Individual cultural identities should be assimilated into a unified culture Pluralistic Society Model Society is made up of diverse, coequal cultural groups that should preserve their individual features Bicultural Identity Draw on the cultural identity while integrating into the dominant culture Identity Formation & Racial & Ethnic Groups Identity formation is more difficult with racial & ethnic groups There are contradictory social values A society should be color-blind but opportunities differ for races & ethnic groups

Cultural Assimilation Model

Individual cultural identities should be assimilated into a unified culture

Pluralistic Society Model

Society is made up of diverse, coequal cultural groups that should preserve their individual features

Bicultural Identity

Draw on the cultural identity while integrating into the dominant culture

Identity Formation & Racial & Ethnic Groups

Identity formation is more difficult with racial & ethnic groups

There are contradictory social values

A society should be color-blind but opportunities differ for races & ethnic groups

Relationships Changing Family Relationships Seeking autonomy: control over one’s life Parents become frustrated over the increasing autonomy Autonomy slowly grows during adolescence Changes the relationship with the parents The degree of autonomy varies with the number of children & the culture

Changing Family Relationships

Seeking autonomy: control over one’s life

Parents become frustrated over the increasing autonomy

Autonomy slowly grows during adolescence

Changes the relationship with the parents

The degree of autonomy varies with the number of children & the culture

Family Changes Generation Gap The divide between parents & children in attitudes, values, aspirations, & worldview The actual “gap” is very narrow On social, political, & religious issues parents & adolescents tend to agree Most adolescents & their parents get along quite well There’s a deep love, affection, & respect for parents Most relationships are more positive than negative

Generation Gap

The divide between parents & children in attitudes, values, aspirations, & worldview

The actual “gap” is very narrow

On social, political, & religious issues parents & adolescents tend to agree

Most adolescents & their parents get along quite well

There’s a deep love, affection, & respect for parents

Most relationships are more positive than negative

Relations with Peers Social Comparison Comparing & evaluating opinions, abilities, & physical changes of others Reference Group Groups of people with whom you compare yourself Clique Group of from 2 – 12 whose members have frequent social interactions Crowd Larger than a clique made up of those who share particular characteristics but who may not interact with each other

Social Comparison

Comparing & evaluating opinions, abilities, & physical changes of others

Reference Group

Groups of people with whom you compare yourself

Clique

Group of from 2 – 12 whose members have frequent social interactions

Crowd

Larger than a clique made up of those who share particular characteristics but who may not interact with each other

Popularity Controversial Adolescents Those liked by some peers & disliked by others Rejected Adolescents Those actively disliked & whose peers may react to them in an obviously negative manner Neglected Adolescents Those receiving relatively little attention from peers in either positive or negative interactions

Controversial Adolescents

Those liked by some peers & disliked by others

Rejected Adolescents

Those actively disliked & whose peers may react to them in an obviously negative manner

Neglected Adolescents

Those receiving relatively little attention from peers in either positive or negative interactions

Peer Relations Peer Pressure Influence of one’s peers to conform to their behavior & attitudes Adolescents are highly susceptible to the influence of peers What to wear, who do date, movies to see, what group to belong to Conformity to peers due to pressure to conform & seek an identity Ultimately, conform less to peers & parents & develop their own autonomy

Peer Pressure

Influence of one’s peers to conform to their behavior & attitudes

Adolescents are highly susceptible to the influence of peers

What to wear, who do date, movies to see, what group to belong to

Conformity to peers due to pressure to conform & seek an identity

Ultimately, conform less to peers & parents & develop their own autonomy

Teen Dating Liking & Loving By 6 th grade “liking” a special person develops By 10 th grade ½ of adolescents have had a romantic relationship that lasted 2 months or longer Gays & Lesbians Many date the opposite sex Sociocultural Contexts & Dating Values, religious beliefs, & tradition are strong influences

Liking & Loving

By 6 th grade “liking” a special person develops

By 10 th grade ½ of adolescents have had a romantic relationship that lasted 2 months or longer

Gays & Lesbians

Many date the opposite sex

Sociocultural Contexts & Dating

Values, religious beliefs, & tradition are strong influences

Rites of Passage Tribal Initiation Rites In many native cultures when a boy or girl enters adolescence, they must undergo an initiation into the tribe. At this time, they assume the responsibilities of an adult. What remnants of adolescent initiation rites do we have in our modern society?

Tribal Initiation Rites

In many native cultures when a boy or girl enters adolescence, they must undergo an initiation into the tribe. At this time, they assume the responsibilities of an adult.

What remnants of adolescent initiation rites do we have in our modern society?

Delinquency Undersocialized Delinquents Adolescents raised with little discipline or with harsh, uncaring parental supervision Not socialized appropriately & not taught standards of conduct to regulate behavior Socialized Delinquents Adolescents who know & subscribe to the norms of society & who are fairly normal psychologically Adhere to social norms Behavior Patterns 16% of all arrests for serious crimes involve a person under 18 years Undersocialized delinquents most likely to be diagnosed with attention-deficit disorder as a child & seen as less intelligent May also have psychological disorders Socialized delinquents are fairly normal psychologically Most engage in petty crimes & stop at adulthood Very influenced by peers & crimes occur in groups

Undersocialized Delinquents

Adolescents raised with little discipline or with harsh, uncaring parental supervision

Not socialized appropriately & not taught standards of conduct to regulate behavior

Socialized Delinquents

Adolescents who know & subscribe to the norms of society & who are fairly normal psychologically

Adhere to social norms

Behavior Patterns

16% of all arrests for serious crimes involve a person under 18 years

Undersocialized delinquents most likely to be diagnosed with attention-deficit disorder as a child & seen as less intelligent

May also have psychological disorders

Socialized delinquents are fairly normal psychologically

Most engage in petty crimes & stop at adulthood

Very influenced by peers & crimes occur in groups

Depression Who is Depressed? 25% report feeling sad or hopeless for 2 or more weeks in a row so they stop doing normal activities Girls experience depression more often than boys Girls’ coping skills different than boys’ Girls are more apt to turn inward, boys turning outward African Americans have higher rates of depression than Whites Not supported by studies Changes in the environment & social factors related to much depression

Who is Depressed?

25% report feeling sad or hopeless for 2 or more weeks in a row so they stop doing normal activities

Girls experience depression more often than boys

Girls’ coping skills different than boys’

Girls are more apt to turn inward, boys turning outward

African Americans have higher rates of depression than Whites

Not supported by studies

Changes in the environment & social factors related to much depression

Leading Causes of Death: 15 to 24 Year Olds Top 5 1. Accidents 2. AIDS 3. Cancer 4. Heart Disease 5. Suicide

Top 5

1. Accidents

2. AIDS

3. Cancer

4. Heart Disease

5. Suicide

Suicide Why? 3 rd major cause of death among 15 – 24 age group 12.2 suicides per 100,000 adolescents Girls attempt; boys complete Increase in suicides in the last 30 years Causes: Depression is a major cause (social & family problems, perfectionism, anxiety over the future, & alcohol & drug abuse

Why?

3 rd major cause of death among 15 – 24 age group

12.2 suicides per 100,000 adolescents

Girls attempt; boys complete

Increase in suicides in the last 30 years

Causes: Depression is a major cause (social & family problems, perfectionism, anxiety over the future, & alcohol & drug abuse

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