FYN Principle #9 - Protect The Waterfront

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Information about FYN Principle #9 - Protect The Waterfront

Published on May 7, 2009

Author: CCextension

Source: slideshare.net

Description

FYN Principle #9:
Right Plant, Right Place

Rebecca McNair & Allison Steele
Florida Yards & Neighborhoods Program
http://charlotte.ifas.ufl.edu

On the Waterfront Types of Wetlands Problems Solutions Shoreline Protection Landscape Design Natives Invasive Plants Wetland Plants -Shore -Salt -Flood Maintenance Author: Rebecca McNair Edited by: Allison Steele

Florida is blessed with a large variety of aquatic resources 2,276 miles tidal shoreline 663 miles of coastal beaches Over 7,700 freshwater lakes Living on the waterfront is a privilege and a responsibility

Florida is blessed with a large variety of aquatic resources

2,276 miles tidal shoreline

663 miles of coastal beaches

Over 7,700 freshwater lakes

Living on the waterfront is a privilege and a responsibility

Types of Wetlands Fresh Lakes, rivers, streams Depressional wetlands Retention ponds Ditches Salt /Brackish Coastal Intercoastal Salt marsh

Fresh

Lakes, rivers, streams

Depressional wetlands

Retention ponds

Ditches

Salt /Brackish

Coastal

Intercoastal

Salt marsh

Environmental Concerns Shoreline over-development Aquatic weeds Decline in fish & aquatic organisms Loss of habitat Water clarity Water quality According to the EPA, nutrient loading is the leading cause of impairment to Florida’s waterways

Shoreline over-development

Aquatic weeds

Decline in fish & aquatic organisms

Loss of habitat

Water clarity

Water quality

According to the EPA, nutrient loading is the leading cause of impairment to Florida’s waterways

Be Florida-Friendly Regardless of the type of waterfront property you own, you can help preserve Florida’s natural resources through: Shoreline Protection Landscape Design Proper Maintenance

Regardless of the type of waterfront property you own, you can help preserve Florida’s natural resources through:

Shoreline Protection

Landscape Design

Proper Maintenance

Shoreline Protection

Protect the Shoreline Vegetated slopes Buffer wave action Absorb nutrients Prevent erosion Attract wildlife

Vegetated slopes

Buffer wave action

Absorb nutrients

Prevent erosion

Attract wildlife

Protect the Shoreline Limestone Buffers wave action Prevents erosion Provides shelter for wildlife Native limestone placed along the shoreline offers a home to local wildlife.

Limestone

Buffers wave action

Prevents erosion

Provides shelter for wildlife

Protect the Shoreline Shade trees Reduce soil compaction by intercepting rainfall Prevent erosion Maintain water temperature Thermal pollution (hot water) threatens the health of fish and other aquatic wildlife.

Shade trees

Reduce soil compaction by intercepting rainfall

Prevent erosion

Maintain water temperature

Waterfront Restrictions Permit required to: Alter shoreline protection structures (seawalls) Prune or remove native vegetation Seek expert advice to modify seawalls!

Permit required to:

Alter shoreline protection structures (seawalls)

Prune or remove native vegetation

Landscape Design

Requiring little inputs of fertilizer, pesticides, and water Filtering impurities from water before it reaches water bodies A carefully designed Florida Yard can be beautiful and environmentally friendly:

Requiring little inputs of fertilizer, pesticides, and water

Filtering impurities from water before it reaches water bodies

Select plants based on site conditions: Acid  alkaline- (test your soil’s pH) Dry  moist Full sun  shade Heat  cold Space Obstructions Salt

Acid  alkaline- (test your soil’s pH)

Dry  moist

Full sun  shade

Heat  cold

Space

Obstructions

Salt

Reduce plant maintenance needs by selecting appropriate plant material… Choose low-maintenance & native plants with: Few pest problems Low nutrient and water requirements Low weediness potential Flood tolerance Coral Porterweed Stachytarpheta speciosa

Choose low-maintenance & native plants with:

Few pest problems

Low nutrient and water requirements

Low weediness potential

Flood tolerance

… and planting in the right place Create a buffer of low-maintenance plants between the lawn and shore or seawall to absorb nutrients Apply no fertilizers or pesticides past the buffer zone

Create a buffer of low-maintenance plants between the lawn and shore or seawall to absorb nutrients

Definitions Native -a species occurring naturally in an environment or region Endemic - Native to and restricted to a particular geographic region Exotic —a species introduced to an area Invasive exotic —an exotic that, not only has naturalized, but is expanding on its own Not all exotic plants are invasive!

Native -a species occurring naturally in an environment or region

Endemic - Native to and restricted to a particular geographic region

Exotic —a species introduced to an area

Invasive exotic —an exotic that, not only has naturalized, but is expanding on its own

Not all exotic plants are invasive!

Appropriate Shoreline Plants Sea Oat Uniola paniculata (USDA Zone 7-11) The extensive root systems of Sea Oat holds sand particles in place.

Salt Tolerant Plants (USDA Zone 10B-11) Black Mangrove Avicennia germinans Blackrush (USDA Zone 7-11) Juncus roemerianus Sawgrass (USDA Zone 8-11) Cladium jamaicense

Salt Tolerant Plants Sea Oxeye Daisy (USDA Zone 10A-11) Borrichia frutescens Seashore Paspalum (USDA Zone 8) Paspalum vaginatum (Swartz) Cordgrass (USDA Zone 8-11) Spartina spp.

Flood Tolerant Plants Softstem Bullrush (USDA Zone 7-10) Scirpus tabernaemontani Wild Rice (USDA Zone 8-11) Zizaniopsis milacea Pickerelweed (USDA Zone 7-11) Pontederia cordata

Flood Tolerant Trees Cypress (USDA Zone 7-10B) Taxodium spp. Paurotis Palm (USDA Zone 9b-11) Acoelorrhaphe wrightii Pond Apple (USDA Zone 9b-11) Annona glabra

Invasive Exotics Many infamous invasive exotics are found in wetlands Invasive exotics that are altering native plant communities by: changing soil chemistry, plant community structure and ecological function displacing native species hybridizing with natives Hydrilla Hydrilla verticillata

Many infamous invasive exotics are found in wetlands

Invasive exotics that are altering native plant communities by:

changing soil chemistry, plant community structure and ecological function

displacing native species

hybridizing with natives

Some Invasive Exotics Brazilian Pepper Schinus terebinthifolius Melaleuca Melaleuca quinquenervia Australian Pine Casuarina spp.

Remove invasive exotics by hand to protect native plants Water Hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes Water Lettuce Pistia stratioites Chinese Tallow Sapium sebiferum

Remove invasive exotics by hand to protect native plants

A low maintenance approach to landscaping can save time, money and precious natural resources. This may be achieved through proper: Watering Fertilizing Pest Management Mowing, pruning, raking Composting Mulching

Watering

Fertilizing

Pest Management

Mowing, pruning, raking

Composting

Mulching

Fertilize Appropriately Excess fertilizers or fertilizers applied improperly may run off our yards into waterways or leach into groundwater. Follow the printed instructions carefully Do not apply fertilizer or pesticides before a heavy rainstorm

Excess fertilizers or fertilizers applied improperly may run off our yards into waterways or leach into groundwater.

Follow the printed instructions carefully

Do not apply fertilizer or pesticides before a heavy rainstorm

Keep rain and sprinkler water onsite to prevent runoff from occurring. Use porous surfaces for walkways, patios and driveways Use berms, swales and terracing Direct downspouts toward beds or lawn

Use porous surfaces for walkways, patios and driveways

Use berms, swales and terracing

Direct downspouts toward beds or lawn

Remove trash Clean up oil spills and leaks with cat litter Pick up after pets Sweep grass clippings and soil back onto lawns Because water can wash off our yards, it is important to reduce the amount of pollutants on our property.

Remove trash

Clean up oil spills and leaks with cat litter

Pick up after pets

Sweep grass clippings and soil back onto lawns

Landscapes bordering surface waters need to be maintained with special sensitivity to the environment. Establish a 10-30 ft “no fertilizer, no pesticide” zone along shoreline

Establish a 10-30 ft “no fertilizer, no pesticide” zone along shoreline

Lawn Care Avoid mowing grasses along the shoreline Keep grass clippings out of stormwater drainage systems Mow lawns at the highest recommended height to encourage a deeper, more drought tolerant root system

Avoid mowing grasses along the shoreline

Keep grass clippings out of stormwater drainage systems

Mow lawns at the highest recommended height to encourage a deeper, more drought tolerant root system

Native wildflowers add color to a landscape, with very little maintenance.

A Florida Yard can be beautiful and environmentally friendly… It’s up to you!

Further Reading http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu FE 207: Florida’s Water: Supply, Use and Public Policy WEC 4: Introduction to Aquascaping SL 143: How Contaminants Reach Groundwater FRE 256: Handbook of Florida’s Water Regulations: Activities in Wetlands

FE 207: Florida’s Water: Supply, Use and Public Policy

WEC 4: Introduction to Aquascaping

SL 143: How Contaminants Reach Groundwater

FRE 256: Handbook of Florida’s Water Regulations: Activities in Wetlands

Thanks for your attention! The following presentation was made possible through a grant from FL DEP and EPA. Special thanks to the following reviewers for their valued contributions: FL114 ELM Design Team and the FYN Subcommittee Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, UF Agriculture Education and Communication Department Environmental Horticulture Department Entomology and Nematology Department Soil and Water Sciences Department Florida Cooperative Extension Service in: Alachua, Broward, Clay, Hillsborough, Lake, Miami-Dade, Orange, Pinellas, Sarasota, and Volusia Counties Florida Organics Recycling Center for Excellence The Center For Wetlands, UF United States Department of Agriculture FL Department of Agriculture and Consumer Sciences: Division of Plant Industry

The following presentation was made possible through a grant from FL DEP and EPA. Special thanks to the following reviewers for their valued contributions:

FL114 ELM Design Team and the FYN Subcommittee

Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, UF

Agriculture Education and Communication Department

Environmental Horticulture Department

Entomology and Nematology Department

Soil and Water Sciences Department

Florida Cooperative Extension Service in: Alachua, Broward, Clay, Hillsborough, Lake, Miami-Dade, Orange, Pinellas, Sarasota, and Volusia Counties

Florida Organics Recycling Center for Excellence

The Center For Wetlands, UF

United States Department of Agriculture

FL Department of Agriculture and Consumer Sciences: Division of Plant Industry

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