FYN Principle #7 - Recycle

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Information about FYN Principle #7 - Recycle

Published on May 7, 2009

Author: CCextension

Source: slideshare.net

Description

FYN Principle #7:
Right Plant, Right Place

Rebecca McNair & Allison Steele
Florida Yards & Neighborhoods Program
http://charlotte.ifas.ufl.edu

Recycle Yard Waste Why Recycle? Yard Waste Define Uses Recycled Mulch Recycled Grass Composting at Home Assembling Pile Materials to Use/Avoid Maintaining Pile Harvesting Pile Earthworm Farming Author: Rebecca McNair Edited by: Allison Steele

Why Recycle? Retains the nutrients in your landscape Saves money on fertilizer, mulch and waste disposal Florida law prohibits disposal of yard waste in lined landfills

Retains the nutrients in your landscape

Saves money on fertilizer, mulch and waste disposal

Florida law prohibits disposal of yard waste in lined landfills

The Legal Definition Yard trash is defined by the 1988 Florida Solid Waste Management Act as “vegetative matter resulting from landscape maintenance and land clearing operations.” It includes… Tree and shrub trimmings Leaves and palm fronds Grass Stumps

Yard trash is defined by the 1988 Florida Solid Waste Management Act as “vegetative matter resulting from landscape maintenance and land clearing operations.” It includes…

Tree and shrub trimmings

Leaves and palm fronds

Grass

Stumps

Florida’s Municipal Waste Stream in 1998 (FDEP Solid Waste Report, 2000) Landfilled 56% Combusted 16% Recycled 28% In 1998, yard waste made up 12% of the municipal waste stream, or 3.5 million tons.

Recycling Solutions Overview: Mulching “ Grasscycling” Composting Earthworm farming

Overview:

Mulching

“ Grasscycling”

Composting

Earthworm farming

Recycled Mulch Choose by-product alternatives such as Melaleuca mulch: Harvested from invasive plant stands Reduces destruction of natural wetland areas in Florida Slow decomposition Suppresses weeds Not eaten by termites

Choose by-product alternatives such as Melaleuca mulch:

Harvested from invasive plant stands

Reduces destruction of natural wetland areas in Florida

Slow decomposition

Suppresses weeds

Not eaten by termites

Yard Waste = Mulch= $ Leaves and pine needles can remain under trees for a “self mulching” area Cost of one bag Pine Nuggets = $3.00 Reducing garbage, Priceless!

Leaves and pine needles can remain under trees for a “self mulching” area

Cost of one bag Pine Nuggets = $3.00

Reducing garbage, Priceless!

Utility Mulch Many municipalities offer free utility mulch A by-product of pruning trees near power lines Be aware of variable quality and consistency You may need to partially compost to kill any weeds, seeds, or insect pests

Many municipalities offer free utility mulch

A by-product of pruning trees near power lines

Be aware of variable quality and consistency

You may need to partially compost to kill any weeds, seeds, or insect pests

Grasscycling Grass clippings can be left on the lawn Saves money- This is equivalent to about one fertilizer application per year! Saves time Remove only 1/3 of the grass blade Grasscycling does not result in thatch build-up. Thatch is stem and root overgrowth caused by over-fertilization and over-watering .

Grass clippings can be left on the lawn

Saves money- This is equivalent to about one fertilizer application per year!

Saves time

Remove only 1/3 of the grass blade

Grasscycling does not result in thatch build-up. Thatch is stem and root overgrowth caused by over-fertilization and over-watering .

Composting Disposes of food and yard wastes through natural processes Enhances the soil on your property Releases essential elements to plants

Disposes of food and yard wastes through natural processes

Enhances the soil on your property

Releases essential elements to plants

What is Compost? Rich, black, sweet-smelling, crumbly, soil-like substance comprised of decomposed organic matter

Rich, black, sweet-smelling, crumbly, soil-like substance comprised of decomposed organic matter

Composting at Home Overview: Selecting a Location Choosing a Container Assembling the Pile Maintaining the Pile Harvesting Finished Compost

Overview:

Selecting a Location

Choosing a Container

Assembling the Pile

Maintaining the Pile

Harvesting Finished Compost

Level ground Well-drained surface Near a source of water At least 2 feet from any structure Close to source of materials Selecting A Location

Level ground

Well-drained surface

Near a source of water

At least 2 feet from any structure

Close to source of materials

Choosing A Container Pile method Bin

Pile method

Bin

Pile Method No container is used; organic materials are simply mounded in a pile A layer of soil, leaves, or finished compost on top of fresh kitchen wastes will help deter pests.

No container is used; organic materials are simply mounded in a pile

Compost Bins Purchase a compost bin or build your own. Consider: Appearance Size- at least 1 cubic yard Accessibility- to add materials and remove finished compost Ability to mix materials inside Creature access

Purchase a compost bin or build your own. Consider:

Appearance

Size- at least 1 cubic yard

Accessibility- to add materials and remove finished compost

Ability to mix materials inside

Creature access

A bin is not necessary, but useful for deterring pests and keeping the pile neat.

Compost Happens Microorganisms (microbes) initiate decomposition under favorable environmental conditions. They need: Food Oxygen Moisture Temperature

Microorganisms (microbes) initiate decomposition under favorable environmental conditions. They need:

Food

Oxygen

Moisture

Temperature

Assembling the Pile For faster decomposition, follow these steps: Put twigs or small branches on the bottom of the pile to allow air to circulate Layer materials, alternating nitrogen and carbon layers End with a carbon layer Add water to moisten, not soak

For faster decomposition, follow these steps:

Put twigs or small branches on the bottom of the pile to allow air to circulate

Layer materials, alternating nitrogen and carbon layers

End with a carbon layer

Add water to moisten, not soak

“ Browns” Carbon-rich materials Energy source for microbes Typically low in moisture Degrade slowly Bulky materials help aerate May cause nitrogen deficiencies in plants If insufficient nitrogen is present for microbial breakdown

Carbon-rich materials

Energy source for microbes

Typically low in moisture

Degrade slowly

Bulky materials help aerate

May cause nitrogen deficiencies in plants

If insufficient nitrogen is present for microbial breakdown

“ Greens” Nitrogen-rich materials Microbes use for protein synthesis and reproduction High moisture content Degrade rapidly Compact easily Can be a source of foul odors

Nitrogen-rich materials

Microbes use for protein synthesis and reproduction

High moisture content

Degrade rapidly

Compact easily

Can be a source of foul odors

Compostable Materials Nitrogen-Rich Grass clippings Manure Vegetable food scraps Coffee grounds Hair Carbon-Rich Straw Shredded branches Uncolored Paper Pine needles Leaves

Nitrogen-Rich

Grass clippings

Manure

Vegetable food scraps

Coffee grounds

Hair

Carbon-Rich

Straw

Shredded branches

Uncolored Paper

Pine needles

Leaves

C:N Ratios The carbon to nitrogen ratio determines the decomposition rate of organic materials Grass clippings ~ 20:1 Fruit waste ~ 35 :1 Leaves ~ 60 :1 Straw ~ 100 :1 Wood ~ 600 :1 30:1 is ideal, obtained by adding one part browns to one part greens S LOW RAPID

The carbon to nitrogen ratio determines the decomposition rate of organic materials

Grass clippings ~ 20:1

Fruit waste ~ 35 :1

Leaves ~ 60 :1

Straw ~ 100 :1

Wood ~ 600 :1

30:1 is ideal, obtained by adding one part browns to one part greens

Particle Size Size of particles also affect the rate of decomposition Break twigs and small branches Shred newspaper and palm fronds Grind stumps Coarsely chop larger pieces of vegetable matter

Size of particles also affect the rate of decomposition

Break twigs and small branches

Shred newspaper and palm fronds

Grind stumps

Coarsely chop larger pieces of vegetable matter

Materials to Avoid Do NOT add: Meat or dairy products Oils or mayonnaise Plants recently treated with pesticides Seed-laden weeds Pressure treated wood Animal products create odor problems and attract pests.

Do NOT add:

Meat or dairy products

Oils or mayonnaise

Plants recently treated with pesticides

Seed-laden weeds

Pressure treated wood

Provide Oxygen Without oxygen (anaerobic conditions), microbes produce foul smelling compounds Alcohols and organic acids that are detrimental to plants Referred to as “sour” Incorporate bulky materials like twigs, pine needles, wood chips and straw to provide air space Turn pile immediately if odor is detected

Without oxygen (anaerobic conditions), microbes produce foul smelling compounds

Alcohols and organic acids that are detrimental to plants

Referred to as “sour”

Incorporate bulky materials like twigs, pine needles, wood chips and straw to provide air space

Turn pile immediately if odor is detected

Provide Moisture Microbes need moisture for their bodies Water pile when needed 45% ~ 65% moisture content “ Squeeze test” -Squeeze compost in your hand: moisture should coat your hand, but not drip To lower moisture content: Protect from heavy rains Add dry material and turn pile

Microbes need moisture for their bodies

Water pile when needed

45% ~ 65% moisture content

“ Squeeze test” -Squeeze compost in your hand: moisture should coat your hand, but not drip

To lower moisture content:

Protect from heavy rains

Add dry material and turn pile

Temperature The metabolic activity of microbes will raise the temperature of the compost This kills weed seeds and pathogens A critical mass is needed, ideal pile size is 3 ft. x 3 ft. x 3 ft. Microbes can survive a range of temperatures, but an optimal temperature for decomposition is about 125º F Microbial activity starts to decline around 130 º F

The metabolic activity of microbes will raise the temperature of the compost

This kills weed seeds and pathogens

A critical mass is needed, ideal pile size is 3 ft. x 3 ft. x 3 ft.

Microbes can survive a range of temperatures, but an optimal temperature for decomposition is about 125º F

Microbial activity starts to decline around 130 º F

Maintaining the Pile Turn pile occasionally Breaks up materials Increases rate of decomposition Exposes weed seeds, insect larvae, and pathogens to lethal temperatures in the core of the pile Add “greens” to the center of the pile Pile “browns on top, or layer with fresh “greens” in the center

Turn pile occasionally

Breaks up materials

Increases rate of decomposition

Exposes weed seeds, insect larvae, and pathogens to lethal temperatures in the core of the pile

Add “greens” to the center of the pile

Pile “browns on top, or layer with fresh “greens” in the center

Factors Affecting Decomposition Rates: Presence of microorganisms Oxygen Moisture Temperature Type of materials Particle size Size of the pile Frequency of turning Review

Presence of microorganisms

Oxygen

Moisture

Temperature

Type of materials

Particle size

Size of the pile

Frequency of turning

Harvest Compost Collect mature compost when it is dark, soil-like, and earthy smelling Screen compost Remove larger pieces and return those to the compost pile

Collect mature compost when it is dark, soil-like, and earthy smelling

Screen compost

Remove larger pieces and return those to the compost pile

Use Compost Apply to plant beds as a soil amendment Use as mulch Blend with sand, peat, and perlite for a potting media Layer 1”-2” of compost underneath decorative mulch to save money and improve soil fertility.

Apply to plant beds as a soil amendment

Use as mulch

Blend with sand, peat, and perlite for a potting media

Vermiculture - Earthworm Farming Red wigglers, Eisenia foetida and brown-nose worms, Lumbricus rubellas recycle thin layers of food scraps and paper Worms eat decaying food and paper Excrete castings, rich in nutrients Temperatures lower than compost pile

Red wigglers, Eisenia foetida and brown-nose worms, Lumbricus rubellas recycle thin layers of food scraps and paper

Worms eat decaying food and paper

Excrete castings, rich in nutrients

Temperatures lower than compost pile

Further Reading http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu Fact Sheet AE 23: Construction of Home Compost Units SL 114: Converting Yard Waste into Landscaping Assets Circular 958: Backyard Composting of Yard Waste Circular 455: Earthworm Biology and Production Circular 1053: Culture of Earthworms for Bait or Fish Food

Fact Sheet AE 23: Construction of Home Compost Units

SL 114: Converting Yard Waste into Landscaping Assets

Circular 958: Backyard Composting of Yard Waste

Circular 455: Earthworm Biology and Production

Circular 1053: Culture of Earthworms for Bait or Fish Food

The following presentation was made possible through a grant from FL DEP and EPA. Special thanks to the following reviewers for their valued contributions: FL114 ELM Design Team and the FYN Subcommittee Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, UF Agriculture Education and Communication Department Environmental Horticulture Department Entomology and Nematology Department Soil and Water Sciences Department Florida Cooperative Extension Service in: Alachua, Broward, Clay, Hillsborough, Lake, Miami-Dade, Orange, Pinellas, Sarasota, and Volusia Counties Florida Organics Recycling Center for Excellence The Center For Wetlands, UF United States Department of Agriculture FL Department of Agriculture and Consumer Sciences: Division of Plant Industry Thanks for your attention!

The following presentation was made possible through a grant from FL DEP and EPA. Special thanks to the following reviewers for their valued contributions:

FL114 ELM Design Team and the FYN Subcommittee

Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, UF

Agriculture Education and Communication Department

Environmental Horticulture Department

Entomology and Nematology Department

Soil and Water Sciences Department

Florida Cooperative Extension Service in: Alachua, Broward, Clay, Hillsborough, Lake, Miami-Dade, Orange, Pinellas, Sarasota, and Volusia Counties

Florida Organics Recycling Center for Excellence

The Center For Wetlands, UF

United States Department of Agriculture

FL Department of Agriculture and Consumer Sciences: Division of Plant Industry

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