FYN Principle #6 - Control Yard Pests Responsibly

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Information about FYN Principle #6 - Control Yard Pests Responsibly

Published on May 7, 2009

Author: CCextension

Source: slideshare.net

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FYN Principle #6:
Right Plant, Right Place

Rebecca McNair & Allison Steele
Florida Yards & Neighborhoods Program
http://charlotte.ifas.ufl.edu

Control Yard Pests Responsibly Introduction Pests Define Identify Integrated Pest Management Prevention Cultural Biological Chemical Physical Attracting Beneficials Author: Rebecca McNair Edited By: Allison Steele

Cycle of Pesticide Dependency Many chemical pesticides are broad spectrum, killing not only target pests but also beneficial organisms that serve as natural pest control systems. NO natural controls Indiscriminate mortality- pests and beneficials Dependence on chemical pesticides

Many chemical pesticides are broad spectrum, killing not only target pests but also beneficial organisms that serve as natural pest control systems.

NO natural controls

                            In the days following a pesticide treatment, pests reproduce faster than predatory insects. By killing off beneficial insects, pest populations flourish. After Thomas Weissling

Tolerance Some damage to plants is natural. Don’t strive for a pest free yard; instead, decide on a realistic threshold of damage.

Some damage to plants is natural. Don’t strive for a pest free yard; instead, decide on a realistic threshold of damage.

What is a Pest, really? Pest - plant, animal, or other organism that is out of place Diseases, Weeds, Insects, Reptiles, Mammals, Arthropods Of all insect species in the world, less than 1 % are considered pests Am I a Pest? This depends on where I am feeding, in the yard or the butterfly garden.

Pest - plant, animal, or other organism that is out of place

Diseases, Weeds, Insects, Reptiles, Mammals, Arthropods

Of all insect species in the world, less than 1 % are considered pests

Scale Aphids Mealybugs Whiteflies

Spider mites Nematodes Thrips

Plant Diseases Disease occurs when an agent impairs the necessary functions of a plant Plant Environment Pathogen

Disease occurs when an agent impairs the necessary functions of a plant

Leaf Spots Algal, bacterial or fungal pathogens Enters through injured tissues Spread by splashing water, and insects

Algal, bacterial or fungal pathogens

Enters through injured tissues

Spread by splashing water, and insects

Root Rot Poor growth, thinning canopy Yellowing and leaf drop Branch or plant death Roots dark and rotted, strip off easily Due to excessive soil moisture Poor drainage Over-watering Planting too deep Shallow rooting

Poor growth, thinning canopy

Yellowing and leaf drop

Branch or plant death

Roots dark and rotted, strip off easily

Due to excessive soil moisture

Poor drainage

Over-watering

Planting too deep

Shallow rooting

Environmental Stresses Drought Nutrient deficiency Variations in pH Mechanical damage Cold damage Excessive water or fertilizer Many environmental effects are mistakenly treated as pest problems. Herbicides injured this tomato plant.

Drought

Nutrient deficiency

Variations in pH

Mechanical damage

Cold damage

Excessive water or fertilizer

Integrated Pest Management (IPM) IPM is the coordinated use of pest and environmental information and available pest control methods To prevent unacceptable levels of pest damage by the most economical means With the least possible hazard to people, property and the environment

IPM is the coordinated use of pest and environmental information and available pest control methods

To prevent unacceptable levels of pest damage by the most economical means

With the least possible hazard to people, property and the environment

Principles of IPM Sustainable Prevention Cultural Practices Biological Methods Physical Methods Chemical Methods After Dr. Norman Leppla -using a resource so that the resource is not depleted or permanently damaged

Sustainable

Prevention

Cultural Practices

Biological Methods

Physical Methods

Chemical Methods

Prevention Our most sustainable pest control method involves avoiding the introduction of pests (into our country, state or yard). Buy pest-free plants Select plants adapted to your yard Select resistant varieties Avoid notoriously problematic plants Properly install and maintain plants

Our most sustainable pest control method involves avoiding the introduction of pests (into our country, state or yard).

Buy pest-free plants

Select plants adapted to your yard

Select resistant varieties

Avoid notoriously problematic plants

Properly install and maintain plants

Key Plant, Key Pest Some key plants are likely to be infested by key pests. For example, Azaleas are commonly infested by lacebugs, particularly if the azalea is planted in a sunny location.

Scouting Monitor plants routinely to aid in early detection of an insect, disease, or other problem. Look for: Favorable conditions for pests Signs and symptoms of pests The pests Damage to plant Leaf spot, leaf curl, feeding Frass- insect excretions Presence of natural enemies

Monitor plants routinely to aid in early detection of an insect, disease, or other problem. Look for:

Favorable conditions for pests

Signs and symptoms of pests

The pests

Damage to plant

Leaf spot, leaf curl, feeding

Frass- insect excretions

Presence of natural enemies

Cultural Practices We can also avoid problems with insects and diseases through proper design, installation, and maintenance. Stressed plants are more susceptible to attack, like the Chinese Elm with crowded roots shown here.

We can also avoid problems with insects and diseases through proper design, installation, and maintenance.

Water Wisely Water during the early morning, when leaves are already wet Avoid overhead irrigation of woody ornamentals Many foliar diseases gain entry into plants through the water remaining on leaves.

Water during the early morning, when leaves are already wet

Avoid overhead irrigation of woody ornamentals

Biological Control The use of living organisms to control pests Lady beetles and their larvae feed on aphids and other soft bodied insects. They are commercially available in bulk. Predators Parasites Pathogens

The use of living organisms to control pests

Predators

Parasites

Pathogens

Attract Beneficial Insects by: Not using harmful pesticides Providing food Nectar and pollen Plant diversity Providing shelter Enhance vertical layers

Not using harmful pesticides

Providing food

Nectar and pollen

Plant diversity

Providing shelter

Enhance vertical layers

Food for Thought Many herbs and fragrant flowering plants attract natural enemies Gaillardia Milkweeds Goldenrod Echinacea Sunflower Clover Cilantro Dill Fennel Mustards Clover also fixes atmospheric nitrogen into a form available to other plants.

Many herbs and fragrant flowering plants attract natural enemies

Gaillardia

Milkweeds

Goldenrod

Echinacea

Sunflower

Clover

Cilantro

Dill

Fennel

Mustards

As A Last Resort…. Sometimes, major pest damage reaches a level that is unacceptable to the observer. When all previous management efforts have been ineffective, individuals may wish to apply: Physical methods These are the least sustainable methods discussed because they are labor intensive, and often require repeated treatments. Chemical methods

Sometimes, major pest damage reaches a level that is unacceptable to the observer. When all previous management efforts have been ineffective, individuals may wish to apply:

Physical methods

Chemical methods

Physical Management Remove pests by hand Remove infested parts Establish barriers to prevent pest access to plants Yellow sticky paper attracts whiteflies and other insects. These traps help to monitor pest populations in greenhouses.

Remove pests by hand

Remove infested parts

Establish barriers to prevent pest access to plants

Chemicals Choose least harmful pesticides Use selective pesticides rather than broad spectrum killers Spot treat where pests are abundant, rather than the entire yard Horticultural oils Follow pesticide label instructions carefully

Choose least harmful pesticides

Use selective pesticides rather than broad spectrum killers

Spot treat where pests are abundant, rather than the entire yard

Horticultural oils

Follow pesticide label instructions carefully

Management Strategies “ Sap Suckers”- (aphids, soft scales, mealybugs, whiteflies, spider mites) Biological controls Soaps and oils Caterpillars- Bt Plant Chewers- (grasshoppers, beetles, leaf miners) Use a proper insecticide if damage warrants action Insect

“ Sap Suckers”- (aphids, soft scales, mealybugs, whiteflies, spider mites)

Biological controls

Soaps and oils

Caterpillars-

Bt

Plant Chewers- (grasshoppers, beetles, leaf miners)

Use a proper insecticide if damage warrants action

Management Strategies Leaf Spots- Avoid overhead irrigation Improve air circulation Sanitize- remove infected plant parts to avoid reinfection Stem Cankers/ Stem rots- Change watering and pruning practices Root rots- Change watering practices Remove infected plant and roots Wilt- Remove infected plant Disease

Leaf Spots-

Avoid overhead irrigation

Improve air circulation

Sanitize- remove infected plant parts to avoid reinfection

Stem Cankers/ Stem rots-

Change watering and pruning practices

Root rots-

Change watering practices

Remove infected plant and roots

Wilt-

Remove infected plant

For More Information on Visit: http://biocontrol.ifas.ufl.edu Features: Newsletters, presentations, news releases, photo galleries, tutorials, videos, training, publications, diagnostic clinic, listserv, links and more!

Visit: http://biocontrol.ifas.ufl.edu

Features: Newsletters, presentations, news releases, photo galleries, tutorials, videos, training, publications, diagnostic clinic, listserv, links and more!

Further Reading http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu ENY 298 Landscape Integrated Pest Management ENY-276 Beneficial Insects and Mites CIR 642 Homeowners' Guide to Pesticide Safety ENY 292 What’s Bugging Me WEC-20 Dealing with Unwanted Wildlife in an Urban Environment PDMG-V1-01 Characteristics of Plant Disease

ENY 298 Landscape Integrated Pest Management

ENY-276 Beneficial Insects and Mites

CIR 642 Homeowners' Guide to Pesticide Safety

ENY 292 What’s Bugging Me

WEC-20 Dealing with Unwanted Wildlife in an Urban Environment

PDMG-V1-01 Characteristics of Plant Disease

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