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FYN Principle #1 - Right Plant, Right Place

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Information about FYN Principle #1 - Right Plant, Right Place

Published on May 7, 2009

Author: CCextension

Source: slideshare.net

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FYN Principle #1:
Right Plant, Right Place

Rebecca McNair & Allison Steele
Florida Yards & Neighborhoods Program
http://charlotte.ifas.ufl.edu
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Right Plant, Right Place Landscape Design Principles Planning Site Analysis Plant Selection Trees Palms Shrubs Lawns Turf Alternatives Natives Author: Rebecca McNair

Key to Success Proper planning and plant selection: Can avoid problems later Can save energy, effort, water, money, etc. Makes the landscape more enjoyable

Proper planning and plant selection:

Can avoid problems later

Can save energy, effort, water, money, etc.

Makes the landscape more enjoyable

Plan First, Plant Once This is a process, not a one-time event! Have a plan! Know the plants and what they require to thrive Utilize regional gardening books and magazines Consult with your UF County Extension Office Ask qualified nursery professionals for advice

This is a process, not a one-time event!

Have a plan!

Know the plants and what they require to thrive

Utilize regional gardening books and magazines

Consult with your UF County Extension Office

Ask qualified nursery professionals for advice

How Do You Currently Use Your Property? Family Activities? Pets? Outdoor entertainment? Low-maintenance? Do you like wildlife? Is there a view you want to hide or enhance?

Family Activities?

Pets?

Outdoor entertainment?

Low-maintenance?

Do you like wildlife?

Is there a view you want to hide or enhance?

What are the site characteristics? Soil Sand, silt, clay, Organic materials pH Light Sun or shade Drainage Wet or dry Drainage patterns Structures and obstructions Utility lines (overhead and underground) Sidewalks / driveways

Soil

Sand, silt, clay,

Organic materials

pH

Light

Sun or shade

Drainage

Wet or dry

Drainage patterns

Structures and obstructions

Utility lines (overhead and underground)

Sidewalks / driveways

Know Your Plants What is the mature size of the plant? Does it grow well in sun or shade? Does it tolerate flooded conditions? Is it salt tolerant? Is it susceptible to pests which may be difficult to control? Helianthus debilis Beach Daisy

What is the mature size of the plant?

Does it grow well in sun or shade?

Does it tolerate flooded conditions?

Is it salt tolerant?

Is it susceptible to pests which may be difficult to control?

Selecting Plants Be familiar with botanical names Binomial nomenclature - a species name has 2 parts: Genus and specific epithet Buy healthy plants Look for new growth Roots are white and fibrous Avoid pot bound plants Avoid diseased or insect infested plants Jerusalem Thorn Parkinsonia aculeata Genus Specific epithet

Be familiar with botanical names

Binomial nomenclature - a species name has 2 parts:

Genus and specific epithet

Buy healthy plants

Look for new growth

Roots are white and fibrous

Avoid pot bound plants

Avoid diseased or insect infested plants

Genus

Engage The Senses Scent Fragrant flowers, aromatic plants or mulch Be mindful of allergens Sound Running water, wind chimes Touch Fuzzy, waxy, smooth Taste Edible fruits, herbs The sound of running water attracts wildlife.

Scent

Fragrant flowers, aromatic plants or mulch

Be mindful of allergens

Sound

Running water, wind chimes

Touch

Fuzzy, waxy, smooth

Taste

Edible fruits, herbs

Trees in the Landscape Provide shade Increase property values Add color Add texture Attract wildlife Provide a framework for the rest of the landscape Quercus virginiana Live Oak

Provide shade

Increase property values

Add color

Add texture

Attract wildlife

Provide a framework for the rest of the landscape

Factors to Consider Most trees DO NOT have taproots Tree roots grow OUT, not down 80 - 90% of a tree root system is found in the upper 18 - 24 inches of the soil. Roots of trees and shrubs grow to about 3 times the branch spread. Incorrect Correct

Most trees DO NOT have taproots

Tree roots grow OUT, not down

80 - 90% of a tree root system is found in the upper 18 - 24 inches of the soil.

Roots of trees and shrubs grow to about 3 times the branch spread.

Trees Trees growing in commercial settings live an average of 13 years Trees in residential areas average 37 years Trees in rural, undisturbed sites average 150 years Some species live longer than others Rapid growth results in weaker wood and shorter lifespan Quercus nigra The Water Oak is a relatively short-lived tree.

Trees growing in commercial settings live an average of 13 years

Trees in residential areas average 37 years

Trees in rural, undisturbed sites average 150 years

Some species live longer than others

Rapid growth results in weaker wood and shorter lifespan

Urban Influences Compacted soils Over-pruning Limited space for roots Improper staking Mechanical injuries Construction Pedestrian and vehicle abuse Improper planting Improper fertilization

Compacted soils

Over-pruning

Limited space for roots

Improper staking

Mechanical injuries

Construction

Pedestrian and vehicle abuse

Improper planting

Improper fertilization

Construction Issues Changing the soil grade by as little as 6 inches can seriously damage a tree When building, remove a tree that cannot be adequately protected and plant several younger, healthy trees When in doubt, consult an arborist!

Changing the soil grade by as little as 6 inches can seriously damage a tree

When building, remove a tree that cannot be adequately protected and plant several younger, healthy trees

When in doubt, consult an arborist!

More Factors to Consider Trees damaged by construction may not initially show symptoms and may decline slowly for many years Topping a tree can create a dangerous situation Trees which are subjected to stress are more susceptible to insects and diseases Tree paints do not prevent insects or diseases

Trees damaged by construction may not initially show symptoms and may decline slowly for many years

Topping a tree can create a dangerous situation

Trees which are subjected to stress are more susceptible to insects and diseases

Tree paints do not prevent insects or diseases

Selecting the Right Place For a Tree Know the mature size Provide adequate space Trees should be planted at least 15 ft from the foundation of a home! Avoid overhead power lines Quercus laurifolia Laurel Oak

Know the mature size

Provide adequate space

Trees should be planted at least 15 ft from the foundation of a home!

Avoid overhead power lines

Tree Planting Tips Dig the plant hole the same depth as the root ball and 2 to 3 times wider Do not amend the backfill soil Apply 3 to 4 inches of mulch around the tree to retain moisture, but avoid contact with the stem or trunk Water regularly until established

Dig the plant hole the same depth as the root ball and 2 to 3 times wider

Do not amend the backfill soil

Apply 3 to 4 inches of mulch around the tree to retain moisture, but

avoid contact with the

stem or trunk

Water regularly

until established

Transplanting Container-grown or “hardened-off” balled and burlapped trees can be planted any time of year Research indicates that establishment time can increase 1-2 months/ inch of trunk diameter

Container-grown or “hardened-off” balled and burlapped trees can be planted any time of year

Research indicates that establishment time can increase 1-2 months/ inch of trunk diameter

Fertilizing New Trees Avoid fertilizing a tree until it is established Proper irrigation is important Fertilize 4-6 weeks after planting Liriodendron tulipifera Tulip Poplar

Avoid fertilizing a tree until it is established

Proper irrigation is important

Fertilize 4-6 weeks

after planting

Palms Are Different! Palms have only ONE terminal growing point Palms do not increase in diameter as they mature Palm roots grow longer but do not increase in diameter Many palms are harvested from the wild Transplant palms in spring and summer Acoelorraphe wrightii Paurotis Palm

Palms have only ONE terminal growing point

Palms do not increase in diameter as they mature

Palm roots grow longer but do not increase in diameter

Many palms are harvested from the wild

Transplant palms in spring and summer

Shrubs Shrubs are woody plants usually with multiple trunks and branches arising from near the roots They provide structure, texture and color to a landscape Many shrubs can be pruned to form hedges and topiary figures Serenoa repens Saw Palmetto

Shrubs are woody plants usually with multiple trunks and branches arising from near the roots

They provide structure, texture and color to a landscape

Many shrubs can be pruned to form hedges and topiary figures

Keep It Simple Don’t plant shrubs too close together. Space them according to how far they will spread. Plant in large groups for continuity and increased visual impact Don’t place too many different species in the same area Strelitzia reginae Bird of Paradise has a clumping habit; in time, it will fill an area.

Don’t plant shrubs too close together. Space them according to how far they will spread.

Plant in large groups for continuity and increased visual impact

Don’t place too many different species in the same area

Planting Shrubs Plant in beds Incorporate organic matter in the bed Group according to water and maintenance needs Apply 3 to 4 inches of mulch, but do not allow mulch to rest against the plant stems

Plant in beds

Incorporate organic matter in the bed

Group according to water and maintenance needs

Apply 3 to 4 inches of mulch, but do not allow mulch to rest against the plant stems

Major Turfgrass Species in Florida St. Augustinegrass The most popular Bahiagrass Very drought tolerant Seashore paspalum Very salt tolerant Bermudagrass Used on golf courses Centipedegrass Common in the Panhandle Bahiagrass Bermudagrass St. Augustinegrass

St. Augustinegrass

The most popular

Bahiagrass

Very drought tolerant

Seashore paspalum

Very salt tolerant

Bermudagrass

Used on golf courses

Centipedegrass

Common in the Panhandle

St. Augustinegrass- Varieties Floratam Poor shade and cold -tolerance Coarse texture Resistant to chinch bugs Reddish colored stolons Sheds foliage coming out of dormancy Excellent heat tolerance Best mowed at 3 - 4 inches Delmar Improved shade- tolerance Dwarf variety Good cold- tolerance Susceptible to chinch bugs and sod webworms Slow growth means it takes longer to establish Mow at 2.5 - 4 inches

Floratam

Poor shade and cold -tolerance

Coarse texture

Resistant to chinch bugs

Reddish colored stolons

Sheds foliage coming out of dormancy

Excellent heat tolerance

Best mowed at 3 - 4 inches

Delmar

Improved shade- tolerance

Dwarf variety

Good cold- tolerance

Susceptible to chinch bugs and sod webworms

Slow growth means it takes longer to establish

Mow at 2.5 - 4 inches

A Shady Spot Even the shade tolerant varieties will do well only up to about 50% shade.

St. Augustinegrass Varieties for Semi-Shade Bitterblue Improved cold- and shade-tolerance Finer, denser texture than Floratam Susceptible to chinch bugs Darker green than other varieties Mow at 3 - 4 inches Seville Does well in partial shade Semi-dwarf type, mow at 2 - 3 inches Susceptible to chinch bugs (more in sun than in shade) More prone to thatch formation than other varieties

Bitterblue

Improved cold- and shade-tolerance

Finer, denser texture than Floratam

Susceptible to chinch bugs

Darker green than other varieties

Mow at 3 - 4 inches

Seville

Does well in partial shade

Semi-dwarf type, mow at 2 - 3 inches

Susceptible to chinch bugs (more in sun than in shade)

More prone to thatch formation than other varieties

Drought Tolerant Varieties Seashore paspalum ‘ SeaIsle 1’ Excellent salt and drought tolerance Tolerates flooding and some shade Fine textured, dense, dark green growth Disease and pest resistant Moderate thatch Mow at 1 – 2 inches Bahiagrass Argentine Good cold and drought tolerance Poor salt and shade tolerance Coarse textured, dense growth Dormant in winter Wear tolerant Mow at 3 - 4 inches

Seashore paspalum

‘ SeaIsle 1’

Excellent salt and drought tolerance

Tolerates flooding and some shade

Fine textured, dense, dark green growth

Disease and pest resistant

Moderate thatch

Mow at 1 – 2 inches

Bahiagrass

Argentine

Good cold and drought tolerance

Poor salt and shade tolerance

Coarse textured, dense growth

Dormant in winter

Wear tolerant

Mow at 3 - 4 inches

Turf areas should be functional and easy to maintain!

Turf areas should be functional and easy to maintain!

Alternatives To Turf Landscaping beds require less effort and cost less to maintain than turf Consider low-maintenance ground covers, mulched landscape beds, and pathways

Landscaping beds require less effort and cost less to maintain than turf

Consider low-maintenance ground covers, mulched landscape beds, and pathways

Native Plants Native Plants are adapted to Florida’s environment Many non-native species are also appropriate for a “Florida-Friendly Landscape” Visit garden stores and ask about low maintenance and native plants Association of Florida Native Nurseries www.afnn.org Search for a specific plant and locate the native plant nurseries that sell it! www.floridata.com Zamia floridana Coontie

Native Plants are adapted to Florida’s environment

Many non-native species are also appropriate for a “Florida-Friendly Landscape”

Visit garden stores and ask

about low maintenance

and native plants

Association of Florida Native Nurseries

www.afnn.org

Search for a specific plant and locate the native plant nurseries that sell it!

A Few Natives Rhapidophyllum hystrix Needle Palm Passiflora edulis Passion Vine Calicarpa americana Beautyberry www.floridata.com Erythrina herbacea Cherokee Bean

Environmentally Friendly Landscaping Your yard is an integral part of the protection and preservation of Florida’s environment.

Your yard is an integral part of the protection and preservation of Florida’s environment.

The collective decisions we make about our landscapes have a profound impact on the quality of surface and ground water supplies, and ultimately, our quality of life.

With a little thought, our landscapes can combine beauty, function and environmental protection.

Further Reading http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu Circular 536 Basic Principles of Landscape Design ENH-15 Budgeting For a Better Landscape ENH-25 Native Florida Plants for Home Landscapes SS-ENH-901 Botany Handbook for Florida, Revised Edition

Circular 536 Basic Principles of Landscape Design

ENH-15 Budgeting For a Better Landscape

ENH-25 Native Florida Plants for Home Landscapes

SS-ENH-901 Botany Handbook for Florida, Revised Edition

Thanks for your attention! The following presentation was made possible through a grant from FL DEP and EPA. Special thanks to the following reviewers for their valued contributions: FL114 ELM Design Team and the FYN Subcommittee Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, UF Agriculture Education and Communication Department Environmental Horticulture Department Entomology and Nematology Department Soil and Water Sciences Department Florida Cooperative Extension Service in: Alachua, Broward, Clay, Hillsborough, Lake, Miami-Dade, Orange, Pinellas, Sarasota, and Volusia Counties Florida Organics Recycling Center for Excellence The Center For Wetlands, UF United States Department of Agriculture FL Department of Agriculture and Consumer Sciences: Division of Plant Industry

The following presentation was made possible through a grant from FL DEP and EPA. Special thanks to the following reviewers for their valued contributions:

FL114 ELM Design Team and the FYN Subcommittee

Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, UF

Agriculture Education and Communication Department

Environmental Horticulture Department

Entomology and Nematology Department

Soil and Water Sciences Department

Florida Cooperative Extension Service in: Alachua, Broward, Clay, Hillsborough, Lake, Miami-Dade, Orange, Pinellas, Sarasota, and Volusia Counties

Florida Organics Recycling Center for Excellence

The Center For Wetlands, UF

United States Department of Agriculture

FL Department of Agriculture and Consumer Sciences: Division of Plant Industry

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